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MU\ I av* 


: V 






From January to April, inclrnvt, 


With an A P P E N D IX. 

*■ 1 take upon me absolutely to condemn the fashionable and pmniling 
custom of inveighing againft Critics, as the common enemies, the pests, 
and incendiaries of the Cominonwealth of Wit and Letters. 1 assert, 
on the contrary, that they are the Frops and Ffllart of this Building; 
and thatf withoat the Encouragement and propagation of such a Race, 
Vre should remain as Gothic ArchttcqU as eitr.** Sh att ts»u ay. 


Printed for R. Griffiths; 





Titles, Authoks* Names, &c. o£ ttie Pub* 
lications reviewed in this Volume. 

N. B. For &EMARKABLB PASSAGES in the Criticisms ztiA 
Extracts^ fee the I N D £ X, at the End of the Volume;. 

I> For the Namci, also, of those Writers who are the Authors 
of new DUsertationSy pr other curious Papers, published in the 
Memoirs and Transactions of the Scientific Academies 
at Home or on the Continent, and also for the Titles of those 
Dissertations, &c. which they include, and of which Accounts are 
given in the Review, — ^see the Indux^ printed at the End of eaeh 

^DlEtX/KCt Three Ensjrt, €2. 66 
*^^ jliifn** New Hittoiy of EaflaBd, 

* • Ditto of Roae^ 103 

Amanrf Ode*} 3 5ft 

Jhiuhmrm ahndged, in French, 116 
Amula de t^imU^ 547 

Atmeft LiUA VeniOA of Cay^t Fables, 

jfntubu to the Co^grctt at Ratudt, 524 
jSnber on the Effects of Oxygen, 328 
^nmitits tor and sgaiaat an Vnioo, 


M^ttuHtttc* See dKuttifuti^m 

jfMtic Retearche*, Vol. lV« c&nthnudf 

134, 301 

^kimsm** View of the ConspiTtcy, 233 

7SanumM% M^oirt of ^U Defpard^ 


famttTt Ifeaoifi rclatifcto jKobiDistn 

Siny^t Letter to the Dilettanti Society^ 


Bint*% Ideteofological Journal lot 179S9 


Skheno*t Glance St the Hiitory of 

Christianity, zi» 

Bidiake*$ Sermon, 230 

Bhf^lef on the Diicontenta in Iieldn^ 

Bird on the National Debt, 34$ 

BUcKt Narrative of the Macifly in the 
Lady Shore, 23X 

B1ayn$y*% Translation of Zechariab, 26 
Boadeni Cainbro dritonti 224 

B^liugbrokit Lettera, 249 

Bottfflirs's Ditconrse 00 Literature, ' 499 
Bnven^t Sennen^ . 357 

Bpwiet*u Song on the Battle of the Nile, 

BrU*t% Intfodvctli^ to English Graoi. 
mar, j»ia 

BrHumm Mineral Subitaocei, 56$ 

Briokbrnitif Ana, Narrative of fair Sei« 
2ure» 35$ 

Brvwn on Scropholous Diseifsct, 46! 
BuontfarU* See Irvftn* flee C^iis. 




Onsrisn Oparatioii. See SimiMtu, 
C€mhr9 Britons, sif 

Canning^ Speech, \ izo 

Carn»e*t Reply y ' 47 1 

(Urptnier*% S«htlat*s Spelluig Auittaiity 

Cdrr*t Lacian, Vols. IV. and V. 175 
C«« of Irel'sd re-considered, 337 

Catberiwell. Hertnhage^Tbeatre «f, 501 
Gr^ttf yoar Fonningy * 217 

Cbemieat Annalt^ 547 

Aeu, Tfteofr^ of« ' 394 

Cbicbemr^ Bp. of, Tbsnkagif iog Sermoiu 


C^/mf) Dutch Embassy to. Account of, 

' . • *H' 

^brutimihy. %tt Bichaw. 

Cicero. iSiee M^vintf, 

Clairwt- M'tfemoiieJle de, her Memoirsy 

csncUtdedy -519 

darh an the Tonne] at Craresend, 

,-— :— ^s Medirt 1 Sorictures, 1460 

CkviJgg^ a T«gidy, 105 

tM"« Planter. 3^ 

KMQtihu of al I Coteplexton 8, , 5 17 

€lKp€ttn<y ef f ht ¥*A.ttMnt% df <jrttt 

BritatQ aaJ heland, 343 

Cmgrtta^ Account of the Proceedings of, 

• *«* 

Caor/s History of England, 51, 176 
C^f of inumpted LfCt«rt from Boo*- 

a parte, z\i 

%^ CoftiziroKDSNCK ^^ tbt £f. 

vit^trsf II$— i«o^ ^ 3 91.^40^ 3^ 

tottingbam't Setm^u, 3517 

C9f'/<^ Mavera Hillf, 21 

Courtney' I Sermon, 3^ 

C,vf-f^: $ce )^e0r^0ii^ See ^*««w«sb 
CurtU^tloraLoudincniis^ Vol. II • "446 

Draining. See JohnsMie, 

Drennan*9 Letters to Pitt, 4 $4 

Dnndatt Speech, 34* 

Durham^ Bp. of, his Sensotty 476 

£))uir*t Hi«ioi7 of TewkoabiM^ %t% - 

EdMcatlonm See Evani, 
Bligy 00 a inuch-lov*d Niece, 109 
Elkington, ' See Jobmfone, 
£^ro/0ry Oiscussioo of Religion, ix« 
Evart on Education, 43 j 
Euripides. See F^sdH. 
Jfyrtt TrandatJon of the King of Prus- 
sians Secret lastraoions, 470 

FnJkUnd, Lord, nn the Competeiicy of 
the Irish ParJiamenti 456 

F-ft/vaodTniej aPJay, i<j6 

F-dsi Sermon, 47 8^ 

Tavuceti*% Poens, a6S 

FfAwn*s Addnss to the Peoole, 2x9 
Fasui^ Sex, Coft«hict of. ^et Ifak^' 

Ftrriar'$ MedUai Hutotie9,I^Ci Vol.Iir. 

*i IHustratioas of Sterne,. 130 
Fever, See Fonfyce, 

flora Londinenm^ Vol* II. 4^ 

Forte of Example, - 3^^ 

Ferdjce'i Third DissertatioA oa Fover, 

Ftrfmt^tt Tboo^s Oft the taw of, 


France, Lossca of, by Rerolotioii and t)j 

War, View of. c^ 

^Pikictiontf Alnlyticfl, Theory of, Si 

Fyues*% Sermon, ' %^y 

TaMhnftOm^ lo the Chfifch, «34 
^— '•— 's Sermon m the FaHof Papa^ 

Kooia^ «.35 

Vf Lille" % Gardensi a Foeoi. 29^). 

P^Miffl^^i^^Loiiil XY. a^.XVI. 51^ 
Deipardy Colonel, Memoirs of, 233 
HickiiHom't Ifl»ti«ctiohs for Aifmng a 

R<gmem ot' Infantry, 471 

Pictionarie%. See ffi^^ Set M«i« 

^yj's keportt oil the Tunfttl at 
OrafCMsd, ^^ 

Gatnetterh Ptef^$p 313 

G^denif a Poeip« . . 2^4 

Gardner** Seitaon, 360 

^>^ Fables 'in l^tln^ 46$ 
Gf9mefry; Sec Howard, 

€trabtf\ Letters on Irrland, 341 

CAAk/'s Moral PhifosOphy,. 332 

Cilpin'% Observations 00 the West of- 

England, ^ 394 
Girard on the ResiltaJice of Solids, 582 

Giaborne's Poems* 46^ 

i^«rte'$<:^avlago, ii tt^gedy, * 105 
«W. ^ttfVgUU. '• . # 

C O N T E N T & 


— — , Hiitoryof. See P«c0(ib, 

AtmI Seateaaet. See P/f«r, 


Ar«tr% See JTiilkh, 

Ktnt^ Hiitoryof. Stt i3{fnsh'aU, 

Kyd*% Substance ef cue ioCMnc Act* 457 

Hsrgravt** Joridietl Arctfrnehte, 38S5 

Barper*% Proceediqgt of Congreti, loi 

BMrrstt Woooat oil Parmer, loH 

^rr'a^m 00 Heat, ftc. 465 

0e>i7» or the FoaDJ[)iii|, lyx 
ffeitthalN Specimtins *f k tliscory of 

Keoty ft^i 

Armrm-The«tre ol* Catbtitbe XT. .501 

Hevletri Sttitit&nt 2199 3S7 

Htsad^b^ ICi ng of Jodab^ 350 

HhiJtutsM, YUw of , 361 

B^stwHta/ fieacPieir 3 3 < 
ffiirvrjf. See Cotfr. See AIm, 

H9optr*^ WMikiU Oict}{fn>ry, 461 

ffovtsrd on Spherical Geometrj, s i>i 

Ifntf'i 0(Ml of A^poiAimeotj 45S 

BMuars, fte. iuttrvc'ions fori i{6 

HyA'^baHa. See TurMi. See &• 

Ujdrut^Us* See Pi0c#, 


?S«rfi^i>tiM. See Barriut^ 
eUt*% Reply ID AigomeoU on anUfliOBt 

'■ > Rn<id*a Answer to Dni. i^i 

htmet Ti^ cm, $A Tax, SinMyf Auck- 

fndj Review, ObturbMiont, Kyd, 
infk/it*s Friend, 830 

Mnr loa itutei « 234 

1j»»» of AYt, a iPecm, -57 

yekastone em £lkiflstOD*t.Mode of Drala* 

iog jUand, ift^ 

J^^Bi^ profiting b^ t tattiole, ^5 5 

" ' See ValUncy* See t/ifi»«. See 

tr0uuk*t H?tfOry t>f Twickeohaa> ft is 
Ihvm—BoosiparteJn Eg^pr^ 113 

•**-! Re^Uto Do, 114 

/ii>la and (Hifbaiia, Picturesque Tour 

Hefn^U^ Sir Francii 4\ On the Losici of 
. Pniite, ^5 

LshmeU Coffee Planler ef St. Demifife^ 

Ladjf Shore* See Black* 
la Cnn^** Theory of Aaaly^M ¥mtk^ 
cionsy 48 c 

LandJTax^ Thoii|Hct oa <be S«le «^ 341 

.. See Hum. 

Langumtbj ok Pbrkn^aa E4ectrie{«f« 

ttfWt Study of, Trea(9«e on, 45^ 

I'^l^ Ai>guaeAti on an Uaioay- 344 

Lagb'*9 Setmoa, 35t 
X«r/rr 10 a Maabee «f lihe Irbh BertilL* 

ment, , 45s 

M/fri on the Subj ect ef Vrio% • 1 7 

Lettiie*% Semoo^ t|p 
Life^ Scieoce of; See Tatet, 
tubon, Aoadrmy 6i, Sec Mmmrs* 

Literature, Diacoorte on, 499 

i^ittle Teacher, 33f 

hweebiWe Parting LesfOMi 334 

' lofanfs Friend, 930 

Z^irXV.and XVI. 510 
Lueian, See Carr, 

Lyae'% Latin Primer, 33X 


JkTtfc/rrfn^^s Translation bfCleerai 177 
Mackintosb** Discouffte <eo the Leer «Jf 

Nature, jS6 

Maclean, S«e Tatet. ' 
Mainuuduc*t Lectufet, %% 

Mahern Hills, a Poem, ai 

Mancbester Sooftecy. See MttkSrt. 
Mann^i Sermon, 3$f 

Mannia;^% Introctuction to- Arithaietic 

aftd Alfebrt, Vol. 11.. 444 

MarsbalPi Rural Economy of the Sooth* 

ern Counties, sfl 

Mechanics, See Jf^ooJ. 
MeiKoirs of the Literary Society at Mw* 

chcMer, Vol. V. Part 1. 39 

Memoirs ef iHie Aeaeeniy of Sciences ac 

, Paris, for 1790, . - . 5*9 

Memoirs of the Acadiemy at LisWn, 

.Vot. f. canehded^ • 57* 

Mcrcbafidict, Diatoaaty 4f. See iW(#i- 




3fkbelt$ Sermo0» tip 

MTmtral Sobitancts* 9ee Brtsttn, 
Mtscelfsnewt Antiqaitie, No. VI. siz 
Sdtresu d€ St, Mir^% Etfition of- Vftn 
BrfiDi's Accouoc of ibe Datcb Em- 
basty to Cbiaiy ft4i 

MrHi't Secrety a Cptnedf, 469 

Mm tal DiMatea. See Ont/d* 
MuokUutii Sennoo> 119 


•ifwrrgirve of the Proceed mgt of Admtral 

Nel:on*t Squadron, ^^^ 

.■ ' ' of ihe Mutiny on board tbe 

Lady Shorr» 23ft 

^ M . ■ of ihe Sdsure of Aon Brook- 

bous-, 3S5 

IJatUna} Debt. Sec Bird, 
LNmture and Nations^ Law of* ^tt Mack' 
> intosb. 

' Necosity of an iocorporate Uaioo » 213 
•^tJscn't Squadrony Narnute of the Pro- 

ceediogsof, 232 

'Htmnkh^s Uniyeral Ewopeao Dictionary 

of Mercbandicf , 569 

X/ilCf Battle of> Foem en. See Boivits* ^ 
, Stc Sotbehy,. 

..iVa Unioov but Unite and Fafl^t 45S 
^mtt^ a P«eoi| 412 

' Pkikufiieai Trmiactiofli of the ItefA 

Society, PartlL for 1798, l^i, ftC9 

Phthiih/epaf a Pcem, 4{s 

Pbysichtts, See StJng^,' 

Pictu tsfut Tour tbfoogh Syria, Jtc* 

thfoogh Ittria, ^, -568 
Pilkiiigton*9 (Mra.) Mirror for the Fcma!^ 

Sex, 33 1 

— ■ 's Henry^ jjb 

P#V/'s Speech,' 342 

Plumptri% Sermon, 2 j6 

.Poeock'i History af Grafetei|^, jfi 
Pottie Bag«tellea« 35s 

P»Hdori--'due Trag^dit, 352 

Pfl/e^t Measure prqducciTe of Sobstaotial 

Benefits, 221 

PorsctCz Edition of the Hecuba and 

Orettes of Euripideij and JVaUJitl^t 

Diatrfbc, 79, 192, 418 

P»r«r'8(Mis8) Octavia, 341$ 

Priat'^^Deluxas Grecsrim Stntentiarum, 

PrincipUs of Mathematicif &c. Vol. llf. 


Prc^rffi^f Satire, Supplenaent tOy 476 
Pruttia^ Kipgof* ^tt,Eyre, 
Pursuits of Literature^ Traitflatio>i %r 
Paaiagea in, . 475 

Ctitqvt View of the Conapiracy, 233 

Obsifyatiem on the Income Act^ 457 

OctM/ia^ 346 

Cffictr^ Manual in tbe FleU, 336 

M>iitydon mortal Difeafcs, 448 

• Cxygeut See Arcbir. 

Pa^mtTf John, Monody otk, ^ 108 

^a^is Academy of Sciencea, their Me- 
moirs, for 17909 529 
.^arkiU Edition of Boliflgbroke*8 Let* 
ters, 249 
. JPtfrf'Nf^ Letsonff 33! 
Psiriot^ a Poem, lob 
Patrw of Genint, 225 
Piorsott on the Cow-pox, 160 
n— «. (Dr. Aichard) on Diatheais in 
Hydrophobia, ' 461 
P«masmt*» View ofv Hindnf tan, 361 
PtrkiMs M Meiallic Tractcis, 463 
■ » ■ >, See Langwtrtbg* 

ttdstadt, Congreia at. Antidote to, gs^ 
Riasws for adopting an Union, 456 

Jtedempiitu and Sale of the Lmd-Tav, 

» , *. 345 

/c«rfl Sermon, 217 

Btformed in Time, an Open, 1 05 

Arid on the Duty of Infuitty Officer!>, 


lt;Af^0», Epistolary DlictiiBiQa. of, ii» 
Maineirs Sermop^ .j 19 

J?^^ to Irwin, 314. 

Bephf^ Carnot, 473 

Repwt oi the Committw of Secrecy, 

Revettue, See Rost* 
Review of Argomenti oa the Incofl^i^ 

Bill, 344 

Roherts*t Military Instrtietioni, 47* 
Robinson'i View of Engilih Wart, 231 
Roman History, iq| 

Romty Papal, TwoSermoDt on the Fail 

of. See^M^ray. See^r^^^am. 
R»sc6e*% Translation of TanaiBo*aNurKr 

RtstU (Mr. G. H.) Iflttmctioni fer Hoa* 
•ars, 3|« 



Kttit (tfr. G.^ Examlfiatioa into the 

locieaK of the Rcveoacy 471 

IgJ^ Aastrcr to Jebb, 341 

Smi DtaungB* See tshrie^ 
'$£^0/forlogrmtitude, 107 
SittfiStimony 1 17 
»— >*f SeriDoa% 3x4 
Scnfbala* See SrowMm 
SttrtTf a Comedy, 469 
Semouy Collective. See Sc^tt, 
=, Single, 117.119.135 a39>356'- 

Sq^" on Latin Syntav, 409 

SkSft Travels ioy %j Spallansani| 400 ' 
Saitff, a Monodjj / 223 

Sourau on the Caetarean Operatioo, on 

Cow-pox, &c, 167 

S^tdttTf Sir John, Speech of, azi 

&if6*t (Mrs.) Young PhilotOfheTy 346 
StSds. See C7trtfr</. 

&(^'s Battle of the Nile, 217 

^■(ikrs .Coiwciet, Runl EcoaoiBj of, 

Sutktf^t Joan of Arc, a Poem, »d £(H- 
lipii, . 57 

ifaUsBseMMi** Travels, translatedj 4qo 
itackh^&tf^Nereis Britennua^ 335 

ltti^«r on the Rights of Phj^sjcUns, 

Stttt of the Coo ntry y s so 

^ftmr, innstrations o^, 1 30 

Strgt^d on Avon, Account of, x 15 
StaMrft Genealogical History of the 
StevaitSy 36 

SafUkf Agricolcore of, 69 

Sptuu, See Seyer, 

fykt fee. Fic&ujeique Tour through, 


rbeodte^ or the GamCfter^t Progtess, 

Theory of CherS| 354 

Noughts on the Law of Forfeiture, 459 

TreatUt on the Study of the LaW| 457 
T'unneL See Gravntitd* 

^wkJUuham^ History of» SM 

V and V 

FaUsneiyi Ganeraly on the Anticnt Hit* 
tory of Ireland, I16 

Valff% S'ermon> 136 

Vsn Braam's Account of the Dutch Em- 
bassy to ChinS| 241 
V^Lticouvtr't Voyage, l, 141, 374 
yii/aint Death. Bed, 349 
yince on H y droitaticf , 313 
Unicti with Ireland, Tracts relative to, 

*i3-.2i8. 337— 344>454— 4$6* 
Foyage Pittoretque, U^^ ^ See Syria% 

See htria, 
yoyages. See yiencouvtr* 

JFakefieLi'-^m, Eurifidit Hicuham ni^er 
fubiicatam Diatr'tbty 79>.i92» 428 
■ ■ (Miss) on the 'Conduct of the 

. Female bex, - 33} 

Watlls on the Gout, 419 ' 

Wars, See Robinson, 
fTilIicb** Elements of fCtnt*s Philoiophy, 

Winter* t Sermon, 357* 359 

^0<Mf on Mechanics* 313 

^fio./'8 Address, - 1x3 

WrangbMm'% Sernofl* %Xf 


7MaB§, %m Rott$e. 
imkm on Inland Canals, 
Ttfjrir's Sermon, 

Tur ^0 Income coofidered, nzq 

7(tfr of National Wealth and Finances, 

Tivkeshryf History of, 213 

7uMP— the Colonia^aof all Complex^nsy 

5 '7 
f^l^^/ar Sermon in Durham, 359 
itutn Ji rHirmitage dt Cathtrine II. 


Tatfs and Maclean on the Science of 

Life, 459 

Tocflf Philosopher, 3^6 

' Toitng'M Agricolmre of Suffolk* €9 

•«— * on the State of the Public Mind, 


ZMbariab, New T^aaflation of* 


Y^ge 89. K t6^ for r^liiar read v^tlttloM % uAh 17* for varafi u 

100. note f for Kvxw^ read jrvxXw^ 
272. 1. 17. dele the word i&w after * nuin? 
^jf 2. ^e price of Art. 47. should be 2s. 6d« 
356. L 25. dele « ^ zk^r^' €omfrehendii^ 



For January, 1799, 

*X.Et. I. A Vo;9txg€ of iy\sco*otry to the North Padjte Ocedn^ ' arid 
r&und the Worlds in which the Coast of North- Wt«t AmcHca 
lias been carefully ekamioed aBd.accurauly sonreyed. l^id^Kakfcn 
hfj his Majesty's Cotraaandy prindpaily with a View to asccttm 
tbe Existeoce of any^^avi'i^le CommUDiedtjon between the NOclh 

j Pacific and North Atla&Uc Oceaos $ and performed ia* the Yeafa 
1790, 1791* I792» i793» .1794* and i795> in the Discovery 
.Sloop of War, and Armed. Tender Chatham, under the Com- 
mand of Captain George Vancouver. 4.10, 3 Vols* 6 1. 6 8* 

* Boards. Robinsons. ' 1 798. * ' ' 

T{^ advantages of a Fur trade with China from, the westei]^ 
€0a$t6 of North America, though for a coiuiderable length 
.of faxofi known to the RiMsiane, were very littjle understood 
aad wholly una^tempted by. other European nations, before, tho 
yoyage of Captain Cook to those paits. The infornaation ob« 
itained by that exceUent navigator not only encouraged meiican- 
lilc eKpeditions from, most maritime countries, but reviye;4 ^ 
iQxp^ctations of those , who were advocates for the supposed 
existence of a N. W. passage through America ^ and the^ 
expectations were strengthened by subsequexit discoyeries, at- 
tributed to some of the late enterprising adventurers. To 
examine into the truth of these as well as oF the more early 
accountSj and to complete a survey of the western coast o£ 
Nor^ America from the latitude of 30^ N. to 60^ north, with 
4lie additional purpose of executing the articles of the conveo* 
tion made between the British and the Spanish coortf respect- 
bg Nootka Sound, were the proposed objects of the expedi* 
ttonof which the narrative is now before us. The voyage 
Jiad been planned, and preparations for it had been made^ 
9ome tithe before these disputes between the courts of London 
and Madrid arose, and was suspended till the adjustment o£ 
X^tOL. was to take place. 

The ill health of the late Captain V^couyer, for some tinip 
^eviously to his degease, is assigned as the cause of. the pub- 

Vol, xxv;ri. B Kcatioa 

1 VancottYei^/ Veyagt tfDuaurf. 

Iicadon being so long delayed after the return of the ships. 
His brother, Mn John Vancouver, has performed the office 
of editor \ and he lays before the public, in an ad?erti$cment 
prefixed to the first volume, the state of the work when the 
indisposition of his brother rendered him incsipable of jcoo* 
y ttnuing his attention to it. From. this advertisement^ ^^.^P* 
pears that the first and second volumes, (the introduction ex- 
cepted,) and as far as the 288th page of the third volume, were 
then printed, and had undergone his examination. He had 
also prepared the introduction, and a farther part of his journal, 
to page 408 of the last volume ; which comprehended the 
whole of his geographical discoveries. 

In the introduction is given an account of the equipment, 
and a copy of the Admiralty instructions, dated March 8tfi, 

1 79 1, under which Captain Vancouver sailed. By these 
orders, he was directed to proceed immediately to the Sand- 
wich Islands in the North Pacific Ocean, there to remain during 
th^ ensuing winter; in the course of which it was intended 
that he should be joined by a vessel, to be dispatched from 
England, conveying to him the King's orders respecting the 
possessions on the coast of America that were to be restored 
to his Majestv's subjects, agreeably to the convention above« 
mentioned : but, (say the instructions,) << if no such orders 
should be received by you previous to the end of Januarf 

1792, you are not to wait for them at the Sandwich Islands, 
but to proceed, in such course as fou may judge most expo* 
dient for the examination of the coast abovementioned,^ &c» 

The language of the instructions evinces that strong hopes 
were entertained of a communication being discovered, be-* 
tween the Atlantic ocean and the seaj west of An^rica ; as 
appears by the following extract : 

•< You arc therefore hereby required and directed to pay a partu 
cular attention to the examination of tlie supposed straits of Juan 
de Fuca, said to be situated between 48** and 49^ north latitude^ 
and to lead to an opening throngh which the sloop Wadiington Is 
reported to have passed in 178^, and to have come out again to the 
northward of Nootka* The discovery of a near communication be* 
tween any such sea or strait^ and any river running into, or from the 
lake of* the woodSy would be particularly useful. 

<< If you should fail of discovering any such inlet* as is above 
mentioned, to the southward of Cook's nver, there is the greatest 
probability that it will be found that the said river rises in some oT 
the lakes already known to the Canadian traders, and to the servants 
of the Hudson's bay company | which point it would, in that case^ 
be material to ascertain 1 and you are, therefore, to endeavour to as* 
certain accordingly,^ Ice* 



^ .*nieteMt liberal cbndact and tbe greatest 6pennfsi5^fcoiiimu<is 
nkation were directed to be observed towards any Yessek which 
n^t be met) belonging to other nations. It was calculated that 
the proposed surrey would occupy two sununers on the coast of 
America ; and in the return^ which was ordered to be by Cape 
Hom, it was recommended, if practicable^, to examine the 
western coast of South America, beginning at the south point 
of the island of Chibe, in latitude 44^ souths That no cause 
of discontent nor of complaint might be given to the Spaniardss 
the Commander was strictly charged that, in the execuidon of hi^ 
instmctions, he dioold not on any account (distress excepted) 
touch at any port on the continent of America between the 
ladtndes of 30^ north and 44^ south. 

The vessels appointed for the expedition were named the 
DisdDvery and the Chatham.-— The former wais a ship of 340 
tons burthen, commanded by Captain George Vancouvcrit 
carrying 10 guns, with a complement of ioomen:-^The 
other was a brig, commanded by Lieutenant (now Captain) 
W. R. Broughton, carrying 4 guns and 45 men, A native of 
tbeSaiidwich Islands, named Towereroo, who had been brought 
thence by one of our trading vessels in July 1789, was sent 
oa board by the Admiralty, with orders to Captain Vancouver 
to convey him to his native land. This man, he says^ 
'wIhIc in England, lived in great obscurity, and did not 
seem in the least to have benefited by his residence in this 

On the^ rst of April 1791 they sailed from Falmouth^ 
on the loth of July they arrived at the Cape of Good Hope ; 
which place they left August 1 7th } and on the 26th of Scptem** 
ber they made the south-west coast of New Holland, in latitude 
35^ south, and longitude 116^ east. Having sailed 35 leagues 
aloDg the coast, which in this^ part was. ^ut very imperfectly 
known before^ they discovereda harbour to .which was given th^ 
name of King George the Third's Sound \, where they remained 
nearly a fortnight. They m,et with none^of the natives, bu| 
found deserted huts. The most remarkable obfects that thef 
saw were black swans, of which the following account is 
given : * As we proceeded to the upper part of the harbour, ouf 
attention was directed to several large black swans ii) very 
sutely attitudes swimming on the water, and, when flying 
discovering the under part of their wings* and breasts to be 
iRrfiiie : this is all the description we were enabled to give of 
them, since they were excessivdy shy, and we very indiffsren^ 
marksmen.' We might appear too sceptical, perhaps, should 
we venture to suppose that these black sicans might have Wf 

Ba cygnets. 

efgtietl. Hie wild ^wan, hfptrtwt^ is destriMd u IuKtl(^ 
the btfck and the tips of the wings of sd ask colour. 

After their departoreftom King George the Tbird^s Sotinlt 
Wd weather pretented their keeping near the coasts which they 
dnly saw in detached parts. Towards the end of October 
diey passed Van Dieman's land, and on the 3d of Novctnbef 
inch6f ed in Dusky Bay, in the south island of New Zealand* 
This pl^Kre, \^hich, in the former voyages, had been found in- 
habked, appetired now entirely deserted. In a three days' ek* 
cursi^n, several spots, formerly the residence of the natives^ 
Wei^ visited : but no traces of people were seen^ nor any cir* 
taftistanetf which in the least indicated that the country was «e 
present, inhabited.— The vessels left Dusky Bay on the 2ld» 
trtd <)uring the next night they were separated by a gde, and 
tSA not meet agam till their arrival at Otalieite. After dieif 
•ftparatton^ the Chatham discovered land in latitude 43^9 48' S« 
ind longitude 183* East : of which new discovery the fdIow» 
ing particulars are given from the narrative of Lieutenant 
firoughton, who commanded the Chatham. Having steered 
along the coast) keepmg between 2 and 3 miles distant^ with 
regular soundings ifrom 22 to 25 fathoms, he says : 

* The shore is a contmucd white sandy beach, on \rhJch the smf 
fan very high. Some high land, rising gradually from the beach aad 
covered tv-ith wood, extends about 4 miles to- the eastward of the 
Cape. After passing this land, we opened the seveial hills over the 
low land we had seen in the morning, and could discern that manj 
#f them were covered like our heaths in England, but destitute of 
trees. The woods in some spots had the anpearance of being cleared^ 
aad in several places between the hills smoKe was observed. — 

* After sailing about 10 leaorues, we came abreast of a ^malt sandy 
bay. Water was seen over the beach, and the country had the ap- 
pearance of being very pleasant. With* our glasses we perceived 
Some people hauling up a canoie, and several othq^ behind the mcki 

t the bay. Fearful that so good an opportunity might not occur 
' ac^uirin^ some knowledge of the inhabrtants, I worked up uito 
€he bay, wnich we had passed before the natives were discovered* 
Wc tame to aa andiorsbout a mile from the shorein 20 fathoms water.' 
* Lieutenant Broughton, accompanied by Mr. Johnsto<i the 
masteVy and one of the mates, went in the cutter towards the 
thote. The natives made much noiae as they approached. 
BSr. Sheriff, the mate, leaving his arms in the boat, landed ; 
ht!t only 2 or 3 of the inhabitants came to him: die remainder» 
about 40, keeping at some distance. They took whatever was 
bStAred them, but would give nothing in return. 

< Ifcving repeatedly beckoned us tb foUow thnn round to yfikgxt 
fti^ habilBlioili wcit supposed to be» assooa as JMr.^benff returned, 


«c pmeecM td comfdjr ^h their wlfrhcs. They had been rerj emU 
«as m dieir exaunhiatxoii of Mr. SherifPs. person, and loemed vtpf- 
desBDUS of keeping him, a« they frequently pulled him towards ,tM 
woodt svhare we imagined some of them resided. On meetmg; 
them on the other nde, they seated themselves on the beach, a]i4 
seemed very anxious to receive us on shore ; but as all our intreatiet 
were ineffectual in obtaining any thing iii return for our presents^ 
pcrceivhig many of them to be armed with long spearsy and the si* 
toation bein^ unfavomble to us, in case they should be disposed td 
tnsat us with hostility, we did not. think it prudent to venture 
amongst them ; and finding our negotiation was not likely to be at- 
tended with success, we took our leave : but in our" w^y^ off, as the 
aatives remained quietly where he had left them, I thou^t it a goo4 
ciqxMtunity to land once more and take another view of their 

Of these vessels, Mr.BrooghtQn has giten a description^ and 
Gkewise of their nets and fishing tackle, which were very in^ 
geniausly made. 

* The woods aflforded a delightful shade, and being clear of nndcr- 
nxnvth, were in many places formed into arbours, by bending thf 
branches when young, and enclosing them round with smaUe^ treesL 
Thes^ appeared to have been slept in very lately.- The trees of 
which the woods are composed grow in a most luxuriant manner, 
Axr of small branches to a considerable height ; and consist of severrf 
foits, some of which, the leaf in particular, were like the laurek' 

Daring this examination, the natives began to collect about 
iheoi. One man exchanged a spear for some trinkets, but np 
other, barter was effected. Some looking-glasses being sh^ewfi 
to this nxWf be was so delighted ^itb seeing the refiectiofi 
of himself, that he rao off with them. As the people did not 
appear unfriendly, Lieuteoant Broughton and a party walked 
along the shore towards their habitations, tte boat keepiihg 
near them: but hostile preparations were soon observed to be 
making by the natives ; and those who had not spears collected 
large sticks. 

< Not liking these appearances, t^e had some thoughts of embark* 
iog ; hut, on our suddenly &cing about, they retired up the beach to 
a fire which some of them had just made. Mr. Johnston followed 
them singly, but was not in time to discover the method bv which it 
had been so quickly produced. His presence seemed rather to dis- 
please them, OR which he returned, and we again proceeded along the 

Arriving at a piece of water which had been seen from tlif 
ship, they tasted and found it brackish. 

* Wf tn'e4 to explain to the nativtea who still attended us, that 
the water was not fit to drink, and. the^ veturnedtp the $ea sidef 
wbM»f abreast of the hoatj they became very clamorous, ialked cx- 

B J ^ tixnxdy 


\Fsiicoatei^i V^gi pf DUetvery^ 

tretnclyloud to each other, and divided so as neariy to Mrroaiid oar 
A yoAng man strutted towards me in a very menacing^ attitude ; he 
difltoited his person, turned up his eyes, made hideous facet, and 
created a wonderful fierceness in his appearance by hts gestures.. On 

Ctin^ my double-barrelled gun towards him he dcasted. Their 
ile intentions were now too evident to be mistaken, and therefore^ 
tp avoid the necessity of resorting to extremities, the boat was im* 
mediately ordered in to take us on board. Dunng this interval, al- 
though we were stiictly on our guard, they began their attack, and 
before the boat Qould get in, to avoid being knocked do^n I was 
reluctantly compelled to fire one barrel, which being loaded with 
amall shot, I was in hopes might intimidate without materially 
wounding them, and that we should be suffered to embark without 
further molestation. Unfortunately I was disappointed in this hope. 
Mr. Johnston received a blow upon his musket with such force from 
an unwieldy club, that it fell to the ground ; but before his opponent 
could pick it up, Mr. Johnston had time to recover his position, and 
he was obliged to fire on the blow bein^ again attempted. A ma- 
rine and seaman near him were, under simuar circumstances, forced 
into the Vrater, but not before they had also, justified alone by self 
preservation, fired their pieces without orders. The gentleman having 
charge of the boat seeing us much pressed by the natives, and obliged 
tp retreat, fired at this instant also, on which they fled. I ordered 
the firing instantly to cease, and was highly gratified to see thena 
depart apparently unhurt. The happiness I enjoyed in this reflection 
was of short duration, one man was discovered to have fallen ; and 
1 am concerned to add, was found lifeless, a ball having broken his 
arm and passed through his heart. We immediately repaired to- 
wards the boat, but the surf not permitting her to come near eilough, 
■we were stffl' under the necessity of walking to the place from whence 
we had originally intended to embark. As we retired, we perceived 
one of the natives return from the woods, whither all had retvcated, 
.«nd placioe himself by the deceased, was distinptly heard Ix^, a sort 
of dismal hgwl Xq utter his lamentations.' — 

< We distributed (continues Mr. Broughton) amongst the canoca 
the remaining part of 9ur toys and tpnkets, to manifest our kind 
intentions towards them, and as some little atonement also for thp 
injury which, contrary to our inclinations, they had sustained, in 
defiending ourselves against their unprovoked unmerited hostility. 
In our' way to the ship, we saw two natives running along the beacli 
to the canoes, but on* our arrival on board they were not diacemibk 
with our glasses.? 

This unfortunate accident could npt be prevented by peopip 
who were situated as were Mr. Broughton and his party^ The 
fi^tives were probably encouraged tp the assault t^ the smallness 
of the force which they l^eTieved they sho\ild have to en* 
. counter ; although, some time previously tq the attack^ Mr. 
Bn^ioghton gave them some birds which he had killisd^ and^ 
ireii his gun to shew the cause'pf their death. 

14 Thii 

Vancomrer'/ Voyage if Discovery. f 

Thk Imi k of considerable magnitude : the part which thef 
iw extended nearly 40 miles from east to west ; and the ap- 
|Karance of the country, according to the description giren^ 
IS very promising. In many respects, the natives resemble 
those of New Zealand ; from which country they are distant 
aboQt 100 leagues: but their skins were destitute of any 
marks, and they had the appearance of being cleanly in their 

Crsons* Their dresses were of seal or sea-bear skin, and some 
d fine woven mats fastened round the waist. ' They seemed 
a cheerful race, our conversation frequently eiciting violent 
bursts of laughter amongst them. On our first landing their 
surprize and eiclamations can hardly be imagined ; they 
pointed to the sun, and then to us, as if to ask, whether we 
had come from thence.' Their arms were spears, clubs, and 
a small weapon resembling the New Zealand patoo. — ^The bay 
in which Lieut. Broughton landed he named Skirmish bay. 

A small island was likewise found by the Discovery, in the 
passage to Otahcite, 10 latitude 2^*' 36' S. and longitude 215^ 
^' E. inhabited by a people, who, on account of their lan« 
guage and their resemblance to the Friendly Islanders, Captain 
Vancouver (rather quaintly) says, were evidently of the Great 
Seutb Sea Nation. Nevertheless, their language (as appears in the 
narrative) was so little understood by our navigators, thati 
though they exerted their whole skill in endeavouring to obtain 
Horn the natives the name of their island, they were each 
nnable to comprehend- the other's meaning ; and the name of 
Oparro was adopted, as the one which Captain Vancouver 
thought had the best chance of being right. A very material 
ilifl^ence, which was likewise observed between these islanders 
and the inhabitants of the other islands with which we are ac^ 
quainted in the south seas, was that not any of these people 
were tattowed.^Of the island, Captain Vancouver says, * Its 
principal character is a cluster of high craggy mountains, 
forming, in several places, most romantic pinnacles, with per- 
pendicular cliffs nearly from their summits to the sea ; the va- 
cancies between the mountains would more probably be termed 
ehasma than vallies«>' The circumstance most m'orthy of obser- 
ration, however, was that 

< Hie tops of six of the highest hills bore the appearaiice of 
fortified places, resembling redoiS>ts ; harins^ a sort of block-house, 
in the shape of aa English glass-house, in the center of each, witH 
rows of pallisadoes a considerable way down the sides of the hills, 
■early at equal distances. These, ofer-hanging, seemed intended 
for advanced works, and apparently capable of defending the citadel 
by a few against a numerous host of assailants.^ On all of them, we' 
apticed people, as if on duty, constantly moving about. What we 

B 4 considered 

ODDsldmil as Uock-bouaea, from their grea^ similarity m i^pear^ftcc 
to that sort of huildingy were sufHciently large to lodge a consi^q^ 
number of persons^ ?um were the only habitations we sjiw. Yet fn>0f 
the number of canoes that in so short a time assembled round ua, it 
is natural to conclude that the inhabitants are rcry frequently afloat^ 
^nd to infer from this circumstance that the shores, and not those 
fortified hills which appeared to be in the center of the island, would 
be preferred for their general residence.' 

Above 30 catioes were seen. The islnnd was estimated f(| 
tc 6| miles in length, and no other appeared in sight*. 
^Tiether the fortlfiecl places, here described, were intended 
for defences of the islanders against each other, 01* against 
attacks from some more powerful neighbours, could only be 
ponjecturcd : but the latter idea seems the most probable.— It 
was not ascertained whether this island afforded anchorage :— 
but appearances were thought favourable for that purpose neat 
the N.W. part. ' 

On the 3orh of December, the Discovery anchored at Ota- 
heitc, and rejoined the Chatham, which had arrived there a fc\i^ 
days before. 

The natives of Otaheitc received our voyagers in the mdst 
friendly and cordial rtianner. The original intention of thfe 
Commander was to have waited here no longer than was ne- 
cessary to proctire a small supply of fresh provision^ 5 and thert 
to have proceeded without farther loss of time to the Sandwich 
I slands, agreeably to the instructions received from the Admi- 
ralty : those islands lying' nearly a month's sail from Ota- 
heite, and the end of January being the time limited for thd 
^expectation of a vessel from England with additional instruc- 
tions. The present situation, however, appeared to posses^ 
so much ease and convenience, that it was determined to re- 
main, and here to finish whatever repairs were necessary, ill 
preparation for the American coast. 

Some months previously to Captain VahcomTr's atrival here, 
the British ship of war the Pandora, which had been sent in 
quest of the mutineers of the Bounty, had left Otahcite ; and 
nothing was known there concerning Mr. Christian and his re- 
inaining companions since that period : but it appears that^ 
while they lived at Otahcite, they assisted the chiefs in their 
wars> and Captain Vancouver relates that he frequently saw the 
• objects of their particular regard, by whom they have children:* 
whence it may be presumed that their children were seen also^ 
though they are not in any other way mentioned. 

Captain V. gives a full and not unentertaiping account of 
the political view^ and enterprises of some of the chiefs : but, 
IB hia relauon^ be aometimes ^feakj^ of them with all the 


fttpcct ^1M to iQoyal per^nages, and at otfaera trtUs lH»m 
wkh too fittle ceremony .«^It was remaTke4 that many altera^^ 
tion* bad taken place in the manners, customSf and eren per* 
ioiie of these people, since the time of Captain Copk'fi last 
visit to them. The wives of the chiefsi but no other womeiH 
were privileged to eat with the men. On the accession of the. 
present chief to tlie Maro, or girdle of royalty, • 

* A very considerable alteration took place in their language, par* 
ficolarly in the proper n^imes of ail the chiefs, to which however tt 
sras not solely confined, but extended to^no less than foity or fifty 
of the most common words which occur in conversation, and bearing 
90t the least affinity whatever (o the former expressions. 

* This new langiuij;^ every inhabltant> is under the necessity of 
adopting ; as any neghgencc oc contempt of it 13 punished with the 
greatest severity. Tuicir former expressions were, however^ xetaincd 
u their recollection j and, for our better communication, were, I 
believe, permitted to be used in conversation with us, without incur- 
ring displeasure.* 

Here it is propeir to mention a custom, remarked, In former 
voyages, tct have been in' very common practice among the 
natives of the South Sea Islands, in their intercourse with Eu« 
peans, of adopting such pronunciation of their own language 
as was in use and best understood by the new-comers, for the 
convenience of more ready communication 5 this adoption, no 
doubt, being attended with much less trouble than the en- 
deavour to corrdct. So far has this practice been known to . 
prevail, that, when ships have been visited by people from th^ 
piore distant parts of an island, it became necessary to have 
recourse to the natives with whom they had been longest ac- 
quainted, to act as interpreters between them. The most serious 
alteration, however, which Captain Vancouver supposes to have 
been effected by European communication, is in the beauty pf 
the women. * I cannet avoid acknowledging,* he says,. * hoV 
great was the disappointment I experienced, in consequence of 
the early impression I had received of their superior personal 
endowments.' — * The extreme deficiency of female beauty iii 
these islands makes it singularly remarkable, that so large i- 
proportion of the crew belonging to the Bounty should havp 
become so infatuated,* &c.— No similar remark is applied to 
the men ; who, if the race had degenerated or d^clinc^, must 
have been involved in the misfortune. — ^Shortly after their ar- 
rival, the Captain, intending to keep the first, day of the' new' 
year as a holiday, says that * all hands were served with % 
double allowance of grog to drink the healths of their wive« 
jind friends at home, lest^ in the voluptuous gratifications of 
Otaheite, we might forget our friend^ m Old wigland/ Thij 


le Vancotiver^/ yojagi oflXimoiry^ 

Mcms to hare been written under different impretttont from 
diose which dictated the observations first quoted, and alloirs 
us to nidulge a hope that the alleged alteration existed onlf 
in tfacCaptain^simaginatton ;-* perhaps from his having become 
jBove fastidiotis since his youth. 

Oiptaift Vancouver observes, to the honour of the Ota* 
IieiteanS) that they were much more honest in their transac* 
tioos with the ships than in former times ; and,, except in one 
instattce, they gave scarcely any cause of complaint in that 
Ttspect.^ * Most of the animals, plants, and herbs which had 
caused Captain Cook so much anxiety and trouble to deposit 
Iiere» have faUen a sacrifice to the ravages of war.' — ^Thc chief* 
of Otahcite^had' procured, from the different vessels which had 
lately visited dieir island, several muskets and pistols, with the 
vse of which they were well acquainted.—- When the vessels 
were nearly ready for sea> the native of the Sandwich Islands^ 
who had embarked with the voyagers from England, absented 
liimaelf in conaeqoence of some female attachment : but, from 
Captain VaMouver's influence with the chiefs, he was brought 
again to the shipsv 

The vessels quitted Otabeite on the 24th of January 1 792 ; 
aztd on the ist of March they arrived in sight of the Sandwich 
Islands, among which they remained till the i6tb« They heard 
00 tidings of the store-ship which they expected to have called 
Iiere for them, — but received information that no vessels had 
arrived since the preceding autumn, when one British and 
0iTee American traders had touched at the islands. Towere- 
roo, the native, whom they carried from England, was left at 
Owbyhee, under the protection of a chief named Tianna, who , 
Iiad visited China, and of whom mention is madp in the nar« 
lative of Captain Meares's voyage. On the 9th, the ships 
anchored at one of the islands, named Attowai, where they 
loond part of the crew of an American trader ; who had been 
left here by their commander, for the purpose of collecting 
panda) wood and pearls : with the former of which the islands 
abound) ^nd a great price is given for it in India. 

Many of these islanders, from their commerce with the £u* 
ropean vessels which have been employed in the American fut 
trade, are provided with (ire-arms \ which they are more de« 
sirous of obtaining in return for their refreshments, than any 
other European commodity. Some of the chiefs produced 
written certificates of good behaviour, with recommendations 
from the commanders of trading vessels : but many of these 
directed that strangers, in their intercourse with the natives, 
should observe the greatest circumspection, and keep constantly 
on their guard-, and for these cautions, our people learnt 


Vancouver*/ Voyage cf Dheovery. tt 

jdiere had been rery sufficient reason, attempts having been 
made by the natives to capture several vessels } one of which* 
an American schooner, unfortunately became their prey, and 
the crew were all, except one man, put to death.— At At- 
tofwai^ the chiefs proposed to visit Captain Vancouver's Mpi 
but, before they would venture on board, they requiDtd hott- 

Seeds of different kinds were left with the natives ; and there 
is every probability of their thriving, as these people are very 
intelligent and careful in their husbandry. ^ Among other in- 
^nces of their ingenuity, an aqueduct was seen on a well- 
constructed wall of stone and clay, 24 feet high, for the pttT«i 
pose of watering their plantations. 

April 17th, the ships made the American coast in latitude 
39^ 15' N. and stood to the northward, keeping in sight of the 
shore, and preserving their station during the nights, that no 
part of the coast might be passed unobserved. In latitude 42^ 
38' N., having anchored near the land, some canoes came off 
to. the ships.— As these people seem to differ in character from 
any others who have been seen on the western coast of North 
America, we shall give Captain Vancouver's description of 

* A pleasing and courteous deportment distinguished these people« 
Their countenances indicated nothing ferocious ; their features par- 
took rather of the general European diaracter ; their colour a hght 
cJive I and besides being punctuated in the fashion of the South-Sea 
islanders, their skin had many other marks, apparently from injuries 
in their excursions through the forests, possibly, with little or no 
doathiDg thatcould protect them ; though some of us were of opinioo 
these marks were purely ornamental, as is the &shion with the inha- 
bitants of Van Dieman'fl land. Their stature was under the middle 
size; none that we saw exceeding five feet six inches in height. 
They were tolerably well limbed, though slender in their persons ; 
bore littje pr no resemblance to the people of Nootka ; nor did they 
seem to have the least knowledge ot that language. They seemed 
to prefer the comforts of cleanfiness to the pamting of their bodies ; 
in dieir ears and noses they had small ornaments ot bone ; their hair, 
which was long and black, was dean and neatly combed, and gene- 
rally tied in a dub behind ; ^ough some amongst them had their 
hair in a dub jn frpnt also. 'Hiey were dressed in garments that 
nearly covered thein» made principally of tlie skins of deer, bear, 
fox, and river otter ; one or two cub skins of the sea otter were also 
observed amongst them. Their canoes, calculated to carry about 
eight people, were rudely wrought out of a single tree ; their shape 
much resembled that of a butcher's tray, and seemed very unfit for 
a sea voyage or any distant expedition. They brought but a few 
trifling articles to barter, and ;mey anxiously solicited in exchange 
iron and beads* In this traffic they were scrupulously honest, parti** 


I % Tfttcottvcr*/ Voyage tf Dhtseffff/. 

Cttlarlyio fixing.tlicir bargaiix with the first bidder ; for, if a i 
offered a more valuable commodity for what they had to sell^ they 
trould not C9n8ei>t, but made signs, (which could not be mistakcnjj 
ihat the first should pay the price offered by the second, on which 
fhe bargaiTT would be crosed. They did not entertain the least idea 
•f accepting presents: for on my giving them some beads, medalsn 
irtm, &c :lhey Instantly offered their gaiments in return, and seemed 
much astonished, and 1 belive not less pleased, that 1 chose to 4e* 
^1^ them. The firit sn^n^ in particular, gave me aome trouble to 
persuade him that h$ was to rct^n both the trinkets mi his gait 

- Whtn the ships had proceeded along the coast as far ai 
47* sY'^* ^W ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^" American vessel, named At 
Columbia, commanded by Mr.RobcrtGray,thc same person who 
ba^ibrmerl]^ commanded a stoop called the Washington ; and 
of whose discoveries mention is made in the Adipiralty instrue- 
tion« to Captain Vancouver, as may be seen in the part which 
we have quoted. The information which they obtained from 
Mr. Gray diifers very materially from what was published con« 
ceming him in England ; it is thus related : 

* It is not possible to conceive any one to be more astonished than 
was Mr. Gray, on his being made acquainted, that his authority had 
been quoted, and the track pointed out that he had been said to 
have made in the sloop Washington. In contradiction to which, he 
assured the officers, that he had penetrated only 50 miles into the 
■traits in question, in an f. s. e* direction ; that he found the passage 
5 lea^^ues wide ; and that he understood, from the natives, that the 
.«penmg extended a considerable distance to the northward; that this 
was 1^ the information he had acquired respecting this inland sea^ 
and that he returned into the ocean by the same way he had entered 
^t* The inlet he supposed to be the same that De Fiica had dts« 
covered, which opinion seemed to be universally received by all tht 
Buodern visitors.* 

Another piece of intelligence obtained from Mr, Gray wasj- 
' that he had been off the mouth of a river in the latitude of 
46^ I o' N. which be had for nine days endeavoured to enter, but 
was at tengtb obliged to relinquish his purpose in consequence 
of a constant strong out-set. This opening Captain Vancouver 
liad seen as he ^iled by that part of the coast, but he had 
deemed it inaccessible $ not on account of a current, but 
from breakers, which seemed to him to extend quite across the 
entrance. — The land which they had hitherto passed is de- 
scribed as presenting a prospect of great fertility/ and abound- 
ing with woods: but, excepting the place «t which, a few 
<;^noes canie oiF to them, as ahready mentioned, no inhabitantf 
were seen on the whole extent of the cotst ; nor did they .meet 
<.witb anf circumstance, that in the moit diitant manner io« 

15 dicatcd 


YaQCOttver'/ Vpyege $fDU^ovirf. tj 

iKolted a probability' of the country bcing.inhabited..' Wheve 
thej bad now arriveti^ howeverj several pillages were seen 
acatteted along the sjhote ; and oa the evenhig of the ;zyth of 
Aprils they were off the entrance of the celebrated stcalti o£ 
Joan de Fuca. 

An adequate, or even an inteUigible, idea of the surrey m 
which Captain V. and his companions were now engaged, caa 
0olj be obtained by an exanaination and comparison of the 
charts with the nanative. — As they advanced within the opea* 
sog of the straitSy their progress was greatly retarded by the 
smmber ^f inlets into which the entrai¥:e branched in . every 
dKErection;*-and most of these were examined by the boatSy whick 
were frequently absent from the. shjpa on this service for several 
days together.— ^In the^ midst of their labours, they were sur- 
inrncd by the sight of twp Spanish vesse/s of wai[, employed 
like themselves in..9urveying this inlet, the examination of 
which had been begiiuby them in the prepeding year. By tht 
•fioers of these vessels, Captaifi Vancouver was informed 
that die commandant at Nootka waited his arrival ^ere, < ia 
Older to negociate the restoration of those territories to the 
crown of Great Britain i' and measures of mutual assistaacf 
wene concerted between the Captains of the two nations, £pr 
the prosecntion of the surveyf in which each agreed to oomf- 
tnmiicate to the other their discoveries. Not one of the many 
arms of the inlet^ aor of the channels which they explored ia 
this broken part of the coast^ was found to extend more tbaa 
ICO miks to the eastward of the entrance into the strait-^ 
After having surveyed the southern coast,— oa which side a ter« 
xnination was discovered to every opening)'— >by following the 
«x>ntin«ed line of the shorcj they were led to the nortWalA 
and afterward towards the N.W. till they came into the opea 
sea through a different channel from the strait of Juan de 
Fuca, by which they had commenced this inland ttavigation* 

Thus it appeared that the land forming the north side 6f 
(that strait is part of an island, or of an archipelago, extending 
nearly loo leagues in length from S. E. to N, W. ; and oa 
Ac aide of this laud most distant from the continent^ is ^ta- 
ated Nootka Sound. The most peculiar circumstance oi this 
navigation is the extreme depth of water^ wEen conhrastca 
^vith the narrowness of the channels. The vessels were some* 
limes drifted about by the currepts, during the whole of it 
i^ght, close to the rocks, without knowing how to help them- 
sietves^ on account of the darkness, and the (iepth being mucl^ 
too great to afford them anchorage. 

tn the course of this survey, the voyagers nad frequent com- 
aaunications with the natives^ :whom they in'et 'sometimes in 

* "carfc^^ 

*I4 Vancouver*/ Voyage of Discovei^^ 

canoes and sometimes at t^eir Tillages. In their transoctiohi 
with Europeansi they are described as * well versed in theprin* 
ciples of tradci which they carried on in a very fair and honor* « 
able manner.' In other respects, they w«re less honest. At 
pne village, too sea otter skins were purchafed of them by the 
crews of the vessels in the course of a day ; and they had 
many m^e to sell in the same place^ as also skins of bears^ 
deer, and other animals. — One party of Indians whom they 
met had the skin of a young lioness; and these spoke a Ian** 
guage difierent from that used in Nootka Sound. Venison was 
sometimes brought for sale ; and a piece of copper, not more 
than a foot square, purchased one whole deer and part of another. 
Among other articles of traffic, two children, 6 or 7 years of 
age, were offered for sale. — ^The commodities most prized by 
the natives were fire-arms, copper, and great coats, Bead« 
and trinkets they would only receive as presents, and not as 
articles of exchange. Many of them were possessed of fire- 
arms. In one part, it is related that, after a chief had re- 
ceived some presents, < he, with moil of his companions, re- 
turned to the shore \ and, on landing, fired several muskets, 
to shew, in all probability, with what dexterijty they could use 
diese weapons, to whith they seemed as familiarized as if they 
had been, accustomed to fire-arms from their earliest in£uicy/ 

The dresses of these people, besides skins, are a kind of 
woollen garments; the materials composing which are ex<» 
plained in the following extra£i : 

• The dogs belonging to this tribe of Indians were numerous, and 
much resembled those of Pomerania, though in general somewhat 
lai^er. They were ail shorn as close to the skin as sheep are in 
England ; and so compact were their fleeces, that large portions 

be lifted up by a corner without causing any separation. 
They were composed of a mixture of a coarse kmd 01 wool, with 
very fine lon^ hair, capable of being spun into yam. This &;ave me 
Xtason to believe, that their woollen cloathingr might in part be com- 
posed of this material mixed with a finer kind of wool from some 
#ther animal, as their garments were all too fine to be manufactured 
from, the coarse coating of the dog alone.' 

Of other animals alive, deer only were seen in any abundance 
hy our people. 

The number of inhabitants computed to be in the largest 
of the villages, or towns, that were discovered, did not exceed 
tfbo- Capuin Vancouver conjectured the small- pox ta be a 
disease common and very fatal among them: many were 
much marked » and most of these had lost the right eye*-*« 
Tlieir method of disposing of their dead is very singular : 

' Baskets were found suspended on high' trees, each contain- 
iof the ikdctoa of ayouog chSd ; in some of which were tbo smaO 
r , fifjuara 

square boxes fiQed with a kind of white paste, reBemUiog soch a$t 
X had seea the natives eat, supposed to be made of the saranne root ;, 
tome of these boiLes were quite full, others were nearly empty, eatea 
probably by the mice, squirrels, or birds. Oa the next low point 
south of our encampment, where the gunners were ainug thie pow-' 
itty they met with several holes in which human bodies were interred, 
sli^tly covered over, and in different states of decay, some appear- 
ta^ to have been very recently deposited. About halJF a mile to the 
aoithward of our tents, where the land is nearly IcycI with higb 
water mark, a few paces within the skirtin? of the wood, a canoe. 
was found suspended between two trees, in v^ch were three humaii 

' Oc each point of the harbour^ which in honour of a paiticolar 
(iricnd I call Pehn's Cove, was a deserted village; in one of which Were 
found several sepulchres formed exactly like a centry box. Some of 
them were open, and contained the skeletons of many yonng chil« 
di^en tied up in baskets ; the smaller bones of aduhs were likewise 
noticed, but no one of the Hmb bones could here be found, whkrh 
gave rise to an opinion that these, by the living inhabitants of the 
jidghbourhoody were appropriated to useful purposes, such as point* 
mg their arrows, spears, or other weapons.' 

However honourably these people have beeti represented la 
dieir conduct as traders, it appeared on several occasions that 
it was unsafe to depend on their good-will alone ; and some 
instances occurred of their making every preparation fot an 
attack, from which they desisted only on lieing doubtful of tfie 
event : yet immediately on relinquishing their purpose, they 
would come with the greateft confidence to trade, appearing 
perfectly regardless of what had before been in agitation. 
The boatSf as already noticed, were frequently at a great dis-^ 
tance from the ships ; and on such occasions, when large par- 
ties of Indians have first seen them, they generally held long 
confevencea among themfelves before they approached the 
boats } probably for the purpose oi determining the mode of 
conduct whidi they judged it most prudent to observe. 

On the 9di of August, the vessels had again reached the 

ri sea, and proceeded along the coast to the northward. 
the I7tb, in the latitude of C2*N. they met a Brittfh 
trading, vessel, which haid lately left Nootka : from whom they 
learnt that the Dxdalus btore-ship had arrived from England y 
and a letter, which was sent to Captain Vancouver, informed 
him of the unfortunate death of Lieutenant Hergest, her com- 
mander, who had been killed by the inhabitants of Woahoo, 
one of the Sandwich Islands, with Mr. William Gooch the 
astronomer. In consequence of this intelligence, Captain 
Vancouver determined to abandon, for the present season, the 
£uther prosecution of the survey to the northward, and to 
make the best of his way towards Nootka Sound } at which 
port he anchored en the a8th. 


'i6 Vancouver'/ Vojagi ofDisMfery* 

'tht time at Nootkk Vas fully occnpirf by ncgociation coUr 
•etning the tetrttOYiesy of which restitution was to hav^ beeti 
made by the Spaniards* Diplomatic history, however, is 2 
kind of forbidden ground ; an4» as the subject of this does not 
afford much matter of entertainment, it may be sufficient ta 
remark that, with great mutual civilities^ very little progress 
was made towards an adjustment ; till at length it was agreed 
by both parties to refer the business back to theit respectirt 

Some circumstances occurred while this affair was transact*^ 
ing, which exliibit the character of the natives in a very en- 
tertaining manner. On the day after the arrival of the British 
•hips at Nootka, the Spanish commander, Sen. Quadu^ wag 
invited on board to a public breakfast. The chief of the In** 
^ians in the neighbourhood of this place, 

^ Maquifma^ who was present on this oecasioDi had early in the 
tsornin?} from being unKnown to us, been prevented coming oft 
board me Discovery by the centinels and the officer on deck, as Uierc 
was not in his appearance the smallest indication of his superior raol^ 
Of this indigmcy he had complained in a most angry manoet to 
Sen^ Quadra, who very obligingly found means to soodi him ; and 
after receiving some presents of blue cloth, copper, &c. at breakfast 
time, he app€ate4 to be satisfied of our friendly intentions : but aa 
sooner had ne drank a few glasses of wine, than he renewed the subr 
jcct, regretted the Spaniards were about to quit the place, and 
asserted that wc should presently give it up to some other nation : 
by which means himself and his people would be Constantly disturbed 
and harassed by new masters. Sen', (^adra took much pains 
tm explain that it was our ignorance of his person which had ocesi* 
sioncd the mistake.* 

Captain Vancouver adds : ^ I could not help observing with 
a miiture of surprise and pleasure, how much the Spaniards 
bad succeeded in gaining the good opinion and confidence t^ 
these people J together with the- very orderly behaviour, S0 
conspicuously evident in their conduct towards the Spaniards 
on all occasion6.^ A few days afterward, in order to- promote 
a good understanding with this chief, it was proposed to make 
him < a visit of ceremony )' of which the following account i$ 

* * After visiting mast of the houses, wc arrived at Maqukfuft re-» 
sidence^ which vms one of the largest, though it was not intirely 
covered in ; here we found seated in some kind of form, Maqwimefi 
daughter, who not long before had been publicly and with great 
aercmony proclaimed sole heiress of all his property, power, and de« 
minion. Near her were seated, three of bis wives, and a numerous 
t^'ibe of relations. The younff princesii was of low stature, vcrf 
plump, with a round face, and small features $ her skin was dean, 
ind being ncaYly white, her person altogether, though without' any 
pretensions to beauty, could not be considered as disagreeable. T* 


Varicoixirer*/ Vojage of Discot^ery. i^ 

Ket ^i to lier fiitlicr I made presents suitable to the oecasioii» wbich 
TPert receivfed with the greatest approbation by themsdvesi and the- 
throngf which had assembled s as were also those I mstde to hit 
4HmeB^ brothers, and ether relations. These ceremonies being Qndedt 
a most eKCelleat dinner was served, which Sen^ Quadra had pro- 
Vkled, at wliich we had the company of Maqulnna and the prmcess, 
who i^^aa seated at the head of the table> and conducted herself with 
tuoch propriety and decorum. 

* After dinner, Maqmnna entertained us with a representation of 
their warlike atchievements. A do/en men first appeared, armed 
with muskets, and equipped with all their appendages, who took their 
ptost in a very orderly manner within the entrance of the house^ 
where they remained stationary, and were followed by eighteen very 
stout men, each bearing a Spear or lance sixteen or eighteen feet, in 
kogth, proportfonably strong, and pointed with a long flat piece of 
iron,' which seemed to be sharp on both edges, and was highly po- 
lished ; the whole however appeared to form but an aiikward and 
unwieldy weapon. These men made several movements in imitation 
of, attack and defence, singing at the same time several war songs, in 
which they were joined by those with th'e muskets. Their different 
evolutions being concluded, I was presented with two small sea-otter 
akini» ; and the warriors, having laid by their arms, performed a mask 
dtaicc, which was ridiculously laughable, particularly on the part of 
Maqahmaj who took a considerable share m the representation.* ^ 

The n6gocxa^1on finishing in the manner before stated. Cap* 
t^' Vancouver informed Sen. Quadra that he should con- 
sider Nootka as a Spanish party and requested his permission to 
carry on the necessary employments of watering, &c. pa 
shore : which, says Captain Vancouver, he very politely gave. 

^Oh th^ 12th of October, the ships left Nootka Sound; the 
Dxdalus store-ship in company, which had been found at Noot- 
ka. An extraordinary circumstance appears in this part of the 
narnCtive, which is thus related : 

' On the day previous to our sailing, I received on board two 
young women for the purpose of returning them to their native 
<:dtiiitry, the Sandwich Islands ; which they had quitted in a vessel 
ttiat arrived at Nootka on the 7th instant, called the Jenny, be- 
lo&ging to Bristol. But as that vessel was bound from nenC^ 
straight to England, Mr. James Baker her commander very earnestly 
retjuested, that I would permit these two unfortunate ^irls to take 
a passage in the Discovery to Onehow, the island of their birth and 

The nHmner in which these young. ^omen were brought 
•way wag very differently represented by them and the master 
of the vesKi ; he allegedf that he put to sea without znf 
kBowlegeof their being on boardl In the sequel, it appear^ 
titsit they* wdre rkstbred tor thiilr country, after having 'receive^* 
gveat miilcs of kindness^ smd^ atttmioii fx^fav: Cipt^xa Van^ 

R»T. Jam. 1799. C Th» 

18 VancouverV Voyage of Discovery 

The ships steered along the coast to the S« £• towatds the 
rfver mentioned to them by Mr. Gray, commander of the Ca- 
]\imbia, in latitude 46^ lo'N. which river is distinguished in 
the chart by the" name of Columbia, On the T7th they were 
dfF its mouth, within which theChatham entered : but the Dis- 
covery was prevented by the^ currents and broken water, and 
on the a I St was forced to sea by bad weather. Captain Van- 
couver continued his course to the southward, leaving the 
Chatham in Columbia river, and on the 14th arrived at Port 
St. Francisco. This settlement is described to bp in a very un- 
improved state. * Except its natural pastures, the flocks of 
sheep, and herds of cattle, there is not an object to indicate the 
most remote connection with any European or other civilized 
nation.' The character drawn of the natives is by no means . 
a flattering picture: — * under the middle size, ill made, their 
faces ugly, presenting a dull, heavy, and stupid countenance,-* 
the same horrid state of uncleanliness and laziness seemed to 
pervade the whole,' &c. Captain Vancouver visited the mis- * 
«ion of St. Clara, (of which he gives a description,) 18 leagues 
distant from St. Francisco ; in which journey, though the 
country presented a prospect of luxuriant fertility, * there was . 
neither house, hut, nor any place of shelter, excepting such as, 
the spreading trees afforded.* Oaks were seen in great abund- 
ance. On his return to St. Francisco, Capt. V. found that the . 
Chatham had arrived there. 

Lieutenant Broughton, who was left in the entrance of ^Co- 
lumbia river, when he saw the Discovery forced to sea, judi- . 
ciously determined to take advantage of his situation, and pro- 
ceeded to examine the river. The navigation was so inter- 
rupted by shoals, that, in the course of a few leagues, the ves- 
sel had twice taken the ground. This determined Mr, 
Broughton to continue his examination in boats ; and accord- 
ingly, after having fixed the Chatham in a place of safety, he . 
set out with his cutter and launch. They advanced in an , 
eastern and southern direction, for seven days, following what 
appeared to be the main branch of the river: for several other 
rivers fell into this. During the first part of the time, they t 
had some assistance from the flood tides : but latterly they had • 
found the current constantly running towards the sea, though 
the rise and fall of the tide was very discernible by the shores. * 
They had met with people in their way up, and at one time 
• were surrounded by twenty three canoes, carrying from three 
to twelve persons each, all attired in their war garments, and in 
every other respect prepared for combat ' — but, after having * 
discoursed with some friendly Indians who had- before joinM ' 
i&& English, they laid aside tbeit. wac dressy and with great 

civility ^ 

VancouvcrV 1^>yige of Dis(fover^ f^ 

CiVUity exchanged some of their arms, ahd' other attrcle i, 'for 
such things as were presented to them, ^ bttt ^ould neithet* 
part with their copper swords, nor a kifid of battle-ax<i mad^ 
of iron.' Sonaeof these strangers advised the Vof aggers to go no 
farther, making signs that, if they persisted, they would meet 
people who would cut off theh heads. This was on the fourth 
day of their expedition. At the end of the 7th day, the rapi- 
dity of the stream increasiijg against them, and their provi- 
sions being nearly expended, Mr. Broughton found it irnprac-. 
ticable to proceed farther. The breadth of the river here was 
a quarter of a mile, with soundings across from 6 to 2 fathoms. 
Some of the natives, from whom they endeavoured to pro-* 
cure intelligence, made signs which *Mr. Broughton understood- 
to mean that, higher up the river, they would meet with 
waterfalls j but that the source was very distant. '^Such arc 
the particulars of the interesting information gained by Mrr 
Broughton concerning Columbia River. 

The observations made by Captain V. respecting Port St. 
Francisco open another field for conjecture. • 

* The Uttle we had seen (says he) of Port St. Francisco, efiabled 
QS to decide that it ';(ras very extensive in two>directions: one spa* 
cious branch took its course eaft and south-eastvrard .ta a . great dis-t 
tance froni the station we had quitted in the mornii^g :^ the othor,. 
apparently of equal magnitude, led to th^ northward. la this were 
several islands.* — * Near the branch leadnig to the cast and south- 
eastward before-mentioned is situated the mission of S'*. Clara. \ 
These gentlemen informed me, that this branchhad been thoroughly 
examined, but that the branch leading to the north never had.' — 
* The port having been eilablished by Spain, 1 did not consider it' 
prudent to prosecute its examination without sufficient authority for '- 
so doing.' Vol. II. p. 4. - » . . 

Here it xnay be remarked that it does not appear, in the^ 
narrative, that permission was demanded to make examiaa* 
tion: but Captain V# states.. that the weather "Was not favour- 
able for such an undertaking. • ^ ^ 

Leaving Port St. Francisco, the ships sailed to Monterey, 
another Spanish settlement. ThcDasdakis Was now dispatched ' 
to New South Wales ; and Captain Vancouver wrote to request^ 
of Governor Phillip, that she might be sent 4yack to him at t 
Nootkaj with a supply of twelve monchs provisions' and- stores. 
This ship was also ordered to call in her way at'OtaheitCy for ' 
some English seamen who had beencast away in the ship Ma- ' 
tilda, of. London, on a ledge of rocks out* of Sight of any 
land ;. after which accident, the crew in- their boats found their 
way to Otaheit^. From that island, the second matd* ahd two 
of the men had proceeded in an open whale-boat to»;wards% 
New So^th Wales, a distance of nearly 1400 leagues. Whe*-i 
;: - C a ' thcr 

iKer Acy lueceeded in tliU hazardQus and extraorcUnaxy QO-- 
(jkrtakiogy wf do not find In the sequcL The oommaodor o( 
the Matilda, with four others, had taken their passage froni 
Otaheite, on board the Jenny of Briftol ; which vessel Captain 
Vancouver met at Nootka Sound. 

Lieutenant Broughton was left at Monterey ; with accounts 
for the Board of Admiralty, of all their transactions up ta 
that time, with surveys, tic. Sen. Quadra promising to ac-* 
commodate him with a passage by the wav of New Spain to 
England. On the 13th of January 1793, the ships sailed from 
Monterey, and on the iSth steered from the* American coast 
towards the Sandwich Islands.— Thus concluded the first aea<- 
. ^h of th^ir search after a N. W. passage* 

Here we shall for the present break off; detaining our 
leaders no longer than while we offer a few remarks on. the 
part of this valuable work which we have already examined. 

In the p^usal of Captain Vancouver's narrative, it will 
cdrviously strike the reader, that it is too much encumbered 
^itb nautical and geographical accounts. Some are necessary 
to make the details clear and intelligible : but more than i^ 
requisite for that purpose renders it %omtumt% ponderousy aa 
Dr. Johnson, perhaps, would have said. It is to be regretted 
that, in the publication of sea voyages, the bulk of the nau-> 
tical and scientific accounts is not given in a section by itself;, 
for it is a sufficient t^x on the unlearned purchaser, to pay, th^ 
price of that part in which he n^ust be littlic interestjcd ; witlv- 
out the additional grievance of. being under the necessity of' 
toiling through it^ before he can anive at the more entertain^ 
ing matter. 

The title-piagc announces a Voyage of Discovery, performed 
in the years xjg^ 1791, &c. to 1795. The nrst of those, 
years must, have b^en inserted through inadvertence: for. 
though the preparations for the voyage were firft made ia. 
1 790, the expedition was afterward suspended, as we have al« 
ready mentioned ; and Capuin Vancouver's sailing orders from, 
the Admiralty were dated March 8ith, 1791, and the ships didi 
not leave England til) the ist.of April. 

The application of the name of Narth^JV^st Amtrica^ tO; 
the coast which they were employed to survey, is surely taking, 
too much licence:— the Admiralty, in their instructions, gav». 
it tlie appellation of the North West Coast £^ America, which 
is less objectionable :«-rbut the division of America into North 
and South having been long received and universally estab- 
lished \ and by that division all that region which is to the 
mojrthward of the Isthmus of Darien ba^ig> strictly speaking* 
5 North 

OonW/ MiMrn filBiya f\m. Wt 

the most proper dfnorhin&tioii woold have been the fTtsiim 

An idea is sometimes eonveyed of a degree of unart^i^ 
CDoceming the object of the researches of the voyagers, without 
die appearance of its having been intended : < I was thoroughljf 
eonvinced, aa were also most per^dns of observation on boara— - 
« The continental shore which I presumed this to bie,' ^c— 
The geographical descriptions, likewise, are not always free 
from perplexities; which, however, may be attribtitcd to Cao- 
tain Vancouver's bad state of health not allowing him to al^ 
tend sufficiently, at all times, to their correction. 

The account of a voyage planned for the attainihent t£E 
knowlege can scarcely fail of abounding in information ; itM 
to this position^ the part of the narrative which we have larj- 
before our readers proves that the present work is not an et« 
ceptiom The style of it, however, is unequal ^ in many pai« 
sages it departs from the unaflFected plainness which is so be- 
coming in the narrative of a seaman. The ships sail firoiti 
England with a gentle breeze at day dawn. We meet widi 
meofukrsj ftreamUUy enchanting lawns, and banks which overhang 
the murmuring brook. In scenes the reverse of thete, emimatid 
fmture seemed nearly exhausted. Most commonly, however, t)ie 
language i6 easy and natural. 

We defer our observatbns on the general merits of the ex- 
pedition, until we arrive at the conclusion of our abstract : bttt 
It would be injustice to quit the subject at this period of our 
analysis, Mrithout acknowleging that, though many parts of the 
survey were attended with great difficulties and much danger, 
it was prosecuted with a praise-worthy diligence and unre« 
mitted attention. 

[7> he continued.^ 


Art* IL MahemHiHfs a Poem. By Joseph Cottle. 4to. as.ftL 
Longman* X79B. 

N one of Mr. Pope's notes on Homer, he seems to have 
thought it strange that grammarians, whose business it is to 
torture words, should presume to judge of poetry. Perhaps it is 
still more out of character for the audior of a po^m, wnich is 
descriptive of grand or beautiful scenery, to write a laboured 
preface on the sufierings of the pQor, mixed with severe reflec« 

' * Captain Cook*8 last voyage is expressed, in tbe title, to be for 
the purpose of d^tefmuiia^ the position aad txteat of TU W^t Sidt 
of North Amenceu 

C% tloni 

^a CiottWs Malvern Hills, ajPoem, 

tjpns on the conduct of the higher. ranks in society, and atcu8«^ 
ifig. them indi6crimin;it,ely of luxury, selfishness, and insensi- 
bility. That there is an abundant stQre of misery in human 
Jifcji we all know, and in a certain degree experience. Entirely 
to eradicate evil, -we also know, is beyond the reach of human 
wisdom, and. the exertion of human power : but, to mitigate and 
Tessi^n it arie possible, and are very sacred duties. It must like-r 
wise be allowed that the present age has been very fertile in 
expedients for bette^^ing the condition of the poor ; and perhaps 
(here n^ver was a period at which active benevolence was more 
yniversal than at this time. It is the misfortune of theorists^ 
however, to form to themselves pictures of perfection and hap- 
piness which. never ciid aud never can exist, in our present state; 
;ind then to ascribe , every deviation from these golden dreams, 
t3o some defect in tlie laws, or some error in the government, 
't'o.this source m'c may not uncharitably (it is hoped) attribute 
that appearance of discontent which p^revails in the poem be- 
fore us \ for although it bears the name of Malvern Hills, yet 
s^ very small part of it is (properly speaking) descriptive of that 
beautiful and salubrious spot : the greater portion being dcr 
Vi)tqd to express the thoughts and sentiments of the writer. 
/One o^ the finest. passages in Thomson's Seasons is in his 
AucuiTiu, where he sets forth the advantages of industry 
ana commerce : but on this subject Mr. Cottle differs very 
m)ich in opinion from that admirable poet \ as will appear fron^ 
the following extract : 

♦ What of our mortal ills to thee belong, 
Infuriate Commerce ! thou unceasing yireav'st 

, The veil that hides the Deity from n\an. 

, - . Q0I4 turns the heart to stone ! makes wise men fools! 
For this the parent sells his darling child, 
Surveys the price of bartered inuocence, 
And with I&cariot smile, cries, all is well. 
. ■ ■ Toi thib tbe Mcreh^nt toils his life away, 
• . JEudures Hindostan's heat — Siberia's snows, 

That when the worms haveburrpw'd in his skull, 
Some prattling tongue may tell the wondcroiis sun^ 
' Once he could call his own. For love of gold 
«. (Gold only ftought for luxuries, not wants) 
. The gallant ^sailor braves the tempest's rage, 
. The >vild tornado's desolating power ; 
, Contends with dangers in heaft-harrowing shapes, 
tar from the wife htld dear — the home of peace. 

• Thy triumphs, Mammon, shall not always thus 
Sound thro' the earth, nor always shalt thou see ' 

• ' Youth, Beauty,- Innocence, and heaven-bom Love^ 
'J - -A^^d all the noblerpassions of the soul 

* Bend ' 

Cottle V Malvern Hills, a Poem. ... 23 

Bend at thy feet, and own no God but thee. 
Nor always, shalt thou view the peaceful child 
Of innocence, in some unguarded hour, 
Lured by the demon Commerce from his home. 

* Cities and towns, ye haunts of wretchedness • ! 
Whei'e Commerce with a grin of extacy 
Sits counting o'er lier votaries* tears and sighs ; 
Urged by. your splendid poisons f , w^hat a host 

• * A reference is here made to the evils arising from ifianufactures: 
I do not mean to cast a general reflection on all of them, but that 
some are attended with destructive consequences, cannot be quefiii 
tioned. It may be well to specify one or two.. I shall therefore 
notice the pin manufacture and that for white-lead. In the former, 
the pointing of pins is attended with the almost certain sacrifice of 
those who are employed in it. Strong constitutions are not so im- 
mediately affected, l^at to the strongest it generally proves fatal, if 
persisted in for a few years ; which arises from the number of metallic 
particles received into the lungs by breathing. These stop the finer 
vessels, and induce by that means' apoplexy and ' consumption. If 
property had been concerned, and not /ww, ingenuity would long 
ago have discovered some mode for supplying the hjngs whh air un- 
contaminafed,*with this destructive mixture. 

« With respect to the manufacture of white-lead,' the tonsequences 
arc still more fatal. In particular departments of it, an employment 
of three months produces palsy in some of the limbs, commonly a loss 
of the hand chiefly employed, and which rapidly extends, unless the 
person change his occupation. The conductors of this manufacture 
are so aware of the consequences, that they never solicit any man to 
engage in it. They simply open their doors, and receive such only 
25 are starving, and can. find no other employment.— —^ What are 
these manufactures but an union of suicide and murder f Society has 
enacted laws for the punishment of murderers ; but it is for those only 
who kill on a spnall scale, or in a particular way*"*-The far larger 
proportion are considered as honorable men — " all honorable men." 
White-lead is principally used, in the composition of paiiu, I have 
had a room painted with a mixture of chalk and oil, which looks full, 
as well as white-lead ; its only disadvantage arises from changing 
colour sooner than the common paint ; but that other experiments. 
might succeed better cannot be doubted; and the Society of Arts, 
if they have not already done it, could direct the attention of the 
ingenious and scientific to few questions in which . the intcrcsta of 
society are more involved.* 

f * Large manufacturing towns receive annually a supply of 
young men from the surrounding country, to ,makc up for the de- . 
ficiencies of those who have forae *to a premature death .from the 
unwholesomeness of their occupations. Unthinking youths, fioui 
the superior wages offered them, are .induced to try these dangtToua 
experiment^. They commence their new employments with com- 
fictions that indicate health, but in a year or two, their coui.tcuarcts 

C 4 commonly 

24 CottleV Malvern Hills, a Pom. 

Of iiiex|)erienced sons have left thcir< homes. 
The cot's calm comforts, aod the quiet shaaf s^ 
To taste your bitter dregs, and be immured. 
From mom's first dawn till ei^ening far is spent* 
In dust, an3 stench, and pestilence 1 remote 
From friends, assailM by vice in every shape 
That chains to dust the soul, and doom'd at length 
To b'nger c5ut their blasted lives in scorn—- 
Their peace destroy'd — their innocence gopcby.* 

.We conceive this to be a fair specimen of the author's rerii* 
^cation, which is certainly smooth and harmonious i and what* 
ever may be determined in regard to his sentiments, they are 
at least founded in benevolence ^ — tlie brightest ornament of thq 
human character. 

From the opening of the poem, an opinion may be foxine4 
of Mr. Cottle's talents for description : 

* Alone, unnoticed, at this early hour. 
While all around is silence, I will mount 
The Malverh Hills. This is a holy-day •j 
And holy I will make it, leave the world. 
Its toils, and cares, and commune with myself* 

' As up I climb, the freshness of the morn 
Smells grateful, though no object meet my view. 
Throu|m the dark mists, which now with coming day 
Struggle for mastery, the giant Hill 
Casts not a shade. Now back I turn to inark 
The winding path, but all is ?rey and void ; 
On every side thick clouds \ the spacious worI4 
X(ives but in memory ! whilst forth I roam 
A wandering, unlov'd, solitary thin^. 
Tho' here on this known spot, my iancy starts 
At her own shapings — ^fesrfiil— -impotent ; 
Now rousing up impossibilities ; 
Pursuing then, through each strange circumstance. 
The vagrant thought with aptest energy. 

* - * — ^ : ' f * 

comnionly become pallid, their mlnd^ dispirited, and their bodies 
weak. Though these appeai-ances are applicable to most manuiacr 
turing towns, yet I have an eye more particularly on Manchester. In 
this phce the above effects are notorious, nor will i; be wondered ^t, 
when iftis understood that many branches of the manufactures coQ^i 
ducted at this place, require the absence of fresh air, in conscqufncflB. 
of which the air becomes so impure a^ seriously to injprjp the health, 
and if consumption should not be the immediate coi)si:quence, the 
general kabif is so much impaired, as to be rendered liable to a long 
catalogue of distrcssinff maladies. The evil is further increased by 
the frequent custom of employing two sets of hands to wozkday an4 
Bight alternately.' 
« * The time, Whit-Mpnday, and early in the morwng,* 

♦ c 

CottlcV Mfhern Hills^ d Poem. eg 

Te ide phantasies ! away ! away ! 

I am DO uttbleit solitary man^ 

Confined to on^ rude spot, whilst round, a 9Ccxifi 

Illimitable spreaHs-— bleak— desolate— 

With not one kindred soul to share my being* 

I have ten thousand recollections dear. 

This Mount, I know it well, and soon shall tread 

Its proudest summit, soon with joy behold 

Objects that glad the heart — unspeakable 1' 

Wc may add also the poet's conclusion^ as a farther display 
of the peculiar mood and temper of mind in which Mt* 
Cottle paid his visit to the celebrated rural scenery of Mat- 

* Farewell, delicious spot ! I now must leave you | 

Now must return to breathe pollution's air ; 

To mix with men, enveloped in the cares 

Of life ; to be. enveloped too ; to heifr 

Their coaverso 1qw(, how best to meet with wealthy 

And to pMSeiwe t;hat ^d of life till death. 

It must be so, yet Tyjill X love to think 

On you, dear Mount ! and ponder on the joys 

This mom bestow'd, and say, pressing my hearty , 

Than ito review with memory's musing eye 

Your lofty summit, mark its subject vales, 

Its many scattered spires, and hamlets small^ 

And hear the magic orisons of birds, 

freaking the silence with their melody ; 

Not sweeter to the nightly traveller's e^r 

Sounds the soft lute, while wandering by the side 

t)f some slow stream, when, not a whispering breeax 

Awakes the grove, and not a murmur, rude» 

Impedes the warbled notes— expiring slow ; 

Whilst the clear moon resplendent sqines aloft. 

And casts her pale beam o'er the sleeping tide/ , 

To the poem on Malvern Hills, the author has added an 
< Elegy on the Death of a beloved Sister,'-* which breathes the 
genuine spirit of fraternal afFt^ction and tenderness. 

Those readers, who may incline to amuse themselves with a 
ccrmparative estimate of the respective characteristics of Dr» 
Booker's and Mr. Cottle's rival poems * on Malvern, will find 
our account of the former in the Review for the preceding 
J&omh of December* 

* Their publication so nearly together gi^cs some appearaac^ o£ 
ttjrjd^tfPf though th£ circumitjiACC may be meiely accidental 


( 26 ) 

AnT. III. Zecbarlah \ a new Transhtton : with Notes, ■ en tical 
philological, and explanatory ; and an appendix, in Reply to 
Dr. Evelelgh's Sermon on Zechariah, ii. 8 — ii. To which is 
added, (a new Edition, with AlterationF,) a Dissertation on 
Daniel, ix. 20. to the End. By Benjamin Blayney, D. D. Regius 
Professor of Hebrew, and Canon .of Christ Ctiurch, Oxford. 410. 
pp. 161. I OS. 6d. Boards. Cadell, jun. and Davics. 1797. 

As we have formerly had occasion to jiotice honourably the 
'-^^ skill of Dr. Blayney in Hebrew criticism, we are glad to 
•meet him again in that arduous department of literature. 
'' Thd Doctor justly observes, that the book of ^egl'iafial} has 
been generally acknowlcged to contain manyUjiings bard to be 
nndcrsfood ; and though tlie number of J:_hese has ojf Ute years 
been very considerably lesst-ned, yci new. light m4y;breLAkin on 
a m^n who comes fresh to ihe tusk, winch probably might not 
Lave done so but fdr preceding obscfvations. In oider, how- 
ever, to comprehend th« sentiments JlWd WTrtings of -an tiuthor, 
it is generally of use to become actfuakifed' with the situation 
and circumstances in which he wrote. Zechafiah was one oif 
the last in that succession of prophets, who delivered their ora- 
cular sentences to the Jews as declaratory of the will of God. 
That he was in the number of the captives who returned from 
Babylon to Jerusalem in consequence of the decree of Cyrus, 
says Dr. B. is unquestionable : but that he was very young 
vhen he came thither appears from this, that, sixteen or seven- 
teen years afterward, when he had begun to exercise his pro- 
phetical function, he is styled a youth ; a title which * would 
scarcely have been given to him had his age much exceeded 
twenty. He v/as not only of a priestly family, but he was of 
considerable distinction and rank among his brethren. It was 
in the eighth month of the second year of the reign of Darius 
the son of Hystaspes, king of Persia, (that is, about the year^ 
520 before the Christian ncra,) that he first opened his divine, 
commission with a serious and solemn call to repentance. Irr 
the same year, he is found, together with the prophet Haggai, 
employed in assisting the endeavours of Zerubbabel and Jeshua 
to excite and animate the people at Jerusalem to a vigorous 
prosecution of the work of rebuilding their temt)Ie. For this 
purpose, he communicated the visions, which are contained in 
the first six chapters, and with which he was favoured on the' 
24th day of the eleventh month in the year aforesaid; allevi-^ 
dently calculated to inspire the strongest hopes and assurance' 
of futdre prosperity through the returning favour of the Al- 
mighty ; and thus to convince the people, that they were not 
laboUcing on a barren and ungrateful soil. The same design 
7 is 

Bhyticy'j Tfanilaiion of T^chariak, ^y 

as pursued In a subsequent revelation made 'to him about two 
years afterward; wheni in answer to a question proposed, 
whether the anniversary fast of the fifth month, which had for 
many years been observed on occasion 6f the destruction of the 
city and the temple of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans in that 
month, should contihue to be kept, now that the damages then 
svstaiiied were in a fair way of being wholly repaired, the 
people were told that they not only might safely discontinue 
Ac observance of that and other similar fasts, which they had 
instituted for themselves in the days of mourning and sorrow, 
but that, by a happy turn in their affairs, those fasts should be 
changed into times of festivity and rejoicing. 

"With respect to the Succeeding part of these prophecies, Dr. 
Blayney tells us that they are left more in the way of cohjec- 
tare; that it is hbWever highly probable, from the apparent 
diSierence both of style and subject, that they came forth at a 
different and more advanced period of the prophet's Hfe ; and it 
is not at all surprising that the writer, as he advanced in years 
^nd dignity, sliould have learned to express .himself' in atone 
of more elevation and energy* At such distant periods also, as 
tfaeauthor supposes, the subject would in course be materially 
changed* The Prc^het would no longer have occasion to stimu« 
bte his rountrymed to the building of the temple, which wa» 
now coihpletely finished .^ but he was actually eiigaged in pre-* 
dieting some remarkable occurrences, which would distinguish 
his own nation' and the^ neighbouring countries in remote pe- 
riods, — some of them ^perhaps not yet arrived ^ and in urging an: 
immediate reformation of niational manners. In so doings 
what was more natural to expect, than that he should encoun- 
ter hatred and oppo^tion from those whose corruptions he was 
called to censure and repress I Accordingly, there is sufficient 
ground for concluding'that all this happened to him, from >vhat! 
he says (in the eleventh chapter) of the freedom and zeal with' 
which he exposed and counteracted the iniquitous conduct of 
those who make merchandice of the flock ; meaning those un- 
principled guides, who- assumed the direction of the people' 
only to sacrifice them to the gratification of. their own ambi- ' 
tion and avarice. Several of these, by exhibiting, in himself' 
the contrast of a good shepherd, he found means at first to db- 
prive at least of that influence and authority which they once * 
possessed, and had iis^itkedly abused'. The sequel may easily be 
guessed. His enraged adversaries, after having thwarted and " 
defeated all his endeavours for the public' good, at length, (no 
doubt by intrigue and misrepresentation,) so* far succeeded as 
to turn the tide of popular prejudice and Tesentineiit against 
liiai} and he was barbarousty zhurdd:^,' as his namesake 


2^€hMrUh «b« 9m of Jchotdd^ ba4 been for the Inlne center 
;ind lA the mmt |)lMe> bctwe^ three and ibiif JbumlreA 

The triinftlatioii) on the whole, is aceurete ; and the notet 
^ fiensibk and judicious, throwing much new light on thi^ 
pbficure prophet. For our opinion of the Df^sertatiete 09 
Daniel, ix. 2o« whkh forms a third pjlrt of this volUin^^ we 
veler the rsadei to out Review^ voL lii> p. 487* 

Art. IV- Tii Lectures of J. B. de MaUiauducs M. i3|. .Mcmbcf 
of the Corporation of Surgeons in London. Part the First. ' 410. 
pp. 230. Price Five Guineas in Boards. Printed for Miss Pres- 

' cott, the Executrix, in Bloomsbury Square. 


N seadisig this work, we could not a'void lamenting the fatal 
obstinacy of men ; who, when they have it in their powcr^ 
by the Bnnple use of their common senses, to remove aU dis- 
eases whatsoever, will still continue to suflFer and be miserable, 
because-**^ they will not stretch out their hands for, xbtit own 
assistance. One source, indeed, of their present state of error 
has been, that they were and are ignorant of what is, and 
what is not, disease ; and hence they have hitherto unwittingly^ 
nenioved tliose conditions of the body, which they should hare 
eMouraged* It is no wonder, theti, thdt our learned author 
should exclaim, 

* How essential for mankind to know, that all th^ alarming ap» 
pcarances of fever, a^ue, cholic, and convuUion, 00 vofaimtnoudy 
vnitCeii on, and so bmobly prescribed for, are tyn^tmu only and not 
£s€€Uft\ that they are efforts of nature, criticaUy set up to cure her- 
self, aad conseq^uently, that they are to be cherislied and encouraged; 
bj which meains they become efficacious and successful : and that, 
every attempt by bleeding, by vomiting, by purging, or by regimen, 
tb remove th^nl, is injurious and destructive, and by no means to be 

However, thanks to Br. de Maioai^uc, ^ we^ no longer, 
want symptoms to guide our judgment, nor drugs to produce 
evacuations ; we possess withia ourselves the power of in* 
duciug tho$e effects.' 

Aj I bus how ? exclaim our readers. Patience, gentlemen : 
—ye shall know. 

. It mu^ appear strange, when so long a time has elapsed 
since' num became an inhabitant of this globe, that he should 
npt yet have discovered she true iiQd proper uses of two very 
material parts of Ivs frame) namely, his eyes and his hands.«^ 
It has heen a^ genexs^ly received opii^on that we Cftnnojt fee in 
what has beej^caUed tiftla^^ T:1^ is ^Iftoge.^ejr erroneous: 


lie ybin^niitifs Lhtiimtj Part t \^ 

^aiext irno'sttcH thiag as darkness in nature | apd, bypractice, 
yfc nay see in att tituaiione. 

« A girP (fot inftt^ce) * at Pam^a saw qI^U a« cfotincily at raM- 
night, though her yrixiaoY?.8huttem were po^ectly ck>6e4» a» sht 
could br day^light. 

« Bng^ gives an ^c^oiwt of a man who read letter i» th« mght. , 

* Mr. ^qyle tells us that a gentleman confined in a duageon^ be* 
jran in a few weeks to discover light ; it daily increased, so that he 
could distlDguieh hia bed» and other large objects; at kngth he 
]^kunly saw rats rupn.i^g Amt% and picking up his crumbs* . 

f The Enjperor Tiberius, 
< Scaliger, and his son Joseph, 
*. Marcus Antonius Sabellicus^ 
^ Hieronymus Cardianus, 

* Cselius, 

*• Asclcpiodonis, and a very long list of names, are all upon record, 
{qt seeiDg and reading well in the darkest nights* 

* Fabricitts ab aqua pendente^ tells us of a man at Pisa, ^o stnr 
^dl u) the darkest niehta, but obscurely by day. 

*• Jullanus^ a Monk, constantly read in the darkest night?, andE 
miKt lighted a candle for seventy years. 

^ In all these inetancea we perceive there was no want of light, an<f 
•ft^ other people < calibdi it perfect darkness; conseqnently the defect 
^ust kftTe hoen. in the visual. organ of those who could not discover 

* But we have many instances of human sight receiving \\\W tm-^ 
Ijrovement 1^ accident, by inflammation,, by drunkenness, by fevers, 
by fits of passion, during which time all appeared Hgiit,, which but. 
the moment before was dtemed perfect darkness. 

* Mr. Bayle, Briggs, and several other authors, confirm tliesc ac-, 
qwiBta, and give-instances. which it would' take up too much time to 
repeat. One only I beg leave to select from the Journal dte S^avans* 

' A gentleman received* a stroke in his eye by the-sn^tpping of a 
lute-string; inflammation was set up, and to his astonishment, he. 
cpidd. from that instant discover the most minute objects,, and, read 
the smallest type in. the greatest darkness, but was perfectly dark of 
tKat eye by day orby canUle-Ught; so that he habitually used the: 
inflamed eye^ in wh^t Qth^rs- csoli^d darkness, and the other eye by 

* In short, every, circumstance tends to prove that light is conli- 
aiially present jn every, situation^ bu^t not at all times in the same de* 
me« and! that there is no such, state as absolute darkness, or prtvatiea 
«r Ught in all nature*' 

Now this being the case, it is evident that the hitherto hid^ 
dtn and interior parts of our frame become laminaufi and*. 
visible to tl)e^we}l»practised and inteUigent eye ; and honor, in 
ojcder to ^irr^iH^ all disease^ we have* only to ooino»asdr> onv^ 
ejrea to look after tbein. ' Thie pr^ceeSjr^ it seems, * i»cd«n>*' 
{tis^^ ii^ttis^c .di)4$iMS4 

< A thought^ 

« A thoaghty or influence, must first be conveyed to the spirit, of 
mind, by 86me visible, or invisible agent* This the spirit is perfectly 
free to adopt or reject. . . ' 

* Haying arrived at this second stage, volition arises ; that is, the. 
spirit commands some part of its body (the eye, for instance) to ex- 
ecute its will, and for that purpose transmits its decree by the nerves 
or conductors of its volition to that partctf the form, whose depart- 
ment it is to act, according to the nature of the object.* ; 

The nature and extent of nny diisease being thus easily 
ascertained by the eye, it appears to have been almost needless 
for the autlior to put us in possession of other modes of in- 
vestigating the same facts. As he has thought this necessary, 
however, it becomes our duty fo instruct our readers in this 
process 5 first referring them to the' Doctor's serious adnw- 
xiition : 

« Permit me to intreat you timely to reflect on the very, very mo- 
mentous charge you are now undertaking : remember the parable of 
the Talents, and the fate of the indolent servant ; remember, that' 
from him to whom much is confided, much will be required.- That 
by the mysteries into which you are now initiating, and which ape- 
totally unknown to the world, (yourselves, and your instructed 
brethren excepted,) the health > the lives, and the morals of perhaps' 
thousands of your fellow-creatures will be intrusted to jour care ; 
consequently, and most assuredly, you will become accountable to the> 
Author of those mysteries for the use you make of thcml* ' 

To clearly understand our author's mode of examination and 
treatment of diseases, the following recapitulation of his doc-, 
trines should be duly noted. — ^Thc globe of which he here 
speaks is the earth, and die warty appearances on its suiface. 
are men and women. 

* On looking back at the picture, a globe appears changing its 
solid state into that of action, re-action, heat, and circulation. 

* This \& rapidly succeeded by a prodigious number of atoms, at-* 
tracting each other into circular currents, and branching out quite 
round and through the entire globe in ever}' direction. 

* Scarcely has the eye indulged in this curious process, before it 
discovers numberless atoms getting together into small heaps, and* 
moulding themselves into forms of various shapes and sizes, all which 
arc penetrated by, or strung as it were on, the circular currents. 

* Attentively considering those warty appearances, we soon per- 
ceive them surrounded by what was, before, an invisible part of them-^ 
selves, collected from their form and shaped like their figure. . From 
this vapour of atoms we again perceive particles detaching and conti-, 
nuaUy flying upwards into the general space. 

* This surrounding shadow, as well as the particles which are de- 
tached from it, appear at first sight to be perfectly simple, and composed ' 
of atoms of one kind o^ly ; buj on a closer investigation, it changes ' 
its aspecti and shews atoms of various kinds aud of different colours, i 

' The 

Se M&loaudttc^i Ledutes^ Pari L 31 

. • Tbe qrfe of critical obserrance b«?omc3 too strongly attacfied to 
ibis newphcnomenon ta paoa it hastily over^ and new lights shin^ 
forth to gratify the pursuit. ^ » 

^ Clouds of fiuid atoms, Tarying in their colour, shape, and sii^e^ 
according to the state of their respective sources, rush forth from 
each internal part, and conspire to render the ^unrounding shade a9 
heterogenial ip its appearance, as it is in its quality. * 

* These are succeeded by a second class of. atoms, as little homo- 
genial as thfe former : they fly off from each uneirculating part of the 
form, and bursting through its pores, penetrate the surrounding' 
shade, and- lose thei^selves in the general medium. 

* Scarcely has the complex picture attained this state of perfeotioo,' . 
before some of its objects begin to moulder into dust. Cohesion's at- 
tractive bonds dissolve. The curious form breaks down. The separating 
atoms disperse to join the general mass, and leave the unencumbered 
strings ready to receive and penetrate the next succession of accu- 
mulated heaps of particles. . 

* Thus action heats the general atoms into circulating forms ; 

^ Composition and emanations surround them with an atmosphere;' 

* Universal bonds attach them t6 each other ; - 
. *Obstructioti destroys their regularity; 

< And decomposition scatters the atoms to their parental earth«' 

Now respecting the mode of examination : * 

* There arc two general methods of receiving impressionsy or of 
disposing the examiner to receive them. 

< The first is, by opposing one, or both hands. 

* The second, by opposmg the entire body to that of the ex- 

* The first is that mode which should be accurately attended to 
by newly initiated students, as it affords a catalogue of sensations, 
which become a regular standard to judge of all diseases by, and to 
reduce examination to accuracy and perfection. 

* This mode of examination consists in opposing one or both hands 
towards the patient. The examiner should sit or stand in an easy 
position, cautiously avoiding all pressure on his bod^- or arms, lest 
that should afford him an ex<;use for suspecting the impreisions to 
proceed from that cause, rather than from the disease, 

* The exanriiner should lix on some particular part of the patient's 
external or internal form : then, turning the backs of his hands, with 
the fingers a little bent, he must vigorously and steadily command 
the emanatiqns and atmosphere, ^yliich derive from that part, to • 
strike his hands, and must closely attend to v^^hatever impressions are < 
produced on them. 

* It is scarcely necessary to say, that the more composed and at- , 
tcntive the examiner is, the more accurate will be the result of his , 
examination.. . , ', 

* During this process, he must not permit his attention to wander ^ 
from the'object'; if he shbuld, his labour is entirely loit, and he must • 
begin anew, or relinquibh his purpose. j ^ 


jt Dd MaiflaodttcV LtduHs^ Part JT 

• < "to rmdct* the process the metre ftady, the eyes 6f fUlii eskkdhef 
•hould be fixed on the imrt he attends u>« with the amraried mt^t df 
directing the atoms which deriTe from it tosrards his hands,^ wfiiifb 
putt be as ready to catch, as he is to account for the earliest ifnpres* 
aiona. It may be naturally supposed that the eyes of the examine 
ahouM be open, but it is better they were shut, as aD foreiril object^ 
are by that means excluded, and the porosity of the ^yeJkn remoTe^ 
the idea of impedunent. 

* The examiner shodd nerer be hasty in ddnrerin^ his opinion^ 
Imt should repeatedly examine the same part, and deliver hisdeeisio# 
when he has found the acasations uaiforndy sintSar after sereratf 

* The impressions made on different examiners by the same dtea^y 
wS be uniformly the same when they become adepts. 

« It is esseattafiy necessary to render the process of receiving tW 
aloms detached from every object familiar to us. This w31 be e^ 
fected by habitually seeking for them. For this pnrp^^se students 
should fm|uently receive the emanations from salt, su^r, watery iirc, 
and in short, from every occurring substance ; by which mean^ thq^ 
aoon become expert. 

^ < As the impression produced on the examiner by foeh Emanations 
as he attracts from diseaie^ will frequently give him some slight pain, 
more especially if he has himself obstructions : those who are ready 
to grasp at any excuse to wound the sdence, maj very probably hold 
that up to excuse themsch-es, or to deter others from their duty : but 
those who venture to look beyond the surftice, perceive the great ad- 
vantage which must derive to the .examiner, if he shbuld be' ob- 
structed, since those very emanations which cause hirii pain will de- 
tach some of his disease, and by frequent repetition will effectual!/ 
remove the whole. Those who receive such pungent impressions, 
and are not themselves diiseased, cannot have any appi'ehensions, be»k 
cause such emanations never create disease in the operator ; and all 
properly-instructed persons have it in their power to remove theni 
from themselves as soon as they please. 

< In the second mode of examination, the operator mult not seek 
to know where the patient is ; but recollecting that all human beings' 
are connected to each other by innumerable atmospherical nerves, 
and that the entire medium in. which they are placed is composed of 
loose atoms, he must fix his attention on the object, as if he stood 
before him. 

* Thus situated, the examiner must vigorously exert his power to 
attract the entire atmosphere and emanations frbm the patient to 

* By this means, the atoms which derive from eaefa particular part 
of the examined, run to the parts of the same denomination in the 
examiner ; and those particles which are diseased produce impressions 
on the same parts in the examiner as they do when attracted to hi*' 
)iand. Thus he feels in every part of his own person^ whatever the 
^ient feds in his ; only in a less degree in general, but always suf^ 
Seieody to enable him to describe the feelings oi the patknt, and' 


-tk RfeiinaliducV LeBttreti Pari I ^3 

deatrly toasonttth the very <t>6t in wikh it etistty and (Be ton A 
qucncea dmving from it. 

■* If the examiner's attention is carried only on One paiticular tm^ 
cut in the patienly .that same tiscus 6nly wtl} receive informati^ 10 
liimsclf. But if it; be rendered general^ cvciy part of his. body inriU 
give an account of its own proceedings. 

' Bttt it is to be observedi that undiseased parts will not co^ive^ 
any remarkable impression to the examiner ; as nothing results froni 
Mlihy but gentle, equable^ soft heat. ' 

* In every examination the parts which produce impressions 6ft Ch^ 
examiner are to be duly considered ; the mannet of their formation 
fccoQccted ; and the kind of treatment they demand is to be deilrly 
made out be^re any curative process can be commencedi 

Having thus 'ascertained the ciistenoe of diseasci it remains 
only to remove it by the proper treatment 

* The present process is the opposite to the last ; in that the ex* 
taniner atthicted'the atoms from the patietit to himself; but in this 
he must force his atoms against the patient. 

* By a steady exertion .of Compound volition, w'e have it in oiur 
power to propel the J)articlcs which emanate from our own body into 
■nd against whatever part of any other form ti-e fix our attention tin, 
and can force tliem in any direction, and to any distance* 

* Thus» by a continual and regular succession of particles, directed 
vigorously in a rapid stream against those atoms which are stopped 
In their passage, and accumulated in a heap, we break down the im- 
pcdimenty push ofF those atoms which we detach, direct them ipto 
the circulating currents for evacuatioili and rescue the system from 
its impeded functions. 

* This process may, in sdme sort) be saM to resemble that of 
continuing to throw handsful of shot at a heap of satid, accumulated 
in a rivulet, which, as the grains of sand become separated from eacH 
other, vrashes them alotig before it; as ail obsthi^tions are not 
equally hard or compact* they are not all destroyed with the same 
fiunlity, nor equally soon.. A single look will often prove sufficient 
for a recent accumulation of particles, fot an accidental contraction^ 
or ibr a sudden distention ; wheteas those of long standing, and of a 
more serious: nature^ demand ftequent, long, and judiciously-varie4 

It hete becoities necesaal^ to reciall to the attention of the 
leader a circnmstalic^ to Vhich we before sDlitded. We mean, 
that men have hitherto not only been ignorant of the true uses 
iof their handS) particularly of their fingers, but that they 
really do not know their figure and ei^ent. Our fingers by 
no means finish at the point at which they are supposed to end: 
that, opinion is erroneous ; they are prolwged into < invisible 
finjgers,' which penetrate the pores of other peoples and are to 
be considered as the natural and only ingredients which are^ 
or can be, adapted to the removal of nervous or of any other 
^ Rbv. Jan. 1799* D afl'ectiot>8 


34 Pc I taw ^ iuh ji rV L^urui Pf^f 

Ificc&am of th^ hqAjf^ Tbx^— < b^ placiag tiMne mma)k &ti 
gers on the contracted and curled up nenrest and bf striping 
ifaiwn; or la jing tnibotk their irritated ine^ualitiest the spasms 
oi^coanibions disappear/ Can any process be more simple 
ud easy than thiaf-^To apply its use, now, in the case 
of stone in the bladder ;^a disease which it certainly i^ d^ 
slrable to know how to remedy. We learn that 

* The impicssions produced .by stone on the hands and fingeysof 
like ^Samper wfflbe ' " * 

. Heaviness^ indolcncc» and cold r . 
And litaifi mmresaions ^are uniformly the. same, over the entire eitMl 
«f the Aone» hiam centre to arcuomrence in every dir<;ptiofi. ^ • 

f But when we have passed the bouQcU of the stone^ iLhe impres-^ 
siotis immediately alter, because we no longer receive emanations 
from the stone y^ but from the parts which surround or contain It. 

* Suppose the stone to be situated in die urinary bbdder : wkea 
\ get- beyond the bounds of the stone, we receive gnanations bom 
?' bladder^ and the impressions must then be according to thf 

]kealtby or diteaseLd state of that viscus. 

' If the stone has not caused infiammatKon, or any morbid affeCf 
tion m the Uadder^ we must receive the imprcssioas of healths 
Which arc. 

An Equable, n 

Soft, I TT^^ 

Gentle, \^^ 
Natural, * 

* But if the nrritating surface of the stops has iodHeed 

Pus, or matter, . , 

Scirrhus,' or * . • 

Mortification ; 
the impressions must be such as thoic df^eiffnt st^i^ges ccmmimiicat^/ . 

The next practice is so remo?e the Itone : 

^ To remove the heap of sand, thus accumuhted into stone, it 
kmst be again reduced to sand, or to very .fine gravel. The connectr 
(ng bond, which, during health, had been one <u the natural hiomouEf 
w the body, must be again attenuated'by imxing its thick and gum^ 
my atoms with other more fluid ones of the same nature, and the 
^I^Ofi^ iimst tbea he>dv^cd into powdcrw 

< This operajLiOA <|Ilf faith a recoUcctiop Md an exertion of the 
sractjcal ndes, jyhicb I h^ve endeavour^^ to ^^\m ; and cofnpre^ 
Lends, by its ^omplejLxtjf, several of the different modes of action pf 

*^ In the fint place, the rules for examination must have b^p ju- 
diciously exerted to ascertain the situation and Srze of the stone, and 
to judge of the injiuies which the surrounding parts may have sus« 
eaioed from it. ' 

* In the second phee, pur invisibfe power mdst be applied to the 
jaisei which si^jdatt iit ihs tionity olxhc stont : they ouist be cotu. 


litiiaimaAaf^fLi^urift^ Part l ^ 

ducted to the stone and fmmedUtel]^ applied to it« 8QiiRice» so (hat 
4r stone must bp soaked in that fluid lor the purpose of dissolving 
die ^fn which sticks the particles of sand te each otfaer» 

< If thr h^nds ate tmployfA in this proves s» the mnd iptist con* 
oelvcy thMt th« streams of atoms which continually fush forth fro^a 
the fia|rers» are continued (Mf and lengthened out intpy long invisible 
fin^rs, which become continuations of our yisible pnes ; and whicl^p 
bemg composed of minute particles^ are perfcQtly adapted to past 
through the pores ot another form> and to be applied as we shoidd 
«Br vt^tble fingers to the very part on which it is intended to act. • 

• The third process is actfon, by striking those very emafiatinff 
partides that constitute that inviisibk part of our fonp, which it it 
intended to emjiloy, whether it he thje hand^ the eye, or any oth^ 
part. By striking them* I sav* forcibly» and in constant and rap\d 
auccession against the stone^ the particles of sand« which» by steep** 
ing, are rendered less tei^cious to each otber* detach* and falling 
again into dust»^ are taken up and washed out of the body by the nfi- 
tund evacnaiioiu' 

What shall we say^to this ? Was ever operation so ingenloas 
and so jriain? — So, iikewiaci in the cure of the rheumatic 
hcad*ache: ' 

• To cure this kind of head-ache, the*8calp» or covering of the 
skuUy must be vigoronsly treated outwards, by placing the invisible 
hand on ihe baj« uluU, under the scalp* and wim the back of tbe 
han^ upwards* forcing all the obstructed particles outwards through 
the poreS]^ and bursting open all t,hose which may be shut up*' 

Afaia, ia that speeier of ttead-ache wiuch arises from a dis* 
caae^ sliomaoh >^K& r em^ly this, 

• The internal cavity ^nd coat of the ^tomzfit mtJst be cleared •f 
sljme> the invisible ftng^irs must scfape, as^'t wt;re, all the internal 
iv!ffa(:e; and w^ must darc^uUy atteha to sucti evicufitions ^s nature 
may dictfitf . 

*. i( ^ ^rqng inclinatioji to ^fvAt shoul^ f^^^ ^> direct the stuff 
through the candia, or Ipft oriQce^ tlnrough ivhtc^ alimetjt parses into 
the stbtnach : but if a contrary evs^cuation^^hpuid^beiiK^cated, either 
by the ^pcrjtot *i impifcssions^ or by the ptitlent*s own fe^lin^s, it 
must be assi^ed and not counteracted. • , . 

• The tensations produced bj this ropy huilioirr in the stomachy art 

ATkiqk, GxafLmy; / ■ , . 

fcd on ^c.^figcrs ; fnd f hen they are gently n]OYpd* they njieet Mt^ta. 
^^ighl 4i?gfce of resist;^tK/c I if attempted to be hept, the skin feds 
StiC, an^ a little Rigid. 

• Tojudge of ^e dep'^h of the slimjr humour in*thc stomach* t%e 
;£i)gerB must he perpenoicularly dipped in it to the bottpm of t^sto« 
inach ; the consequence wQl be, the impression of ^ 

A Circular Line* 
as if a string aurrounded each Cn^eri marking the depth to wkiah - 
jifcry had «u^ in thf iUi£ ^ 

jj 4 ' * Fnwn 

3^ StuanV Gweahpeal Hist0y ^ the SMuaHK 

< From that line >downward8 to the finfipers'-^nds, they^&el * > 
Stiff and Rigid : 
"but above thcte bounds, the fingers and baud have their natural feel.^ 

• 80 in the ctirfc of vomitiftg— * the inyisiblc hand3 must be 
laid on the internal sftrface of the stomach, and the whole 
must be made smooth, stretching gcmfy out the little contrac- 
tions and turlings of the delicate nerves/ 

In this easy and expeditioas manner, are temoved atl those 
diseases which were once thought formidable ^^atKl here, sai4 
our autlioF, with an air of triumph surely justifiably, 

* We close the present ctirativc instructions ; in which yoti per- 
ceive that 'all received theories of disease are totally overturned ; 
symptoms, pulse, aftd all the deemed unerring rules are rejected, aiii 

* the entire voluminous materica medica rescued from the torture of 
alteration and improvement. We have, iu; short, established a per- 
friaheht- peace \vith the entfne animal, vegetable, and mineral kmg- 
<loms, and reduced the medical library to a very small compass. 

?'\ f.'Thrioc happy the n»u, who, his taijc acGomplished, shrfh-eceive 
the la^t Eternal Benediction, cease to emanate, and resigp, unat* 
mosphered, his useless house of particles.' 

An elegant .portrait of the deceased author is prefixed to thi9 
splendid and every way extraoidinary yoluraei; . */ . 

Art. ^^ Genealogical History of the Su^arts^ from the earliest Fc- 
2 fod of llieir authentic History to the present Times. Containing 
« particuto Account of the Origin and successive GcncratidDS of 
the Stuarts of Darnley, Lennox, and'Attbigny,-an4;of the StnarU 
of Castelmilk ^ with rroofs and References ; an Ajppendix of re- 
lative Papers;, and a Supplement, containing Copies, of varioiia 
Dispensations found in the Vatican at Rome, in the Course of a 
Search made by the Author Tn' the Year 1789; particularly Co- 
pies of two very ipteresting Dispensations which had long^ been 
sought for in vain^ relating to Robert the Stewart of Scotland, 

iKmg Robert II.)^ his much- contested Marriages with Elizabeth 
lore and, Euphemia Ross. To which is prefixed a. Genealogical 
Table relative to the History. By Andrew Stuart, Efq. M. P. 
i|to. pp. 468. iL losb Boards. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1798* 

THE days of chivalry are no move ! exclaimed Mr. Burke> 
in a tone of indignant despair. We trust, however, that 
the virtues of our. gaflant forefathers will never be forgotten nor 
extinguished among Britons. ' We trust that loyalty to pur 
\ king, courtesy Co the faii-, and courage to repel an invading foe, 
will never be wanting to the inhabitants of diis isle \ and that 
we shall see little cause for repining, though the fading gules 
'and ermines of heraldry shall have lost something di their 
brflliancy} nor if some portion of that respect, which was 

15 formerly 

SCnaitV Gefuabgifti/ Histoiy of tie Sti^umrtK 37 

SwmKrly momqxdised hj the greats be now chimed and eiH 
joyed by the wise, the good, and the humble. Yet the pride 

•f iilustrious descent is natural to the individuate who possess 
that advantage, and is of beneficial consequences to society in 
general. Does theie live a descendant of the brave Bayard^ 
who deserved and obtained the glorious title of f Cb^aliersans 
peur ^ sans reproche ?* and is he not valiant^ magnftnimous^' 
and humane ? Does \it not feel a more than common incite- 
ment to the perforniance of noble deeds i Is he, not withheld 
by an adamantine chain from the commission of any thing 
base, mean, or ignoble ? — To this theory, it may. be objected 
that distinction ought to be the reward of personal merit, or 
(in other words) of talents and virtue \ and that, by attaching 
it to a fortuitous and adventitious circumstance, — such as high 
birth,— we depreciate the reward really due to the former. 
fie this as it may, it is certain that the pride of ancestry pre- 
ceded, and may possibly survive, every trace of feudal insti- 
t^itions. It is easily recognized in the most despotic states of 
Asia, and is not less visible in th^ most anarchical republics of 
antient Europe. It is difficult tx) repress a smile when we per* 
ceive Caesar,«-*the destroyer of the Roman ariscociacy, the 
Bxiiform adulator of the populace,—- taking occasion to deduce 
his pedigree from* the antient kings on one hand,. and on the 
other ascending even to the summit of Olympus. < Amita 
JMM JuEa maUrnum genus ab rtgibus grtum^ pnternum cum diis 
mnwrtalibus conjunctum est. Nam ab Aneo Martio sunt Marcii 
reges, quo nomine fuit mater : i Venere Julii, ayus ges^is faniilia 
est nostra.^ Suetonius. 

It is almost superfluous to state that the elder branth of the 
House of Stuart descended from Robert the Stewart, fSenescailus 
yel Dapifer r/gi>,^— who ascended the throne of 'Scotland in 
1371, in right of his mother Margery, daughcer of King 
Robert 6ruce,<^was extinguished in the aiale line in the per- 
son of James V. It is scarcely move necessary to mention that 
the Cardinal York is the only male descendant, now alive, 
froiii James VI. of Scotland. . } It follows, therefore, that upon 
his death the representation in the male line of the Stuarts of 
Derneley and Lennox must devolve upon the perspn who shall . 
he able to prove himself descended from Sir William Stuart^ 
the next brother of Sir John Stuart of Derneley, the first Lord 
of Aubigny.' The competitors for this honor are the Earl of. 
Galloway, and Mr. Stuart of Torrance,' member for Weymouth, 
author of. the publication now before us. This, indeed, is noti 
the first work which has appeared on the subject. In 1794 was 
pintrd a " Slate of the evidence for proving th^. late Sir John 

. , D 3 Stuart 

Stuatt of Castelmilk to be dielinead heir mak ^sui ttfMfmti 
ative of Sir WiUiaoi Stuart of Castdmilk." On the part of di# 
Earl of Galloway^ there has been printed and circulated, abovi " 
two years ago, a paper inthled, «< A view of the evidence for 
fdoiring that the present Earl of Galloway is the lineal heit 
male and lawftd repfesenuttte of Sir William Stuart of Jed<» 
worthy 10 frequently mentioned in his^oiy from the year 1385 
to the year 1429/' In that publicatbni his Lordship con* 
tended that Jedworth and Cattelmilk were both possessions of 
the same Sir Wiliiara Stuart, who took his title indiscriminately 
from either ; i^nd that he was brother of Sir John Stuart of 
Derneley, folfowed him to France in the service of Charles VII. 
and was killed with him at the siege of Orleans in 1419. The 
planner of their death is thus related in a book intitled, *^jiu^ 
relUur^T Anglicans •bsidio^ &c, Autore Joanm Lodocio MiftuUo.*^ 
«< In that battle (des'Harrans) there fell on the side of the 
French above four hundred men ; among whom of more thair 
ordinary distiaction were Alebrct, Orval, William Stuart, Ver« 
duran, Chateaubrun, Rochechouart, John Cbabot, and above 
mil the truly heroic John Stuart, descended of a most iliustrioos 
Yace.-*-Thi$ gentleman coming to the relief of his. brother* who 
liad fallen into the hands of the enemy, extricated him from 
danger, and, though himself wounded, made a most gallant and 
persevering resistance ; till at length surrounded by the enemy,r 
and covered with wounds, he sunk to the ground. His bvo* 
ther, who had retired from the battle, observing at a distance 
what had passed, again flew to present himself to the eneiYVy# 
and was slain.'' 

Mr. Stuart of l^rahce, having succeeded to the estate and 
j>retension6 of the Castelmilk family, has puUohed this Oe^ 
jfealogical History with a view of asserting and elucidating his 
claim to be the representative of the House of Lennox^ accom- 
panied with all the^proofs which it reqmres or admitii. He . 
ifiairttains * that Sir William Stuart of Jedworth (the undis-* 
puted ancestor of Lord Galloway) had been taken prisoner by 
Hotspijgr Percy at the battle of Homildon, on the 14th Sep- 
tember 1402, and was soon thereaiccr, at his instigaticm, tiied, 
cbndemni^, and executed as guilty of high treason against the 
King of England, upon the pretence that he was a subject of 
that monarch, having in his early youth belonged to the county: 
of Teviotdale, while it was subject to the English crown.' Ifi 
Giedit be given to this fact, as related in the Scotko chronicon and 
by Winton, of his being put to death by Percy in 1403, it is: 
impossible that this Sir William Stuart could have attended his. 
brother to France in 149^^ or have fallen at the nege of 


Mnmirt tfthe Jdnhdeiter Sodety^ Vpt F. Part I 39 

CMdi^ hi 1429 s wtfiA particulars are applicable to SRr Wil- 
Earn Stuart of Castelmiik, the ancestor of Mr. Stuart.iip-It Hg 
not oar proYince iahtas catnponere Htesm- , 

Two centuries ago, the ancestors of these high-born chiefc 
tains would lurve decided these points by the points of their 
swords ; a thousand vassals would h^ve fought and have fallen 
in the cause \ and rivers of blood would have been shed. In tliese 
happy daysj proofs only are brought into riie field on such 
occaaons ; arguntent opposes argument ; ink only is shed ixi 
the contest ; and m:my people may think that ink might hav^ 
been much better employed, by a person of Mr. Stuart's ac- 
knowleged abilities and erudition. 

— ■ ■ — ■ ' I — 

Art. VI. Memoirt of the Littrary and PLihtoflkai Society ff Mont 

Chester, Vol. Vi rart I. 8vo. pp. 330. 6s, Boards. Cadell jun, 

andDaWes. 1798. 

f\UR readers will be able to form an opinion of the aggre-^ 
^^ gate merit of this volume, when we have presented to 
them a view of its various contents. We shall therefore pro^ 
ceed to notice each essay, classing them accordiiig to t^eir subr 
jects>' and commencing with the 

PaiLOSOPHrcAL and Chemical Papers^ isfc. 

Remarks oSi Dn Priestley s Experiments and Obseruathns re^ 
laiing to the Analysis of Atmospherical Air^ and his Considerations 
en tii, Doctrine of Phlogiston^ and the Decomposition of Water . 
By Theophilus Lewis Rupp. 

We have seldom seen a more perfect specimen of accurate 
chemical reasoning, than this essay affords : it is indeed a most 
complete and triumphant i^piy to the arguments addi^ced by 
Dr. Priestley against the system of Lavoisier } a system which,. 
by a singular fatality, is at present combated only by diat Phi- 
losopher, to whose splendid discovery of oxygen gas it is in- 
debted for its very existence. 

Dr. Priestley heated 140.5 grains of black bones in 23.75' 
ounce measures of atmospheric air, yrhicli were thus reduced 
to 20 ounce measures. He also heated 200 gxains of polished 
steel needles in 24 ounce measures of air, which were reduced 
to 19.5 ounce measures : an intense heat was purposely avoid- 
ed ; and when the experiment was made over lime water, a 
^ck crust was produced : — the bones rather lost weight ; the 
iron gained a little, though very inconsiderably. Therefore,. 
•ays Dr. P« since the air was diminished by heating these sub-, 
stances,, and they did not gain any weiglit in the process, the' 
phlogistiearion of air is not owing to ^he absorption of any^ 
part of it J and, during the calcinatioa of mQtals and cpmbus*^ 
noflj no oxygen is absorbcif.* 

P4 Ta 

. To thift.argumeiU;, Mr. Rupp replies that the ^irqiBOftaiicef* 
of the experiment) were such as to preclude the possibility of 
accuracy. Instead of that heterogeneous mixture which com- 
poses atmospheric air» oxygen gas should have been used : the 
experiments ought to have been made over mercury ini» 
stead of water: 200 grains of steel are capable of uniting 
with twenty times a greater quantity of oxygen than was coa« 
tained in the quantity of atmospheric air used : no decisive 
f:flFect could therefore be expected : no account was kept of the 
carbonic acid gas produced. In the first es^periment, chc 
<:arbon of the black bones united with the oxygen of the air» 
forming carbonic acid,— which accounts for the diminution of 
the air and the slight loss of weight inythe bones; and the 
excess of azote iu the residuum arises from the decomposition 
pf the ammonia contained in the bones. In the second ex- 
periment, carbonic acid was produced by the union of part of ^ 
the oxygen of the air employed, with the carbon of the steely 
and the slight increase of weight in the needles arose ftom the 
absorption of the remainder of the oxygen. 
^ Setting aside, however, these inaccurate and therefore in- 
conclusive experiments, we find, in Dr. Priestley's third vo- 
''ume of his experiment^ on air^ that ten ounce measures of 
• dcphlpg}sticate4 air (oxygen gas) being confined over mercury, ' 
and a quantity of iron turnings being introduced and fired by 
a lens j t,he air employed was reduced to cB of 2, measure, 
and by washing in lime-water to 0.38. The iron being after<r 
ward weighed, "I presently found (says he) that the dephiogisti^ 
caUd air had actually been imbibed by the iron** — <* Repeating the 
experiment very frequently, t always found that other quan-t 
tities of iron treated in the same manner gained similar addi- 
tions of weight, which was always very nearly that of the air 
which disappeared." The remaining iron was converted (to 
lise Dr. P.*§ own words) into a substance the same with Jincrj 

The conclusion frooi these experiments is obvious: but 
Dr. Priestley, reverting to his theory, declares in a note that 
It was not dephlogisticated air which was imbibed by the iron, 
but only the water, which he says is by for the greatest part of 
it :— .but what, then, is become of the air ? or, if six grains of 
water were absorbed in the first experiment, where arc the 
20 ounce measures of inflammable air which should havd beeq 
produced ? for. Dr. Priestley says that,, in passing it^am over 
red-hot iron, the iron imbibes tlie water, and emit3 its phlo^ 
giston in the shape of inflammable air. . . 

'With regard to the decomposition of as^otic gas, Mr.Rupp 
Ji^s repeated withcarc^j but withqrit success, Dr. l^riestlcy's 


- MmArt ^fihi Manchster Society^ FoL T. Part h 4% 

spcnmenlts pn this subject^ in wbich he confined rusted iroir 
and inflammable air over water and mercury. Similar' expe« 
riments with the oxyda of manganese and mercury wer(! equally 

To I>r. Priestley's considerations on the doctrine of phlogis^ 
ton and the decomposition of water, Mr. Rupp t^us replies :-^ 
According to the Phlogistians, a mecal is a compound substance 
consisting of a calx and phlogiston ; by parting with its phlo- 
giston, it becomes a calx ; and this calx is afterward reduced 
by acquiring phlogiston. Dr. P. therefore contradicts hi^ own 
theory, when he says, concerning the reduction by mere' heat 
of precipitate per u^ that the mercury was converted into calx 
^y the mere absorption of vital air, without parting with any 
pr very little of its phlogiston ; and if this calx retains nearly. 
the whole of its phlogiston, how does it happen tliat this sub- 
stance yields tlie purest oxygen gas of any of the metallic 
oxyds ? Again, this precipitate per se, if it differs from run* 
ning mercury only in the absorption of bxygen, sliould oa 
solution in nitric acid give our nitrous gas *, one of the com-> 
ponent parts of which, according to the Phlogistians, is phlo- • 
giston: but this* is not the fact. Running mercury, when 
dissolved in nitric acid, produces copious fumes of nitrous gas; 
f. e. parts with much phlogiston : but yet the red oxyd which 
remains is as easily reducible by simple heat as precipitate p^ 
4e: it therefore follows that mercury, whether it has a redun- 
dancy of phlogiston or a deficiency, will in all chemical pro* 
cesses exhibit the same phxnomena ! 

If steam be passed through iron heated red hot, a quantity' 
of hydrogen gas will make its appearance ; the iron will be 
reduced to the state of finery cinder; and the weight of the 
hydrogen, with the acquired weight of the. iron, wHl be equal, 
to that of the water employed. The Antiphlogistians explain 
this fact by saying that the water is decomposed ;— one of its 
component parts, the hydrogen, being set at liberty,— *and the 
other, pxygen, uniting with the iron, and thus forming black 
oxyd. Dr. P. denies the decomposition of water, and says 
that the hydrogen gas in this experiment is the phlogiston of* 
the iron, and that the water is imbibed by the iron. In proof 
of his assertion, he mentions the impossibility of reducing the 
iron to its metallic state, without the addition of some sub- 
stance supposed to contain phlogiston :— but, from a beautiful 
experiment of his own, quoted above, it appears that iron 
turnings, heated under mercury in oxygen gas, absorbed the 
oxygeo, and became converted into finery cinder. In reply, ' 
Pr. P. says that oxygen gas, and ^11 airs in general, consist 
g}mo>l wboUy of water | ^nd that in. fact it was only the 


41 MifMln\fth Manchester tocleiyy tot. F. JPWX 

mWri in a gnseous sta«e wfiidi viraft absorbed. Admiftitr^ 
thf|) the effects of ateam passed through hot irooi ariKi of iron ' 
Mated in dxygen fps, ought to be tiie same: but, in thii 
latter experimeht, what is become of the hydrogen or ph!o» 
gmoii chat appeared in the former ? either it is retained bj the 
'iron/while in the state of finery cinder }— or^ oxygen gasc6n* 
tains no water. 

An Anahfsis of the Waters ofttvo Mineral Springs at Lemingion 
Priors mar Wamvick \ iticluding Experiments tending to elucidate 
ihe Origin ef^the Muriatic Acid* By William Lambe, M. A, 
Kite Fcll6w of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

It is impossible to do justice to this very ingenious and in* 
teresdng paper by a brief abstract : the mere quotation of it$ 
title, we doubt not, will induce all who are fond of chemicat 
investigations to give it a very attentive perusal. We shalT^ 
however, just mention that the memoir contains three new 
and very important facts ; first ; the existence, in these mi- 
neral waters, of a triple salt consisting of the oxymuriates of 
iron and manganese \ secondly, the property possessed by this 
salt of enabling water to hold in solution a large portion of 
sulphate of lime ; and thirdly, the similarity (or rather the 
identity) of the solutions of iron and manganese in water 
satiirated with sulphurated hydrogen, with solutions of the 
5ame metaU in oxy muriatic acid. 

Experiments and Observations on the Preparation^ and some 
' ^remarkable Properties of the Oxygenated Muriate of Potash. By 
Ifht. Thomas Hoyle, jun. 

. This paper contains a variety of interesting experiments^ on 
the detonation and inflammation produced by the mixture of 
pxymuriate of potash with various inflammable substances. 
The smell' of nitrous gas, produced on the decomposition of 
this salt by sulohuric acid, will doubtless occasion a series of 
accurate investigations, fqr the purpose of ascertriining .the 
. cause of so extraordinary a circumstance. 

Experiments and Obsei'vations on Fermentation^ and the Distil'* 
Iktion ef ardent Spirit. By Joseph Collier. 

The results of these experiments are of very pons^derhlile' 
^luC) both to the chemical philosopher and the manufactitter* 
Th^ three grand points on which they bear, are, i. Th&re«: 
Il^ve value of artificial ferments, a. Whether the fermem- 
s^ion ought to be carried on in open or close vessels i 3. The 
eff^tg of diflferent factitious aire on fermenting iiqadrs. 

I. Solutions of saccharine matter iitty> be brought to a state* 
of fermentation without the assistance of artificial ferments^ 
but the cffiKt is sooner brouglit about when they ar« oaed ^ 


i^fmoits rfili MnnchidMr Society^ Vol. T. Part t 4) 

w^ «f sU the artificial fermentSy yeast is that which ptdducts 
the greatest quantity of spirit. 

II. Boeihaaye and Chaptal have mentioned the free admis« 
fton of air as essentially necess^ to fermentation, and it is aii 
opinion, Tety generally entertmed by the manufacturers: hm 
mr. Collier has demonstrated that fermentation is not only ca« 
pabie of being carried on in close vessels, but that the produce 
of alcohol on distillation is considerably superior when the fer* 
mentation has been so conducted.. 

HI. Different fermenting mixtures were exposed to*an at« 
mosphere of oxygen^ of hydrogen, and of a mixture of the 
two : that which had been exposed to oxygen gas yielded the 
purest spirit, but even this was not equal to what would have 
been produced if air had been wholly excluded* 

The paper concludes with some valuable practical remarki 
on making, mashing, fermentinjg, distilling, and rectifying. 

Obserwrtions m Ircn and Steel, By Joseph Collier. 

Kir. C* here gives an account of the reduction of iron, and o£ 
Its conversioo into bar-iron and steel, as practised at the Shef- 
Seld forges ; and he corrects some errors on this subject, com* 
mitted by Fourcroy in his Elements of Chemistiy, and by 
Nicholson in his Chemical Dictionary, relative to the time ne-* 
cessary for the cementation of iron, and the mode of tempering 

A section and plan of a cementationTfuroace accompany 
the memoir. 

On ibe Process of JBleacMng mth the Oxygenaied Muriafb 
Acid; and a Description of a tienv Apparatus for Bleaching Ckthi 
ntnih that Acid dissolved in Water ^ vfitbout the Addition ofAlcaK* 
By Theophilus Lewis Rupp. 

The importance of this memoir to the manufacturer ii 
hardly to be calculated. At the period of the first introductioh* 
of the pew mode of bleaching, it was found impossiUe, oti 
atocouAt of the suffocating va{5ours of the oxymuriatic acid, to 
tmke use of it irx open vessels ; and the method of applying it 
in a closed apparatus was found to be so impctfect, as to re*' 
duce the bleachers to the necessity of combining the acid witb* 
potash, and employing it in open vats i by this mode, a great 
expence of alcali was incurred, vtd the liquor, when thus neu^' 
tradized, lost much of its activity. The present memoir (ac-. 
oompaoied with a plate) describes a very simple and efiectaai- 
s^paratut for the use of the acid in close vessels, and unc-pm-. 
teted with alcali ; by v^ich is effected a saving of ^6 per cent, 
ill tlie costof the materials of Ae bleaching liquor. 


44 Memirs^the Manchtster Society, Vol. K Par^I* 

£ktrfl$rdiitary FucU rtloiing . to the Viskn of Colourj : toUJk 
Observations. By Mr. John Ualton. 

, This niemoir offers matter, of curious inquirjr to the phv* 
^oiogist. It was long ago observed that no definition cou]4 dc 
tJ^Mcn of redness, blueness, &c. — that these terms were arbi^ 
trary, yet exciting the ideas of certain impressions which arc 
probribly different in different persons. Whether tlic impres- 
sions of the same objects be different, or not, is of little con- 
sequence y we reason and converse intelligibly concerning tbemt 
if these two circumstances only have place, — first, the same 
object uniformly making the same impression on each mind^ 
and objects that are different to one appearing equally so to 
pthers:— but if a case were to occur, in which two objects 
that are hardly distinguishable to one person should appear 
(liffcrent to another, we should be induced to think that the 
one ox the other of these two persons had a defect in his ou 
gans of sight,-r-at least some peculiarity. 

The author of the present memoir, previously to his ^pn- 
viction of the peculiarity of his own vision, suspected some 
perplexity in the nomenclature of colours! He co'ald not com- 
prehend why red should be substituted for pink. Pink and 
blue appeared to him nearly allied, pink and red scarcely at all. 
In the autumn of 1 792, however, he was convinced that his vision 
.was not like that of the generality of men, by viewing the flower 
of the Qeratiium Zonale by candle-light. The flower is said to be 
pink : but to the author it appeared by day sky blue, and b^ 
candle-light a red ; a colour which to him forms a strong con- 
tract to blue. fi.emarking this phaenomenoQ to bis friends, 
they likewise observed the flower, but all agreed (excepting hi^ 
broiher) that its colour in cajodle-light did not differ matertall/ 
from its colour in day-light. Having thus ascertained a pecu^^ 
liarity in his own visioix, he did not enter into any investigation 
of the subject until two years afterward ; and the following arc 
the particulars and the result of this investigation : 

< It may be proper to observe, that I am short-sighted. Concava 
glasses about five inches focus suit me best. I can see dis^ine^y at a 
proper distance ; and an^ seldom hurt by too much or too little Ught \ 
nor yet with lonff application. 

* My observations began with the solar sfettrum^ or coloured image 
of the sun, cxihibited in a dark room by means of a glass prism. I " 
found that persons tn 'general distiriguish six kinds of colour in the' 
solar ima^c ; namely, red^ orange ^ yeHoku^ green^ hiue^ and purple., 
Nc\\'ton, indeed, divides "the purple into Indigo and miolel ; but the 
difference between him and others is merely nominal. To me it is 
cjuite othcnX-ise :•— I see only tvio^ or at mo^t thm distinctions. These 
I should call yellow an4 ^ Vj or yellow f hlue^ and purple* My yellow 
comprehends the red^ orange^ yellotUf and green of others ; and my 
6Iuc znipurpk coincide with theirs. That part of the image which 


JUimhrs of th€ Manehestir Spctitj^ VoLV.PartL 4f 

wthenf cafi red, appears to me lictk more than a ahadei or defect of 
light ; after that the orange^ yellow, and green flcem one colouf^ which 
descends pretty uniformly from an intense to a r^^e ytllowy making 
what I should call different shades of yellow. The difference between 
the green part and the blue part la very striking to my eye : they 
seem to be strongly contrasted. That between the blue and purple 
is much less so. The purole appears to be blue much darkened and 
condensed. In viewing the flame of a candle by night through the 
prism, the appearances are pretty much the same, except that the 
red extremity of the image appears more vivid than that of th^ 
tohr image. 

* I now proceed to state the results of my observations on the co* 
lours of bodies in general, whether natural or artificial, both by 
day-light and candle-light. 1 mostly used ribbons for the artificial 

•RED. {By day^nghf.) 
* * Under this head I include crimson^ scarfei^ redy and plnl. All 
crimsons appear to me to consist chiefly of dark blue ; but marry of 
\hem seem to have a strong tinge of dark broTvn. I have seen spcci- 
Biens of erotuofif claret^ and rmidy which 'were very nearly alike. 
Cximson has z grave appearance, being the revex^e of every shewy 
atid splendid colour. Woollen yam died crimson or dark blue is the 
«amc to me.* Pintwtnis to be composed of nine; parts of light bluel 
and one of redi or "some .colour which has- no- other effect than to 
ii)ake .the light blue appear dull and faded a little. Pink and 
light blue, therefore, compared together, * are to be distinguished 
no otherwise than 'as 'a splendid colour from one that has lost a 
Kttle of its splendour. Besides the pinks, roses, &c. of the-gaf^ 
dens, the following -British Jlora appear to me blue ; namely, Statice 
Ahneriaf 7rifoiium frattnie^ Lychnis Fhs^cuculi, Lyehnii dioUa\ ^nd 
ffitny of the Geranla. The colour of a florid complexion appeaii 
to me that of a dull, opaque^ blackish blue, ujpon a white ground: 
A solution of sulphate of iron in the tincture ofgalls (that is, diiu«e 
Uaek ink) upon white paper, gives a colour much resembling dhat 
of a florid complexion. • It has no resemblance of the colour of 
blood. Red znaecariet form a genus with me totally different firoA 
pink. My idea of red I Obtain from verfnUhn^ ihhtum^ sealing waxf 
mf^rgj a soldier*/ uniform^ &c« These setfmto haVe no blu^ what- 
ever in them. Scarkt hte a more splendjd appearance than , tc^ 
Blood appears to- me red ; but it differs miich from ^the articles 
mentioned above. It. is much more dml, and to me is not vnlike 
that ccdour called hottle-rreen, . Stockings spotted with blood or wi^b 
dirt would scarcely be distinguishable.' 

* RED. \By .eandMjgk,) 
. ' f Red and scarlet appear much more vivid than by day. Xrimson 
loses its bluie and. bc^ornes yellowish red. . Pink is by far *tbe most 
changed ; indeed it forms an excellent contrast to what it is by day. 
No bltte now appears ; yefiow ha$ taken Its'place. Knk by candle- 
light seems to be thre^ parts 'vellow and one red, or a reddish 
TeQoifir. The blue, hpwever,* is less mised by day than the' yellow 
bf night* Rcdt ao^ jf^irtictthrlf scarlet, is. a toperb, cqlaor .by «andk- 

light J 

^ ' Mtfmts ^ihe Mancheder Society, Fil. F. Part'!. 

Sglit ; But by day some reds t^ tlic least sfiewy imiiginable : I ^oiil^ 
call tibem dark drabs. 

•ORANGE & YELLOW. {By Jay-Bghi and candFe-Rgbt.) 

• I do not find tliat I differ materially from other persons in re- 
gard to these colours. I have sometimes seen persons hesitate whe* 
Sier a thing was white or yellow by candle-light» when to me there ^ 
%^s po doubt ^ all. 

*GRE3E;N. {BydarSght.) 

• I take my standard idea from grass. This appears to me ^r^ 
Kttle different from red. The &ce of a laureUeaf (Ptiauu Liatarpr 
$$raius) is a good match to a stick of re^ seaUng-w^x $ s^nd t^e tiiick 
«f the leaf answers to the lighter red of wafers. HenCe it will be 
immediately concluded^ that I see either red or green, or both* dif- 
ferent from other people. The fact is, I believe that they botli ap. . 
pear different to me from what they do to others. Green and orange 
bave much affinity also* Apple greeo is the n^ost pleasing kind to 
^e •f and any other that has a tinge of yellow appears to a4vantage, 

I can distinguish the diffeoent vegetable greens one from ai\other as 
3^1 fis most people { and ^ose which are nearly ^like or very, uirfikc 
to others are so to me. A deqoction of bolue^ tea, a aolutioa oT 
liver of sulphur, . file, &c £cc. which others caU brown, appear U^ 
tocgrcca. ^reen woollen cloth, such as is u^ed to cover tab^ 
appears to r]a^ a dujl, dark, brownish red colour. A mixture iof two 
parts mi)d and one red would coipe near it. It resembles a red som 
just turned aip by tl}e plough* Wlien this Und of doth losef it^ 
colour, as Qther peopl^e say, and turns yellow, then it appearl tQ mHpi 
A pleaia^it green. Very light green paper, silk, &c. is white .to mew 

♦C»J;EN. {B/^mdk^gii.) 
. < ][ agree with Others, t)mt it is diifici^lt tq distmguish gre^M fipgpc^ 
Jblttes by candle4]f bt ; but, witli me, the gttt\\$ opiy ar^ 9ltere4 m4 
juade to approach the blues* It- 10 the repl gjleens oidy. thi^ are 
gktx$ii in my eye $ and pot ^wix as I cpn£i>und with than by dsigr* 
Ji^t^ as the brown liquids above-mwtiQDed, which ate not M alt 
JUn|^ with blue by aandle-tightt but ai^ the S4me a^ by day^.c^c^ 
ilbit diey are paler. 

'«BLU£. {By dtyJglt oftd MuBe^igh.) 

' I apprehend this colour aopears very oearlr the same to me $»4iir 
«lhe/ people^ both by day-ligtit and candle^li|pU 

< PUlt.PX.E. {By day^n^t and .ca^dUJigh^ 

< l^his seems to me a sh^ht modification of Uue. I seldom fafl 
to distinguish purple from blue ; but should hardly suspect purple 
to be a compound of blue and red. The difference between day- 
light and candle-Ugbt is not material,'* 

Mr. Dalton then proceeds to make spne jniscdlaneous^l^ 
tcTTation«» and tt9 give an .account of several periom whose 
irision U similar to hi^ owu, The$e persona are, his own broh 
ther, Wn Harris of Mary port ia (^umberlandf (iDsho 1^4 fbr^ 
jither bnthtfs yfVti t)i9 mmt pecaUttUy 19 tWf vin^n,) two of 
tht iiiz#NrV.pttpUS|L ifce; .JsieadcaffQttna^tQjgfeignU^ 

iHmtifs if the Mfuuiemr SbcUfy^ FcJ.~ K Pa$it M 

•f iSbk peculiarity in 4ii^ vision) tke author ccotfecteres tkaft ppi^ 
of die humours of his^eye ' must be a traqapaBeat, but 4^ 
-hmstdj medium, so constituted as to absorb red an^i green tafrf 
jMrini;if>a&y. He suspects chat it is the vitreous humour whi» 
ts colouti^, and that the colour is some modification of blue.—r 
Those who have attended to the theory of colours wtU easily' 
perceive how far this hypothesis can account for the phxno^ 
nena above related. It requires more time and observation 
than we are at present able to bestow on the subject, to pror 
oounce decisively whether the hypothesis is cpmpetent to ex- 
plain fully' all the pfaaenomena. A very simple mode, whick 
now suggests itself to our mind» of ascertaining in some degree 
the justness of the hypothesis, is in the use of coloured 
glasses ; the author trying what coloiired glasses would pror 
dace the same difierence in his own vitton which his friendf 
experienced in theirs, a|id his friends trying what cobured 
^lasies pioducej the «ame phenomena which he constantly 

Tie inverse MetboJ qf Central Forces. Communicated hy Df, 

This memoir is presented in addition to one that appeared in 
the fourth volume of these Transactions. Its nature, and the 
circumstance of ttsheibg separated from the former memoir, 
vith which it is connected both by the notation of its pcopo* 
sitioos aad the method of their proof, prevent us from entering 
into aov examination of its matter. We shall only observe 
that die inference concerning the arrival of a body at an Apse 
(p. 103} appears to us to he injudicious. If a force, for ini- 

stance, varies as -^ j (y distance, ji and B certain -con* 

ftant quantities,) then a body acted on by this force, and pro« 
jected with a certain velocity, &c, may describe a curve of suc^ 
a nature, that the ppiqts of its inflexion and of its apsides shall 
coincide. In this case, the line drav^^n from the centre woul^ 
be pei^endicular to a part of the curve, where tlie curvatur^ 
is infinitely small. 

Miscellaneous Papers, . 

Cttrswrj Remnrisj Moral and Political, on Party PrejudieK 
By Samuel Argent Bardsley, M. D. 

A very faithful picture of the lamentable ills which flow from, 
party prdudice is here drawn ; and they are shewn to be— • 
perverted judgment in the plainest cases, the peace of indivtt* 
duals invaded, the tender chanties of blood and kindred di$* 
solved; and, in its efl'ects of higher concernment, the blood, 
•f citizens spilt, public order interrupted, and the very foundji* 
3 tions 

^S Mm^rs <fit>t Manchester Sadiij^ TqL V. Part t 

ttons 6{ citU society endangered. By the strikmg instiuM 
of Milton sind Johnson, we learn that ho powers of mind can 
ensure ejpcmption from its tyranny.— With the learned author 
of this paper^ we sincerely deplore these baleful eStcts^ znA 
detest their cause ; and we would fain indulge the hope .that the 
irepresentatton of them may induce men to eradicate the passioR 
which gives them birth and vigour t-r-but we feai* that the 
effect of these representations is neither powerful nor per^ 
mapent. Men are to be reformed by different means ; all join 
in reprobating party prejudice, yet almost all act under its 
controuK We are in this respect like the philosopher in Mo* 
liere's Bourgeois Getrtiihommej who is one minute quarrelling 
and fighting,— and the next, adjusting his bands and commencing 
« lecture on the virtues of forbearance and equanimity. 

The Doctor very justly observes that a sure test of the rco» 
titude and pure intentions of any party is the conduct of ks - 
leaders, towards the moderate and peaceable class ofcitii^eos* 
If we attend to the truths of history, this class, instead o£ 
Jbeing deemed pusillanimpus, should appear most courageous ; 
for to be drawn between Rome and Fidenae, has been uni- 
formlv the fate of those who have been moderate^ whether 
from mterest or principle. 

► An Enquiry int$ the Name, of the Founder of Huln Abhey^ 
Northumberland^ the Firfl in England of the Order of Carmelites^ 
^oitb Remarks on Dr. Eerriar'^ Account of the Monument in the 
Church of that Monajlery. By Robert Uvcdale, B. A. &e. &c. 
As this paper can interest only those who will be desirous of 
entering into all the particulars of it, we shall not attempt to 
analyse its contents. 

On the Variety of Voices* By Mr. John Gough. , 
The infinite variety of voices, by which men arc recognized^' 
as certainly as by the difierence of their features, cannot, in 
this writer's opinion, be explained on the commonly received 
notion of the nature of sound, as given in definitions. This 
will allow of no other modifications than those of comparative 
loudness and acuteness, which by no means account for the 
effect in question. He attributes it, then, to a combination 
jof simple or elementary sounds differing from each othet in 
acuteness, and separated by intervals too small to be accurately 
discriminated by the ear, yet sufficiently large to affect it with 
distinct sensations.— He next considers the mechanism of 
sonorous bodies, by which the combination of elementary 
sounds is formed ; and this he states to depend on the prin» 
ciple that, if a vibratory motion be imparted to one of a 
system of elastic bodiesi it is communicated !n a less degree to 


Memcirs ^th'i Maffcitrt^ Shciiff, F$l. V. Part I. ^9 

-^ifttY bocljr of the system whose thfie of vlbrafirig dgr^ft nearly 
/with that of the body first set in mondn.- The Voc^l orgatt9 
i>f men and beasts are systems df thid klrtd; atfd) possessing 
somberless slight variatibns iti the elasticity and tension of thbir 
simikiT pattSy tfieir joint beats or pulses s(fe capable of btin^ 
dHTdT'sified to an tinKmited degfte. • : - ' ' 

On the Benefits and BiltiiS resuhihg froM the InsiltfdHoft of 
Soaeths for the Advancement of Literature and Piilojopij. By 
the Rev. Thomas GisbOrne, A M.- 

Like the other delinedtidns of sdi^al duties given to the 
public by this popular writer, the present discbiitsie coiitaini 
Amch go6d sense, eipresseii in polished language*. 'Yet, |>er- 
haps, considering the age, character^ and specific vie^s of pl(r« 
sons entering into literary societies, little sittention is to be 
expected from them to tne oIkious and geheral rdnlilrks of t 
professed moralist, respecting \be ends of tbelf ' instttutkHf. 
Probably, mo^t readers of this voltime ^Hl idee'nk this pap«#^ 
however proper to be read at an artniversary meeting of tbt 
society, somewhat ^Displaced among the'collectim of its scklf^ 
tific bbours. . 

On an Universal Character i in a Letter from James Ander- 
son, LL.D. &c. &c.' 

This is a slight sketch of a design, the difiicillty of which, 
does not consist in the general idea, which has already been 
conceived by many lAgenioos men, but in xWt adJu^tHieiit of 
psrtkrulars, and still Tnore Inthe power of brin|ing it to actual 
execntion ; a power exceeding •tlbt'Only that '(» a Idfsirfied iiidi« 
vidua!, but probably of an union of all the learning and civil 
authority of an age. 

jtn Account of three different KtHds ofTtmier Trees ^ ivhUh are 
likely to prove a great Acquisition to this Kingdom^ both in point of 
Profit^ and as ^rees for Orriameht and Shade. By Charlea 
White, £fq.?.R.S. ..',■'■ . • 

The trees here proposed to the planter,* fforti the actual ob- 
S^rvatidQ of their growth in ihk plantations' of the ingenious and 
public-spirited writer, are, 1. The 'broad-lftaved American 
black birch, Bttula nigra^ Linn, sp. pi. 1 394. S./oliis rhombeo^ 
ivatisy duplicato-serraiis^ dcutis^ sulius puhescentibus^ bast interns:^ 
ttrobilorum sqiiamis villosts ; laciniis linearibus, aqualibus, Hort^ 
Kevs^ns. 2«f The Athenian poplar tree j populus {Graca) folni 
tordatis^ glabris^ bast gtanduUsis^ remote ctrTnatis : petiolis compreS", 
its f ramis teretibus, -3. The iron, .wailiscoat, or Turkey oakj^ 
which appears to be d variety of the ^iercus Cerris^ Linnl 
The details given by Mr. White respecting these trees will b^ 
interesting to those who arc concerned in similar inquiriea. 

&£v« Jan. 1799. E fiom 

The writer be^iaa tksi shevt pvper with an cnumenitimi. of 
iih^ffs fi?e ^Mpies of cottony of which the Iaet» the GMjfiufit 
itrlfdceiimMt €^. amhuim, bthe kind m queetioa. Thi^ is called 
\>j Linne a natiye of America^ aad it nay bow be 00 reckoaed: 
4bat Dr. Guthrie adduces reasons for supposing diat its seed 
Was originally procured from Si»yma for tne use of the Amers- 
ian colonies. It is now cultivated in the northern provincea 
efPcrsia^ bordering the Caspian sea; and a brief accoiuK of 
the mo4e of culture is here given. 

Hmitw iii BstMshfimit ^ tm UiAvirsd WritUn CbaraOm 
By W iUiam Brvwn, M. D. 

l^iis paper isj founded on that of Ik. Anderson already no^ 
tioed« It cofltaios man^r ii^enious remarks on the ^p^iearioa 
i^ sig«8 10 biignagey which are intended to shew the possibility 
«f rendering visible signs universally mtelligible : but we co»- 
Ms that ^fenlties a^^ear to us to arise fasut) oa a dose ^cw 
nf the siil^eQtt than ingenuity can remove thenu 

Accwni of a remarloBk Change of Colour in a N^grne. By 
IITiers Fisher. 

We here nieet with a curious narration, which is incapable 
0f ad^dgmenWiieiative to an American-boin negroCi of African 
4«Mfeiil» bvt with aimixture of blood in his pedigree/ from the 
America^ Indian^ and froni the European. No reason can b^ 
iMsigaed Ssr his cbapige €»f colour., which has already blanched 
die gtoMestpart of his ftioj and is in a state of progfess. 

Art. VII. The HiOory oJEnglandy from the eariieot Dawn of Record 
tothc Pcsccof 178%. By Charles C«otc, LL.D. of Pembroke 
Cblle^ Oxford ; Author of Elements of the Grammar of the 
£nglnh Language. 8yo. ^Vob. 2I. l8s. I9d. Boards. Evans* 

ijMrTHEN we call to mind the various writers who, with dif- 
y V ferem views and with different success, have undertaken, 
to give a history oi this country, and recollect the names of 
Kap&ft Giikhrie, Ralph, Macaulay, Henry, Hume, &c. who 
iiave s3l employed their aespective talents in the same pursuitj 
we naturally inquire with what hew lights a succeeding authw 
expects to illustrate a subject which has been so often dis- 
cussed. Dr.Goote appears to have expected the question \ and^ 
in a short criticism in his preface on our numerous historians^ 
iie has acquainted his readers with the reasons which led him 
to the pitscfit atten^f and has informed them what they will 
^d imhe course or his labours.. 

* lagptikdbv the love of fame» by news •f pecuniary emolument^ 

%x by motiVts or a more disinUrcslca natvrc, many writers havcp at 

la -^ifwtec 

4:flMit times; U6li«re4 th^msdvts into pi^c naXicCa U tiarrators of 
Mie irrarkabk eventy of Eogkod. Froq:i vxne q( Uiose liigtoriati^, 
it woQld be i«vidio<is and unjust to v^hhhold the txi^te of admiration 
8Qid af^«fle; but a short critique qii the productions cf tUe most 
modern of tbese writers will constitute, perhapa> tlie most 83ti<.fact,ory 
apolog7 f'w ^^ appearance of a nen^ wgrfc on the same wbject. 

< Httme» as an faifftoriaQ» has long enjojed an ottr^ordmary shai^ 
of ^ulsbrity ; and bis performance seems to ht .coneldeted, by t!i(^ 
insijomy of readers^ as the best account of the fS^ir^ of this nation. 
His aburttes were periiaps compet«it to the pit)4uctioQ of an hitf- 
tory which miffht haVe tav surpassed all the effi;>rt9 of hi^ British pr#«i 
dccessora } and, if his talents had been exerted with a UiH regard to 
•Rwlst a»d iflPipiutlalityt and with the aoie view of etlubiting i fate 
aad ac^wate deUneatioA pf the transactions of former ^daysj uis his« 
twk ftam wouU have rested omwoxe ttolid l^ais than xh^ WhicU 
now sapporU it* The spint of philosopliy which apJmates his worl^ 
gifcs ft a maaifeft superiority orer moft of the English histories bj 
whieh It was preceded. His i^tyle is eles;ant> withoyt affectatiosi t 
and nenroust without'an ap]>earancf of la1?or. His argi^mcots in de- 
fence of a faTorite h^jrpothesi? possess all the acUteaess of idphistrj^ 
thangh their force is disarmed by the ajmlication of sonnd \6gui^ 
aod the adduction of undistorted ^M^ts, Under the prete;tt ^f f^^ 
posing the deiusfons of fanattcismt the wetness of bigotm ^nct th^ 
arts of selfish and desiigning ecclesiastics^ he indirectly en4<^Toiiri to 
s^ the fisbric of reh'gioa itself, an4 undernune the dearest inteitstf a£ 
aodcty. His politic^ prindples are adverse to the daims of freedom t 
nod, under the cloak of impartial discussion, he vilifies the exeitioqp 
•ftbyiatinot, and depresses the geoerouffflme of lifa^ . ^ 

* The reputation of Rapin is nom in the wane. The i:t)idtlp1|kitT 
«f hia errorst his vant of animttio#« and his injudicions dse of hi^ 
wwtmals, have occasioned the dcctine of that eminenofc whidi hi^ 
: enjoyed, aad whtdi prodnced an unprecedented sale of his t6« 

\ worlu ^ His gennal impartiality was the original datise at 
eas of has history $ but that quality is not po donspii^uqijil f^ 
this author as hia adTocates pretend ; nor, on the other. hand^ is fajp 
pcrfbintaaiiQt an defective in this respect aa some Uter historians hav^ 

* Thou^ Carte is supposed to have employed otore t]me nod 
Jabor on his history than any nteceding ot sut«equent wnteri bit 
aacoeaa did not correspond Witn his hopes. The nfdi-known pro^ 
Indices entertained by him precluded the obvious requisite v^cb 
anch a worit demaadai and tne pubUc o^mld not h^ expected to che- 
Ash a nety hsgh opmion of the sagacity or. penetrauon of that au« 
shor, who» in an enltghiened age, poqld deeisively attrinute ibt am^i* 
fpnary cttre of the urofuia by the ray4 to^ch« to a sanaMre virtye 
eiiofcsi fd by Heasea on anointed s^vtfrei^nty^ Cane^ howcy9> 
where his prcpQaaeaaioos .do not intefvjpoe, is si faithful ^4 fic^r^r^^ 
'Mvitflr I but he aaidy ^liaplaye any pofts^n ^ the fgmM nr the i^frgf 
4f ccnnposttion. 

« Guthri6 was a gdid ^hMsled ^ch^brf Hiui ^ ingcnto^s agtJhor. 
HiafaiBtorf 9! £a|Skmd i| nn i^teaigt^ wrl^i hnt jt jippeai^ t^ ' 

E a Jbvc 

^2 Goote^/ History of ' England,^ 

Rave been written \frJth toa great rapidity and too little attention o? 
the ntind. His remarks too frequently di&gust by the vanity wkb 
which they are ofFered,' or merit censure by the want of a delibei^te 
examination of that point on which he confidently pronounces hi» 

V The charge of iiasteand inaccuracy, which the present critic 
has ventured to fix oh Guthrie, is more justly imputable to his coun- 
tryman Smollett, asthchistorr compiled by the latter is solely bor- 
rowed from modern writers, whose misrepresentations he has copied, 
and whose errors he has multiplied. A comparison of his work with 
the historical labors of Rapin, Carte, and Guthrie, will perhaps con- 
vince the examinant, that ne did not consult one of the original air- 
thors whom he has quoted in hn niargin. Bnt his defects m sn hi»^ 
torian afe in some measure palliated by that nervous elegance which 
often appeart in his diction, and that judgment which prevents him 
from dwelling on occurrences of inferior moment. 

*. Goldsmrth wrote with spirit and ability ; but his history of this 
kingdom is a mere if^i/©jw^,'anil is calculated rather for the amusement 
of art idle hour, than for 'th.c improvement of those who aspire to a 
competent knowledge of English affairs. 

* * Henry is an accurate, and judicious author; bjit his pkn is too 
detached and disjointed to please 4he general reader; and that'di«- 
vision of his work which comprehends the civil and military history 
of Great Britain, is too concise to be satisfactory. 

* Whether these strictiires are so well founded as to furnish an uo* 
^disputed reason for the ^rbductiojf of a new history of the English 
natio^, the public must oTtimately determine. But the author, who 
now comes fbrw^ard, begs Itave to etpress his hopes, that a new work 
on this popular subject, cpm prised 'within moderate limits, and tin. 
"tinctured with the rancor of party or the bias of prejudice, will be 
honored with the patronage othis countrymen, 
y iri that performance to which the publio' attention is now re^ 
quested, the narrative will commence from the earliest period of an« 
"Uienticity, and be continued to the year; 1783 ; a niemond>ie epoch 
*in oiir Annals, distingiiisTied by a* peace wluch separated a wide extent 
of colbhial possessions in North America from the- govaenuncnt of the 
parent state. The author will not only record every poLtical event . 
of inTportance, but will Interweave uuch transactions of a more private 
natitre as may tend to the elucidation of the subject. Ht will avail 
himself of those' new lights which have been lately thrown on difierent 
periods of our hlstor)-, from original papers and records. He will 
exhibit a faithful portrait of the virtues and vices of the respective 
monarchs who hate swaytd the sceptre of this kingc'om, frfee from 
the warm coloring of adulation, and the invidious strokes ^of pre- 
judice and misconi^eption. He will endeavour to explore the motives 
that have led to interesting measures, however disguised by osteiv- 
iiile pretexts. He will trace the origin of our constitution, both 
civil and ecclcfiiastieal ; the progress otscience, $md of the liberal and 
mechanical arts ; the occasional variations in the customs, maiinet% 
pursuits; &c. of the successive inhabitants of this country. By way 
of Appendix to each volume^ he will -tfUbjom such impoitaot docu** 

- • mcnts 

,G)ptcV History of England. 53 

inciit& as. may illustrate the context, or tend to the gratification of 
bistoncal cunosity ; for instance, cinuous state-papers, the mo^ re- 
markable of the royal wills, specimens of langruaj;e, ficc With ri- 
«>ect to his style, he will avoid that affectation ot profuse oriuune]lt» 
loose meretricious embellishments of speech, which are better adapted 
to the florid page of the rhetorician, than ^o the graceful and manly 
dijrnity of the historian ; and will aim at preservinc^ that chaste sim* 
plicity and nervous perspicuity of diction, which the most esteemed 
critics in all ages have recommended as the most proper for historic 

lo a preliminary discourse^ the author gives the most prok* 
bable account of the origin of the primitive inhabitants of Bri<* 
tain^ a view of the persons, dress, manners, and characters of 
the people, as they appeared at the time of Csessr*s invasion, and 
a sketch of their government, religion, commerce, and civil 
and military institutions. This account is very concise, per«- 
haps too much so, considering the variety and importance of 
the sobjects discussed in it : but, though the statement is not 
complete, we have discovered no instances of its being crro* 
oeous. Dr. Coote has not passed over the period in which 
the Romans were settled in this island, in the same unsa- 
tisfactory manner in which it was treated by Hume ; wh9 
was of opinion that the transactions of that time were more 
connected with, and were to be sought rather in« the 
Roman than the British annals. Would not the same reason 
equally apply to the Saxon, the Danish, and the Norman in* 
vasions ?— The present author, following Dr. Henry, places 
the time of the final departfire of the Romans from this coun- 
try in the year 420, though he cannot vouch for thp accuracy 
of that date. 

The first volume of tliis work terminates with the battle of 
Hastings ^ by which event the crown of England wns trans- 
ferred froQH the })ead of Harold the Second to the possession 
of William Duke of Norn^andy ; who certainly had been noi- 
minated by Edward the Confessor to succeed him, if that noi- 
mination had not been confirmed by the Great Council of the 
Nation. We are iu diced to believe, however, from the t9pestry 
which was found in the cathedral of Bayeux, aud from other 
monuments of our history, that Wiiiiam was called to the suc'^ 
cession by the destination of Edward with the consent of the 
Great Council, and that Harold was sent into Normandy to 
acquaint him with this circumstance. Dr. Coote appears to 
think that the nomination was solely from the Confessor, and 
that Harold was sent into Normandy with a different purpose; 
namely, ' for that of reclaiming the hostages which had been 
i^t thither on the defeat of bis father, Earl Godwin. 

E 3 In • 

5* Goote^/ UisUry cj^Enghnd. 

I« ihc course of the narrative, we were jiJeased with the fpl- 
lowtl^g accttrace 4tiit)eation of the character of Alfred, tq 
Itlioae 'viftiies ^Ofl exertions we are indebted for some of our 
|}i09t invaluable pri^^iieges $ particularly for the Trial by Jury. 

* The char^crt<:r of AIA:ed seems to have mt^d^ as near afrproachcs 
to perftctlon as the frailty inBcparable from human nature wul allow. 
^c was iinquestionablyy in every respect, one of the greatest tticn that 
ever gave splendor to a throne^ or dignified the annals of a people. 
His capacity was naturally brilliant, and vras sp much improved by 
ntobitation, that he beoaoie one of the most polkk and inteliigent 
ftUkoa of his ticpe* His dkcemment was quick, bis meaoorjr reten- 
tive, SRid his judlnneitt sound. His Talents and virtues wert not only 
«)f that Splendid V^ which qualified him for the exercise af royalty^ 
|Mlt were s^<^ ^ ivould have procured him a hi^h reputation m the 
.aphere of private life. He was bold^ active| anq enterprising ; wac^ 
poflc^sed of great fortitude and vigor of mind, and the most steady 
and indefatigable perseverance, l^ough firm, he was of a tnild au^ 

Sbc^le temper^ ?fnd notwithstanding the elevation of his nmk, he 
ispjayed on all occasions th(! most easy condescension, and the most 
"Wianfftf afittbilky. Some instaaces of great severity occur in the 
history of his reign ; but even these dp not derogate fro» ki* genera^ 
character^ lenity and moderation, ^is acts of rigor were ed^vaya 
a»erited» aad never unseasonable j for the disorders of the times* 
^•Aich mildaess and forbearance would have encouraged, required, 
fcr their extirpation, tl^c psc of powerful remedies, He was liberal^ 
without profusion ; and charitablc| without ostentation : and, though 
prudently oeconomical ia the disposal of his revenues, he maintained 
Th his court et^ry requisite of regal pomp. His gDodness of heart 
Was conspicuous in his whole condujOft. He 4!Qii€:4ei)ed. himtelf aa 
. |>om to promote,' to the utmost of his toower, the accommodation and 
^licity of his fellow^creatures^ and .though he was personally re- 
pnqr?cd by one of his clericaiF fnends for having negtccted the occa* 
ai»nal'pomplaiots 5>f those who petitioned |iim xor redress in the 
ireign of his brother Ethelred, this i^eelect might perhaps generally 
arise boni the weak fbund^tion on which the alkgatipi^s of injury 
rested ; and if it was justly imputed to him, it was amply atoned by 
Ijiis subsequent behaviour. His affection for his people was ardent 
and sincere, and was recompensed by a loyalty fouhde^ on gratitude 
and attachment. His admini<^tration of justice was distinguished by 
strict impartiality ; and the influence of rank and wealth co^ild never 
procure womi him a more favorable ^cntence^ than he would grieve to 
ihe poorest and most unfriended persons in a similar case. With leepect 
ta religioAy he was less infected with the superstition of the timea 
phan any of l^is suhjccts. His derotfon, though fer\*cnt, was ra- 
tional ; and hw firm adherence to Christianity arose nwt from idle 
credulity, but from deliberate study and'conviction.* •* 

After having sketched an outline of the principal regulationa 
which owed their origin to Alfred, Dr. Coote concludes the 
account with the following exalted but appropriate eulogy: 

•••■"'•'■ ■■■••'■=•::. • »Thua 

«Tliii««a tkk«cdlntpiiiiot4ifiM8nDiMlUai tko U^ «E 
IkMvMge aa4 iM pitf iw m c»t> ^bA all tbc Ueitbura vhidk arc dedtt*. 
^eibk fiom A bcoeieBM, Ittctult and cnligtencd ^aaaf ^amttnaMat. 
H$vm% ia.tkt mfeuat atnae^ apanini luBgi onevSko iainmUf 
^mettlMd the «ni€ iJDfefretCa of bii oaiintT^ aM tlM uaAraiul we)fitffi 
'^ bit {Mpk, whom W |> i» i g u t)wl at « sowrdfBt and hmi at t ft^ 
slMt. Hi a^vktilt «inBf wtdi the «nnUe TkuH tlia faMopiUR 
Mpdhtioa «f tinn rrai gmtru JiBcimt aad wfafla llic i^^^HUd taktl9 
Of kk nin^ asd the glonoos actioiit ^ iua leigat cbnnad and pi«t 
«ared t» kim the «M»aiiie of Great, Ae aiMe attraolBYe i||iidUc» oS 
kit haart, and )us coaaiant practice of Wxftiia» catadBd him tq di« 
•epitbet ^ Good, in tpealung of this refwad mnaidk, » wsiict b 
Md«oad to dewlc from the tempenioct aad ^titjr of the Wifliiicig 
atyle, and hunch into iflMr cathueaam of ada^nitaan and p«ncf|rn%i 
fer which the hrSkncy^if hia character ii an an^ escnas.' 

In the delineation of cbaractcrs* Dr. CootC h9S followed flt^ 
esainple» if he has not emailed the anKxesa, cf oor a^ble hit^. 
Wrian Lord Clarendon : 

^ Whose soruaits boait» wMi fieat«reiilliroii|^ 1%% 
<• Theaott pmoiaoa of the dear VaiMlyJLf. — ^^ 

The feUowing remark (voL ii. p*49«) is piefixe4 to thedMr 
fader of William the Conqueror |-^we transcrihe k iiecause k 
cantaios the author's reason for a practioe in itself exceedingly 
nice and diiEcuh, and in which iwry few of our historians havt 
Uttained even a modef ate degree of success. . 

' Though a idkctiiig vcader may easily deduce the prtacifial Umv 
0KBU of a priacc't portrait from ^e tranaactipas tecosded oi bis li£r 
dmd rrif[n» a conggonsBCSS of ^e satisfaoiiioa diyrived fom.accura^ 
Uineatioas of pciaeiial deportneot, moral habtl* wbmI poljtic4 
prtactple, anay Jbe assigned as an adequate apology ior tbc dtlrverj 
of our sentiments respecting the eharacter and densfaaor of tbfc sqve^ 
scigas who pass in'revicw befpre «a. As «a apprnds|ge to bistoncat 
recoid* a character has the ^in^ effoct wid^ the p^^roratjoB iRrbidf 
closes an baraague/ 

Volume IL extends to the end of the rdgn of Jobu^ a pn« 
alllanimons yet sanguinary and tyrannical prince* Thf whol^ 
narrative aflbrds unequivocal proof of learnings impartiality^ 
|ttdgnic9tt, mi fidelity.— The character of Becket^ as it is pouiv 
^yed vkh considerajble precision^ and as it has been repK*^ 
rented in opposite points or yiew bjr his jiatltevers find hia eyie» 
mies » we ahall present to our reader^. 

« The cbasacter of Bccbet, which has has a siaas|ilfi4 wftb much 
#Uoquy, and extoUed with much panegyric, will be best ascertained 
liy the unbiassed steadiness of a middle course of delioeation. H^ 
Wasy wtthottt 'controversy a man of strong abibtiesy great discern- 
ment, and some cpadhion* His manners ami dieportiuent were grace^ 
fid aad insiouatingy though occasionatt^r tinctured with an air of 
Jliis pmonal ci^uragr, and forUUldf of itW^ attracted tl^ 
V f admiration 

S& CbolbcV I^ftiory of Etiglaei. 

iidmiraU(m eres of his eoxmm \ but tlic Uttpr of these qualities A^ 
geiiasatcd into the most inflesnUe obitinacfy m sooq .u he had at<r 
tained the station of primate of the Enffluh church* Whik he bd4 
the office of chancellor^ he. ^ne as an able inuii8ter» and a loyal tSi|b« 
jcct i-as a judkioas assertor of the rights of his 80i«reig^» iMud thi: 
independence of the rcahn. But» when he assumed the. ipeteopQlitan 
jnuk, he adopted very different sentiments, and proved a warm and 
persevering advocate nor all the pretensions of the papal see, however 
repugnant to reason, decency, or justice. He entered into \\\^ ncv^ 
charactor irith the axal of an entl(nsiaat» the intrepidity of a religjpof 
heFOy the artful spirit and the evasKc morality of an ambitious priest. 
That such conduct was the sole fruit of hypocrisy, can hardly be 
affirmed with, truth* That superstition of wnich even the strongest 
min4s cherished some portion in those times, had perhaps so mingled 
itself with the conceptions of this celebrated prebte, that, in supports 
ii^l^ the .cause of the church f^inst the profanations of temporal inter- 
ference, he might think Ijc was promoting the purposes of pure re- 
ligion. Every true patriot, however, must conclcmii his efforts for 
phicing the clergy above the reach of criminal law ; an exemption' 
which woidd naturally encourage, in that order of men, the com- 
mission of the 'most atrocious oflrences ; and for propagating discord 
and aniinosjty in thp stat^, by the eref:tion of the church into a dis- 
tinct bodyj subject ta?i foreign governor, whose interests and pre-' 
judices bad long plashed with the cjvil welfare of those states over 
which l^e arrogated a spiritual jurisdiction. In the progress of the 
' contest whicK ne niaintained witK his prince, he exhibited a violence 
of temper, a pcrverseness of opposition, and a propensity to revenge^ 
which his panegyrists cannot excuse by all the reproaches that they 
Yost lavished on the conduct of his royal antagonist. Qf his private 
demeanor, we afe authorised, by the concpprence of historians, tg 
tpeafc til commendaUoii : he was chaste, temperate, and beneficent» 
But these virtues were pbscurcd and lost in the mischievous tendency 
of his public proceedings ^ .? 

^e wish that the author had not.dis6gured his pages with 
the French words hauteur^ trait ^ fracas^ route^ and others. 

' f • An ingenious catholic has lately appeared as a vindicator of 
archbishbp Becket from the misrepresentations of patriotic and. pro- 
testant writers. But, as he professes to feel an enthusiastic admiration 
forthe memory of that prelate, lus impartiality is, ^nWj&fj^, problem- 
atical ; for whoever writes undej- the influence of* enthusiasm, wllj 
insensiily be induced tq gloss over, even in ordinary cases, the foibles 
and vices of that person who is the object of such warmth of senti- 
ment ; much more will he be inclined to deviate from the line of dist 
*p2(ssfonatc remark, when treating of a violent contest between his fa- 
vorite and a powerful antagonist; for he will then be strongly dispose^ 
to exalt the merit of the former on the ruins of the reputation of the 
latter. ' How far ihes* observations are applicable to that part of 
Mr. Berrington*8 " History of the Life and Rei#n of Henry II. 
Richard, and John," which relates to the conduct of Thomas Beckett 
f he reiSccting reader of that work may easily decide.' J 

Sottdiey'/ Joan ifArc^ tdJEMw. . 57 

par language i$ sufficiently rich to expxe«s the ideas. coiureyed 
^7 such wordS| which tend to debase the dignity of English 
historical composition. 

The legal and constitutional topics, which the reigns of 
Heiiry III- and Edward I. hold forth to obsetTation, are in 
the Third Volume properly considered $ though with that breir' 
rity' which makes a part of the author^s plan. In the capacity^ 
of a General, Edward was illustrious; in that of a legislatoi;, 
he was equalled by few, and excelled by none of our sdve<- 
reigns \ and the improvements which he introduced into our 
constitution, and into the administration of our gOFernment 
9nd laws, merit paiticular attention.' On this account, we. 
should have been better pleased if it had been consistent with 
Dr. Coote's plan to have expatiated more than he has done on 
a reign so full of interest, and so crowded with important 
events. A few pages may suffice to detail the transactions of- 
many reigns : but a volume is necessary to give an adequate 
view of those of Edward's time. This remark, however, must 
be considered as applying rather to the original design of the 
present work, than to the manner in which that design has 
been completed. An author who confines himself to nine 
octavos, and in that space gives a history of this country from 
^he invasion of the Romans under Caesar to the peace of 
I7^3t must unavoidably omit many particulars which are * 
fntercsring to the mind of every Englishman* 

In a succeeding article, we shall direct our attention to the 
remaining volumes of this work.— Of the decorations by the 
hand of the engraver, we mean to speak at the conclusion of 
our criticisAis* 

[To hi continual,^ 

Art. VIII. Jonn of Arc ^ by Robert Southey. The Second Edi- 
tiou. 2 Vpls. lamo. 12h. Boards. Longman. 2798. 

|T affords us pleasure to see that a poem, the uncommon 
* merit of which was recognized by us at its first appearance, 
fscc M. R. JFor April 1706,] has so far obtained the sanc- 
tion of the public, asL to produce a demand for a second 
edition. We are also gratified in observing that the au- 
thor has so much subdued the self-confidence and impatience 
of youth, as to submit to the ta.^k of a very careful revision of 
tfie whole, and to make ample sacrifices of such p^rts as could 
not stand the scrutiny of his maturer judgment. There may, 
indeed, be different opinions respecting the value of his al- 
terations : but his diligent attention to the improvement of his 
work, and bis candour in judging of bis own perfpnnances» 

13 cannot 

casimr Iwt meet with tmircrsal approbatioa. Tlie mtnre x4 
Kit coyrections asd additions^ in geiiera!, instated m the foll^w- 
avp pT^fixcd adveni^emeni : 

«^ Sifter t&e fir«K {mbUcatlon of thu Poem, it bos vndergones long 
and hbaaaOBk eoncctioii. Everv thing miraculous if now omittedv 
ani tlNT vcadcr who ii 9cquainted with (he former cdittoQ may ju^KC 
hf th^ cnrcunutaikce the extent of the alterations. Borne errors Wiut 
lt|{^ to the costume of the time had escaped me: in this point the 
vort^ is WW* I trust, correct. The addhional notes are numerous ; 
t&cf are inaeitcd as authorities for thp facts related in the text, anif 
V eipfansitorY to those readers irho are not convessant with tlie an- 
cimt chroKCKs of this country ^ for we may be wefl read in Home 
acni ]!^)&rr and yet know little of our ucestors. Whenever I have 
idly OS sii^>ected'an idea not to be original, \ have placed the* pasii* 
^Bgjr — Jiineath by which it was. su^ested* W^h resfect to the 
errawmiT^ harsbaess of the Tcraification^ it must not be auributed 
t^ p^genca or bast^* I deeai suc}^ variety essential jn a lon|^ 

WiA fcapect to ithis atateineifif, we sh^ll just obsenre that 
Ae etMttion of eirery thin|( miraculous is affirmed rather too 
hvgely I aince tlie Maid's dwcevery of the King in disguise ia 
sdU repfeaented as the conaequenee of inspiratiou ; and though 
kr two long visiona, in the fovmer poem, are omitted, a sort 
of i]*kOineotary trance is described, in which ahe had a view of 
her own executioii. MoreoTcr, ber divine misrion^is still an* 
voenced by * a pak bloc flame* ascending from the < trophie4 
tomb/ and thie ' clash of arma' heard from within \ which, we 
pvesume^ the author does not wish to attribute to any natur^ 
caose. As to the < occasional harshness of versification,' sixKC 
91 is the result of system, and not of negligence, we have nor 
thing to remark. It certainly is not our system, any farther 
than as soch harshness may occasionally prove an echo to the 
^ense : but we do not pretend to make our tmsU a standard, in a 
ynatter which can only he decided bj^ the feelings of indivi- 

We shaR now proceed to a more particnlar consideration of 
thepriiicipai ^changes which the poem has undergone in the new 
edhfon* A mmute analysis of Ckapellain's unfortunate poem^ 
/jt Pueefli^ is {prefixed, which forms a curiom article. In thi^ 
prose sketch, it appears suffictcfitly absurd : but we conceive 
chat few epic poems could stand s»cb a test, especially where^ 
»!( sA die present case, there was an evident design to produce 
% MicvottS effect. — ^Tbe opening of Mr. S.^$ poem is enticel]f 
cktngcd. Perhaps he fek sonoewhat of formalitT in the ibrmeir 
annoancement of the subject \ yet we think ttiat the present 
j^»pt beginning (< There was high If a^iu^ heidatVaocoulcu^) 

is rather unsuitable to the ^^1^7 of m ^plcpoemt ^nd too 
much in the ballad^^tyle. The substance oixhtfirji book, 
likewisjc, U almost totally diffeftnt. The Maid i» more naturally 
introduced, and more conformably to real history. Instead o£ 
the taking of Harfleari wc have a pathetic story of Madelon^ 
z soldier's wife/ whose melancholy fate first rou^ the syrn* 
pathy of Joan for the wretch^. The Maid's call is dirested 
of preternatural agency, and made the resok of natural endiu* 
siasm. We tl^nh that our readers wilt be pleased witk the 
{allowing poetical passage : 

^ There is a fountain in the forest called 
The fountain of the * Fairies : when a chil4 
With most delightful wonder I have heard 
Tales of the Elfin tribe that on its banks 
Hold midnight revelry. An ancient oak^ 
The goodliest of the forest, grows beside, 
Alone it stands, upon a jjTreen grass plat. 
By the woods bounded luLp some little isle. 
It ever hath been deemed their favourite f tree. 
They love to lie and rock upon its leaves. 
And bask them tn the moonshine. Many a ttalc 
Hath the woodman shown his boy where the dark rouu4. 
Pn the |rreco-sward beneath its boughs, bewrays 
Their nightly dance, and bade him sp^ the tree* 
Fancy had cast a spe)l upon t|ie place 
And made it holy ; and the villagers 
WouU say that never evil thing approached 
UnpuhishM there. ' The strange and fearAd pleasure 
That fill'd me by that solitary spring, 
Ceas'd not in riper years ; and now it woke 
Deeper delight| and more mysterious aw«.' 

f * Ldnely the forest spring : a rocky hOl 
Rises beside it, s^nd an a^ed yew 
Bursts from the rifted crag that pyerbrows 
The waters \ cavemM there unseen and slow 
" And silently they wel|« The adder's tongue. 
Rich with the wrinjues of its glossy green 

< '♦ In the Journal of Pms in the reigns of Charles VI. and VII. 
H IS asseited that the M;|id of Orleans, in answer to an intefre^- 
tory of the Doctors^ whether she had ever assisted at the assembue^ 
beld at the Fouataiii of t^e Fairies near piompxein^ round whi<^ the 
£vil Spiriu dance, cpnfesaed tl^at she had often repaired to a beautiful 
{ouotam in the country of Loiraine, which she named the good 
l^ouataia of the Fairies «f our Lord. 

* From the iotes So ibc Ei^fui vtrtion of Le GramPs FaUumx^^ 

* f Being asked whether she had ever seen any Fairies, the an- 
swered no ; but that one of her God-nx>thers pretended to have seei^ 
aoaic at the Fairy tree, n^ar the Village of Dompre. Rapin/ 

' • , Hang^ 

^ Spiitfae J V Joan of Arc^ 2d Edition* 

I3[an^9 down its long lank leaves, \vhose wavy dip . 
Just breaks the tranquil surface. Ancient woods 
Bosom the qufct beauties of the place, 
Nor ever sound profanes it, save such sound's 
As Sflence loves to hear, the passing wind, 
Or the low mnnnuring of the scarce heard streanu 
<♦ A blessed spot ! oh how my soul cnjoy'd 
Its holy quietness, with what deliglit 
Escaping human kind I hastened there 
To solitude an4 freedom ! thitherward 
On a spring eve I had betaken me, \ 

And there, I sat, and mark'd the deep red cloudi 
Gatjiet before the wind, the nsing.wind 
Whose sudden gusts, each wilder than the last, 
Seem'd as they rock'd my senses. Soon the night 
DarkenM around, and the large rain drops fell 
Heavy \ anon with tempest rage the storm 
Howl'd o'er the wood. Methonght llie heavy rain 
Fell with a grateful coolness on my head, 
And the hoarse dash of yaters, and the rush 
. Of winds that mingled with the fprest roar. 
Made a wild 'music. On a rock I sat. 
The glor)-- of the tempest fill'd my soiil. 
And when the thunders peal'd and the long flash 
Hung durable in heaven, and to mine eye 
Spread the grey forest, all remembrance left 
My * mind, annihilate was every thought. 
A mpst. full quietness of strange delight 
Suspended all my powers, I seemed as tho' 
Dinused into %\it scene.*' 
Tlie second )>ook is much shortened by th^ omission of tli(( 
^'ild but sublime vision before supplied by the author's friend 
Mr. Coleridge. The third opens with a brief but striking 
description of a country wasted by war : 

** * In this representation which I made to place myself near 
to Christ, (says St. Teresa,) there would come suddenly upon me, 
without eitner expectation or any preparation on my part, such'aq 
evident feeling oi the presence of God, ns that I c:ouldbyno means 
doubt, but that either he, was widiin me, or else I all engulfed In 
him. This was not in the manner of a vision, but I think they call 
it Mistical Theology ; and it suspends the soul in such sort, that 
she seems to be wholly out of herself. The Will is in act of loving, 
the Memory seems to be in a manner lost, the Understanding in my 
opinion discourses not $ and although it be not lost, yet it works 
not as. I was saying, but remains as it were anuized to consider how 
much it understand Sf" Life of St. Teresa 'written by bimtelfm 

* Teresa was well acquainted with the feelings of enthusiasm. 
I had, however, described the sensations of the Maid of Orleans 
before I had met with the life pf the Saint.' 

< ^Thcy 

« —They passM the Auxenois-; 
7^hc autumnal raiu^ bad beaten to the earth 
-The uiireap'd harvest, from the nllage church 
No cvcii-song bell ^as lieanl, the shfpherd*s dog 
' Prcv'd on the scattered flock, for there was now 
No njind to feed liliri, and upon the hetlrtli 
Wlicre he had sUimbcr'd at his matiter's feet • • • • 

The rank weed fiomi&h'd«» Did they sometimes find 
A welcome, he who welcomed them was one 
Who h'ngered in the place where lid was born, •"• * 

For tliat u'as all that he had left to love.' 

So much more chastened is the author's taste becomey that 
we find btmpmitting even the personificattons-of supersciti^n, 
iguorancC} and cruelty, which were. before made attendants 
on the convocation of theologians summclned. to examine the 
Heroine's mission. Her speech before the doctors tsimprotedj 
in our opinion, by the omission of .some sentimenti which 
bordered' too much on free-thinking for the z^ in which she 
liTcd. It is still more philosophical than is compatible with the 
real character of the speaker, bat perhaps . a- poetical liQencp 
in this respect may be allowed. The point's << Maifd of Orleans" 
must not be a .mere fanatical maid of a^ inn.. 

In the fourth book, the Heroine's severe lecture to the King» 
and her censure oifasU^ ajje omitted. One. of the first jessont 
taught by an author's experience is not to giYJp unnecessary of* 

The sixth book represents, from history^ .a. Frefich trum« 
peter or herald as condemned to the flames by the cruelty of 
Sufiblk. ( From an annexed note, it appears that Fuller, the 
divine, justifies this, detestable deed. Such is the spirit of 
nationality l-t-Thcre are in this book some n^w similies, partis 
eolary one alluding to the story of Amadis} which, with others 
fioni like sources, appears to us objectionable, as referring to 
ineidentsr unknown, to the generality of readers. — The new 
narrative of the relief of Oirieam varies from the former in se* 
vcral xarcitmsftatices.' - . ; t . 

. Instead of the vision in the ninth book, we have a nqptumal 
ex^dition of the Maid to the Duke of Burgundy's camp^ 
in whidi she incurs tile lianger of assassination, but prevents 
ithy killing the assailants • She then giyes the Duke a severe 
repjimand for his want pf patriotism, apd.auddenly quits hinu 
This is a short but spiritcitscene^ 

These are all the principal alterations which we discover. 
The dietion is in many places corrected and too^roved \' and, 
in particular, the licence of creating new words is considerably 
restrained. /On the whole, wc belieft. that the. poem in irs 


present state will pleaie more readers than befoi'e ; fhough 
soine> we doubt not^ will regret dioee higher cfibrts of fancy 
which displayed themselves in the preternatural machinery of 
the first draft. Its present character is sentimental^ pathetic^ 
- and descriptive ^ andTperhaps modem epic poetry cannot safely 
aoar higher* 

Art* IX« Ekmnis ^* tbc Critical Philoufty: containing a concae 
Acconnt of iu Ongin and Tendency $ a View of all the Works 
puU^ed byits Founder, Professor Inunanuel Kant ; and a Glos- 
«iry«fiUTenM and Phrases. Towfaidi are added Three Phi- 
iskjricd EMys» fit>m theGcrman of J. C. Addung. By A. F. M. 

. WiwdiplLD* d«s. pp» 300. 6^ Boards* Longman. 1798. 

WBRB we to believe die impassioned panegyrics of Pio« 
fessor Kasit^s pupilsy Prussia boasts in him a philosopher 
%f the liffft waters whose metaphysical theory » not less new 
than ioeontrovertibki and who has at once extended the 
bounds and ^soertakied the li^iu ef intelkctmd scieaee* 
lis very addition to hwman knowlege is stated to ooottst ia 
dcnenstrating tliat it is the utmoft ittmable stretdi of hnman 
£u:ulty. His scholars^ Kke the disciples of Plotinns, seem 
Oldy in 4oubt whether to revere lum as a sage or to worship 
Mm as a divinity } from the angelic and senphsc doctora m 
^heir frnPelalberS} thev turn with awe to this incarnate logos 1 
and they want only the trumpet of Eloa to sound his Bamc 
ftaim sttA to^ sun. ^ ^ 

If we inquire amo«g his followers fisr the geneeal drift of 
(bis afBlem, w« wn answered only in negadosis. It is mtf 
athetsna ; for he affirms that practical reason is entitled to 
kisr the enstence of a supreme Intellq^ce. It isiisrdieismi 
ftr he denies 4iot dMoretical ieason can demonstrate the ex* 
lit^Viee tt an infinite intelligent Being. Itismt materialisnt ; 
foir he maintaina thait time and space are only fonns of our 
forot^on^ uftd not the anributeaof extrinsic ezistencesL 4t 
is not ulealism \ for he maintainy that noumcna are indepeiw 
'4lent df phwnomeMi ; Aat diings perceptihie aie prior to per* 
MfNion. It ie mf libertioism ; for he allows the wiH to- be 
iknetwiifiod by vegiilar laws. It is fui fatalism 1 for he defines 
Aij ^ be a eyetem in whidi the connection of purposes in the 
m$oAA is opneMeffod as aoeideiital. It is itoi dogmatism $ &c 
he favours every possible doubt, k is ispr scepticism ^ for ho 

'^ Brum ua jascription ea-a portrait of the PfofeBSor, jnefiaed to the 
fofaase befinre us, we loam that he is needy scKreoty^ Txans irfdi 
«kMr«te.imNi «f Jife^nr iha asMtisiai^ of a new systep vf 9^ 

lOIOfPf f 

nftcH to dMioDdtnte what he teadies.— S«di aic die hd^ 
finhe evasbos of the Kbool. Were we» hovfever, to describe 
fhc imprestton made on oorselTes by d^ writingg of this Fko«> 
fessor, (which we do not pretend throughout to osderataiiJ,) 
we dwtddeaH his doctrine-— «a attonpt to teaoh the accptkal 
philosophy of Hume in the disgusting ttinlnrt of trholmtirjim. 

We have had occasion to notioe the oonMovetsy (Bcr. 
vol. X. N. S. p. 524) whidi the first publication of this eysteaa 
adtsd among the metaphysidans of HoUand. incMMbqttettoe 
of a Latin * translation which has appeared at Leipsigt Fraaee 
bas amce become attenthre to his prindples ; and the fabo^ns 
cf Mr. Nitschy {see Rev. ?ol. xidt. p. 15,) tending lop^po- 
larize in Great Britain this dogmatic acqptioismt ate heie re- 
ittforced by the tndustnous commentaries of Dr. WUKeb. A 
terr aecemary portion 0S snch an cttdoawur is a ^kMasy 9 
wiot wbiA Du W. has oecnpiod fifty pages, oon^oai^ An 
central part of this misceUaneows ^Inme % and wbiek aspiMi 
to €xpltttt ^ terms of the Kant phtk)so^y« A fcw«stracts 
will probably oonnnce the reader that these tafplanations hmc 
not tendered St nnich more inteUigihle. 

^ AesAdk commonly sigxufies the Critique c^ tastc» lot witb Xatf» 
die science oontaini^g the mles of seasationt ia <t>ntradigtmctiisa> i» 
k^icy or the doctnne of the nndostandii^** . 

« jMdPatm of expqric&ce» is a cogmtlon nf objscti Cable toob- 
serration a prion^ pfevious to the obieryaliaa itacU/ 

* >fr¥l£efl(«iiiv IS the art of constn^^ 

« Beaatj is the re^lar 8ul]jeQtive confirmation of an o^ect (ft 
Htuie or art ; die impression of aestbetical ideas.* 

* C^gmtUm h a whole of connected representations la tftm act of 
consoiousness ; or the detenaanate relerence of giren repieseatatioas 
to one object.' to. 

■* CMuUgff the trtmsoendentsi ratiossl cosmology, udtbor die 
science embmctng the whole of the phnnomcaa ta natarc^ or tke 
meta^ysical philosophy of the supersensible properties of attol|a:«i 
existing/ ' 

< DedMcUmf in general, is the frwf of a i^gal c1aini| a ngbts 
bat in partictthr^ Kant understands by k the esta[bUshmca£ of 
a representation ; the proof of iktt right we hate to m&ke use of it ; 
the proof that a repiesentation has senae, meantng, retltty, <A3JectNe 
sraUcyty, that it is ant «ague or empty, 4yat relates ta «^ects.* 

^ DpammcJ^ kk gaaeral, is said of thingSK so fir as we da not 
natend to tbcir cpiantily ^ia pevceptiosy but to the gnHiad or omseaf' 
tjitir aaistaKre.' &c. 

< T0 gmt igAeny an 61]ject« is to perccii'e it, to observe it ; to 
refer the conception ef it to read or ppssibic experience^' ^c. ^ ^ 

* lamumeai u used by Kant in opposition to transcendental : the 
CoMner term is appHtd to conceptlbiu or princl)ples» wbidi vtt «a£d 

» lauosiiiitlis KantiiCJirr*«fKrr La^ F, G. Bom. 1797. 3 ^ 

(54 Willich V BUmentj of^ KarntV PInhiophf. 

yi natuve> and are used gonceraing 'objects- af expenedcei' phsiihf 
ijiena.' &C|, ^ , . , ' 

* TntuUion^ 18 every representation of variety or ,the mliUifarioiie^ 
so far only as 'we considei* tli^ variety, aiid not* the unity in the 
{jbject.* &e. ' ^ \ 

*■ * Noumehoffj an object or thrHg fn itself, e3(ternal to the mirtd in a 
tranaccndental eeiwe J a thing exclugive of our representation. It li 
l^erally opposed to the term Ph^ntomettonf or the sensible repiiesenta* 
tieo of ai» objecti' ... .. / . • ' r 

^'Oljtckve signifies, in gjcneral, every thing. which has objector* 
icality, which relates to an object of sense or /experience.'. > 

' Phorhnomy fs the pure doctrine of the magnitude of motion/ 

• Praghtatical U that which is designed for the promotion of ge- 
neral prosperity.' ' ] ' .\ 

♦ Jf^f^^ftw/f is the passive faculty of representation.* 8tc. 

- * Sttb/ective signified that which belongs to the subject.'^' &c.' 
♦ ♦ Ttchnicofndhire^ is the dausality of nature in rtlation td thos^ 
prodactionst whichj correspond jwtth our conceptions. of a purpose.* ' '' 

* T^i»&^i3thedQ<:trHKQf puiposes, orfiw^ . :, , 
*' TrMis£epfleutaI sijgnUici ^J^h^y and is opp^d to empirical^ whidb 

iignifies tf ^ox/^ri^ri.* . ,^ . . . ., 

• Uncomfittonate fs that, which is ahsolutely,, ajjd;in itself, interr ' 
sally possible,, which is exempt from those, conditions that cir- 
cumscribe a thing in time arid s^ace.' &c. 

^ tVttdomrv^ the idea of the necessary unity of all possil^le purposes* 
It is therefore thegretically considered the" cognition of the*' highest 
eood : and practicaNy^ an attribute of that Willi which realizes Ihc 
highest good, or at least exerts itself for that purpose.* - 

Such words 2% freedom^ to gtve^ to knowf man^ number^ ivlffg 
8c c. arc obliged to be included in the glossary : but we have here 
extracted only the words which are most unusual, or are most 
perverted by Professor Kant from their usual signification ; and 
which would therefore be peculiarly likely to occdsion diffi- 
culty to the mere philologist. We shall not apply to the Pro- 
fessor a well-known line of Vohaire, in his satire intitle<i 
I^es deux Siecles^ * 

•• Si vous «i pffuezpatf criez de tiouveaust mots :'**' * 

but. we ask by which of these words is gained a more concise, 
distinct^ or definite mode of expressing the current positions 
of philosophy ? we not liable, by the imroductiou oi 
several among thern^ to put metaphysics into a still more abr 
Mruse form, and to remove this branch of study yet farther 
from the reach pf common minds ? Vanity will ever choose to 
repeat what it has not always the application nor the ability' 
requtsite to learn and to comprehend ; and thus w3l arise a 
crowd of nonsensical praters who adopt without meaning atf 
esoteric jargon, which they will soon render unfit for the \xg% 
even of the initiated. Dialectic obscurity will be made t<> 
pa^a for intellectual subtiltj.i and the same offuscation of the 

' p^iblic 

WillichV Elements ef KantV PhihsQphjm 6$ 

yubltc mind will overshadow the modern world, which^ by a 
ftimiiar process, the FiatonUts of Alexandria saperinduced on; 
thtf antient. The Alexandrian writings do not differ so widely, 
In spirit, as is commonly apprehended, from those of the Ko- 
nigsberg school \ for they abound with passages which, while 
they «eem to flatter the. popular credulity, resolve into alle« 
gory the stories of the gods ; and into an illustrative personi«: 
fication, the soul of the world ; thus insinuating to the more 
■Jert and penetrating, the speculative rejection of opinions 
with which thf y are encouraged and commanded in action to, 
comply. With analogous spirit. Professor Kant studiously 
introduces a distinction between practical and theoretical reason; 
and while he teaches that rational conduct will indulge thC: 
hypothesis of a god, a revelation, and a future state, (this, 
wc presume, is meant by calling them inferences of practical 
iYdx«/i,)he pretends that, theoretical reason c^n adduce no one 
aacisfactory argument in their behalf: so that his morality 
amounts to a defence of the old adage ; ^^iThink with the. 
wise and act with the vulgar:" 'a plan of behaviour which 
secures to the vulgar an ultimate victory over the wise. The 
present time is. favourable to the success oF such accommo-. 
dating speculations. Jlpicurism has recently been promulgated 
in France in the vernacular tongue, and in Works of amtisement* 
The consequence has been a general dissolution pf moralsi 
vhich it is. now the object of literature to remedy by removing 
the cause. For this purpose, philosophy is to be withdrawn 
within a narrower circle of the initiated \ and these must be 
induced to conspire in favouring a vulgar superstition. Thisi 
c^n best be accomplished by enveloping with enigmatic jargon 
^e topics 9f discussion; by employing a cloudy phraseology 
which ijiay intercept. frpni below the war-whoopi of impiety,- 
amd from' above the evulgation of infidelity; by contriving a 
kiad of •* cypher of illii^inistn,*' in "which public discussions 
of the most critical nature can be carried oafrom the press, 
without alartniqg the prejudices of the people or exciting the 
precaiftions of die magistrate. Such a cypher, in the hands 
of an adept, ift the dialect of Kant. Add to this, the notorious 
Gailicahlsm of his' opinions, which must endear him tothe 
patriotism of the philosophers of the Lyceum ^5 and it will, ap- 
pear very probable that the reception of hisf forms of sj^lfo- 
gizing should extend from Gcrfnany to France 5 should cofn- 
pktely and exclusively establish itself on the continent ; ^<?ti- 
COl&b with the reasonings the reason.* of the modern world ^ 

^ ■ . . • '■ . ' ' ■ • ■ ■.■ ■! ■ I J ,, r . ■ ,^ 

* At first glance, it will appear unjust to have pointed out the 

JCantians, who pique themschct oit' having rexnovca a practical oh- 

Kbv* Jah. 1799. F jectioa 

6^ 1ltiWxii'rt:iimHUofZ^^ 

and form the tasteless fret«work which seems about to conVefrCl 
die halls of liberal philosophy into churches of mystical super- 

Whatever be the cast of merit which belongs' to Professbv' 
Kant, tb2t of his present commentator is in one respect oon- 
stderaUe : he is^ very conversant in the history of this modertv 
scholastiei^n. In the Introdnciion^ he has given a valuable (if 
not complete) ca^logue of the principal work» which have 
issued from the German presS) dn thi& obscure or illusftrious' 
subjccc.^ To Home's Essay on the Idea of Necessary Con- 
flexion, and ta Priestley's Reply taReid, Beattie, and Oswald, 
i% attributed (he train of thinking which ripened in the mind 
of Kant into the present sysrenx* 

The Elementary Viewof Kan fs Works \& nof^ in our opinion,! 
a very clear account of this philosophy. The author b less^ 
dif&cult to understand than his commentator^ Indeed, the 
Professor {Probably understands himself; and, when the diffi^ 
^ulty ' of his quaint! phraseology is once conquered^ he may • 
with attention generally be followed :^— but his disciples per« 
yetually substitute the words for the ideas of the sect^ and 
furnish whote pages which bear the same relation to reason*. 
hig> as those verses of the school^boys, in whieh wo?ds are 
eonneiifed merely with a view to the prosody, bear to- poetry. 
This portion of the work should have formed ^ separate 

The Three Fhthl&gical Essays^ translated from Adclung, and 
innexed to this volume, are also sold apart, and constitute irr 
cur apprehension a more Valuable work. We shall attend ta 
the contehtsof each: 'but we wotdd first remind our readers thatr 

jcction ib tire professiort of the feoldeat phitosopjiy, as likely to be 
the instruments of tveiitually quenching the lignt of inquiry. We 
ddmit the purity of their present intentions : but their subjective 
conduct may tend to defeatt their objective views. Heteroclitical 
phraseology ij» the first Step to heteronomyof Apperception, — ^andin-' 
sanity is nothing- more. The teleology of natOre^ which may differ 
from tliat of well-meaning individuals, has repeatedly caused Philo*^ 
sophy to destroy herself by her own weapons ; — and we should rely 
more on empirical than on traasaen dental deductioni in a question of 
pragmatic causation. — Confusion of lafigu^ige, says the parable, 
. broke up.andre-barbarisod the first civil society. Perhaps our hypo- 
thesis IS Influenced by architcctom'c prejudice ; (see Rev, vol. xxiv. 
J). 526 ;) il. certainly i^ not advanced as apbdictie' futurity^ Can Itp 
then, be worth viule to Ivatni to use 

■ ^- ' ' ' This party.«colour*d drcsa^ . - 
Of patchM and py-ball'd langiia^es, . • 
This English cut oa Greek aad Laxii^ i 


WaiichV Elements of E[antV Philosophy. (J7 

tliat of Adelung's German dictionary, or word-book a$ it is 
Entitled, we had occasion to speak with applause in vol. jcxlv. 
p* 560. He is also known by an excellent granimar for Qer* 
ibans, printed in 1782 ^ by a cotiempor^ry History o{ Culture^ 
which well merits translation ; by a work on Rhetoric * ; and 
by various contributions to periodical publications^ from whicti 
these essays are selected by Dr. Willich. 

The first essay contains a concise history of the English Lan* 
guage s the second, a philosophical view of the English JLa/t" 
gtiage : and the third, a discussion of the merits and demerits of 
Johnson's English Dictionary, They are accompanied with use- ' 
ful and learned notes, and occasionally interpolated by the 
translator with well-chosen examples and instructive remarks. ^ 

The history of the Language of England takes no notice of 
the Erse or Irish, which was probably the language of the 
primKvil settlers -in Great Britain, and which has bequeathed 
a few (not many) words to 'the stock no^ in use. This first 
wave of population was pressed westward by the Welsh ' 
settlers, was at length wholly urged into Ireland, and thence 
by a returning tide came into Scotland, where it still is distin- 
guishable. The second wave of population consisted of Cimbri^. 
and was in its turn pressed westward into Wales and Corn- 
Wall, where it remains distinct. From the Welsh language 
of these tribes, many words have pasised into general use, and 
some forms of speech. With the third or Gothic wave of 
population, begin the inquiries of our author. He distributes 
the history of their language into three periods, which he calls 
the British-Saxon, (he should rather have said Anglo-Saxo&» 
British being a Cimbric denomination,) the Danish-Saxon, and 
the Norman- Saxon.' The ^rst .begins with the Saxon' inva- 
sion, the second with the Danisji, and the third with the 
Norman. The properly English period is here made to begin 
with Edward I: but it ought rather to commence with 
Henry VIII ; for the controversies nf the Reformatioti were 
in fiict the cause which then abolished the Norman dialect, of 
the court, and introduced the present commpn English to our 
worship, and to our Itterajture. ~ 

Some instances of negligence in our antiquaries are hero 
pointed out; as at p. 36, that the ns^me of Adam David does 
not occur in the Biographia Britannica. Of the Sagas reviVed 
in Denmark and Sweden,, many relate to exploits performed 
in the British Isles,, and deserve notice in Our early literary 
history, ^fr, Johnson (of Copenhagen) has well performed a 

^ UebcrdenJ)euttchenStyL BorllDy 1785, 

r a part 

6i ^ WilUchV Elements 0/ KantV Philosophy. 

part of ^Ke duty of an ambassador's, chaplaii)^ by pr^denting 
to hts countrymen such local foreign litevature iMi^er his im- 
mediate notice, as was interesting to their celebrity. Fron* 
the time of Elizabeth onward, English writers become soi 
numetOQs> that only the more excellent should be mentioned. 
The second dissertation is not addressed to the antiquary^ 
but to the philosopher. The following defence of the extant 
orthography, in opposition to those rnnorators Who wish to 
stiake it resemble our pronunciation, is very just : 

* The method of prescn-ing the etymology of words, as adopted 
by the nations above s^hided to, is no other than this, that people 
. write differently from vC^at they speak i a phenomenon, which in- 
deed has been hitherto represented, by grammarians and philosophic 
linguists, as the most palpable absurdity that can be conceived ; al- 
though the agreement of all the western nations of Europe, in what 
they have thus termed absurdity, should have convinced them, that- 
there must be some reason for it, and which ought not to be over- 
looked^ This reason then is no other, tlian to prtr.erve, as long as f& 
necessary, to the eye at least,, the proximate derivation by meails o£ 
writing, although the pronunciation has lost it ; to promote thereby 
that universal intclligibiUty, vvliich is the iirst and principal 
object of language ; and, at the same time to prevent the swerving, 
and fhictuating pronunciation, as long as possible, from further and 
ctill greater deviations.— An ejtample or two will serve to make the 
matter more evident. The following wordfr, being borrowed from 
the iFrench and Latin languages, Zr^^z///y, le^hn^ organ^ orgterx are now 
pronounced kga}ruyyjed%httni argmt ardzhyii.. If they were written in 
this manner, an Englishman might, at length, learn to* understand 
them tolerably *well, but he would still iind a difiiculty, when these 
• words occurred to him again in their original language^ to recogaize- 
his owo in tiiem. The bond of connection between the English kn* 
^ag^ and its^constituent parts would thus be dissolved, and the reci« 
prood intelligibility would" theceby be rendered obscure. Further^ 
as the proiiuneii^iOn in aH such mixed languages, from the causes 
iJboveHmentioned, is from time to time considerably changed, many 
words would soon become altogether obscure and unintelhgibie, did 
not the etymological way qf writing them, still maintaTn their true 
fcrm, as long as is prairticable and necessary. Besides, the adhereace 
^ to the nearest derivation, and the preseryatioa of the original fonn of 
ii*ords, by' accurate writing,' are likewise the means of, preventinjr tht 
cxtrehjcly fluctuating pronunciation from still greater deviations.. 
This' is the true reason^ why all'the western ' Europeans, and conse- 
qiientl;f the Eiiglfeh too, write diffcreniriy froln what they speak : and 
as this phenomenon has been produced entir^y by " the htent per- 
ception x>i purpose and mtans,''^ which is involved, in so much oh- 
icurity, that> so&r as I know» their grammarians have not yet been 
able to account for it ; hence ^e receive a lesson, not to censure Ihe 
like regulations, if they are universally adopted by one., or more 
nations. Until the real foundation of them has be^n discovered. The 
iU£ference of this mqd^ of woUiig irom thai ef sptidfcing, i;^ indeed in 


ToungV Ftnu of Suffolk Aj^riculture. 6p 

it«elf an imperfection $ but in all those languages, that are so tbo» 
roughly mixed^ it is a real perfection j because it preserves, gt least 
to the eye, the immediate derivation, ''and consquently furnishes ut 
with the eainest possible method of understanduig words, while k 
Benres to prevent any further deviations in the pronunciation.* 

Ah obaervttton on accent also merits selection, as it mij 
facilitate a future more correct accentuation of those word^ 
' of which the emphatic syllables are still unsettled. 

* The acceirt consists in a particular elevation of the voice, with 
which, in polysyllables, the one syllabic is as it were raised above th^ 
others : thus in emergency ^ employ metitj the syllables mer znAbky are 
called acceniuiUed fyilables. The reason of this mode of distinguish^ 
4ug one syllable from another, is properly contained in the nature 
oi the word and the intention of tlic speaker, who, by this elevatioa 
of the voice, poinu out that syllabic, which expresses^ the principal 
idea, and to which he chiefly directs the attention of the hearer^ 
Hence 'the two accentuated syllables, above-mentioned, contain th^ 
principal ideas of the utjrds, in which they occur, and all the other 
syllables denote only collateral ideas, or further deternrinations. In- 
flexions, and theiike. i have said, that diis, in the nature of th^ 
thin^ is ** properly'* the intention of the accent ; for this reasoft 
4n the German, and probably-, too, in afl other unmixed languages^ we 
meet with the general rule, that the radical syllable, in wjuSi words as 
consist of a plurality of syllables, alwavs^ receives the accent ; sincp 
it contains the principal idea of the word. In the German languagCf 
this rule is so general^ that the fxfw exceptions from it scarcely de- 
serve any attention* But as the lUnglidh is a very mtxed language^ 
this rule is liable here to a much greater number of exceptions ; 
especially with respect to the words ponowed from the ' Latin and 
Trenoht in which the ra£cal syllable has become obscure, so. that k 
faimot in all instances preserve its doe accent- Since I propose to 
resume that subject in another part of this Essay, I shaB here only- 
remark, ihat those words from' the Anglo-Saxon, which are stiu 
current in the English language, follow this rule, and perhaps as 
uniformly as in the German.' 

Of Johnson's dictionary, the author speaks with politeness 
in the third essay. Some opinion of it was intimated in our 
ftxivth Yolume p. 5599 which derives corroboration from the 
acute criticisms here subjoined. The principal object of this 
dissertation, however, is nqt to point out the defects of that 
vast compilation, but tp announce an English-German voca- 
bulary \ the publication of which, this leaned German phi<» 
iologer is to ^upeuntcndv. ^ 

fixr. X. ^A general Vievf cf the Agriculture of the ,Coimtf of Su^olh, 
drawn up fqr the Consideration of the Board of Agriculture . and 
internal Improvement. By the Secretary to the Board. j8vcu 
yp. 314* js. 6d. sewed. NicoL 1797. ' ' 

A REPORT of the agricultural state of the county of Suffolk 
from ihc pen <rf Mr. Arthur Young, who has long resided 
JF3 itt 

7# Young*/ FUnt} of Zujfolk Agriadturt. 

in It, and who may be 8ii5)po8cd to he mt)tc intimately ack 
quaintcd with Jt than with any other large district oif the iing?» 
dom, will naturally attract the attention of tho^e who wish to 
study agriculture, and the several branches connected with it. 
His present work contains,' indeed, a great variety of interesting 
information, delivered with much apparent accuracy, and com- 
bined with the reflections and observations of a philosophic mind« 
No man knew better than Mr. Y. what his subject required^ 
er was more able to execute it to the satisfaction of the Board 
of Agriculture and of the public. — That this Report muat 
have obtained the approbation of tne ^oard is unquestionable : 

. yet the secretary does not wish to plead tliis approbation as 
a sanction of his statements ; and he particularly reminds the 
reader that ^ the Board does not deem itself responsible for 

. any f?ict or observation contained in the reports which they may 
communicate to the public' The object of this Board, indeed, 
ii to collect a mass of facts an^ opinions on the subject of 
agriculture, with a view of ascertaining the real state of the 
kingdom ; and as far as this goes, the* institution may be pro* 
ductive pf utility : but we must not expect too much from it. 
•The iparch of improvement is slow. Merely to point out th<! 
^risdom and reasonableness of any system, or practice, will 
not be sufficient immediately to remove old customs and pre- 
judices:— biit, by reiterating instruction, the most obstinate 
are at last brought to conviction, and the^yes of individual; 
and of nations are opened to discern their true interests. 

Pi^blipations pf this kind are undoubtedly calculated to assist 
practical farmers in comparing the different modes of husbandry 
and rural economy, prevalent in different counties, with each 
other i — they excite a general spirit of emulation, and must 
lead to an increase of the internal riches and strength of the 
country. To augment the fertility and produce of the soil is, 
in fact, to enlarge the kingdbni, and to prepare fpr an in« 
creased population ;— to promote rural industry is to aid ai> 
extension of manufacture and commerce. 
• 'Perhaps," particular views of particular counties of districts 
will tend more to produce this effect, than any general obser- 
vations on the iniportance of agriculture and the necessity of 
improvement. They constitute a lecture to every farmer, in his 
own field, on his own practice; they treat of what most inti- 
mately concerns him and his neighbourhood ; and they instruct 
the farmer of another county in practices which may be new to 
Jiim, and Which possibly may' merit his adoption. 

In drawing up a county repbrt, however, for the perusal 
tiffhe'fcingdbm at large, judgment is required. * It is not (as 

l^r. Toung remarks) * easy to coricei-e an undertaking more 
4ifficult^ than tp give such an account of a province^ as sha^ 

■ . .. . ^^ 


ToungV Fieitf of Suffolk Agriculture* 7 x 

on the one hand be minute enough to convey satisfactoiy inform- 
sktion ; and, on the other> shall not be so nrinute as to include 
jnatter either of insufficient importance, or that is more cal«- 
cuiated for a general treatise or report than for a local and ap«* 
propuatetil one.' 

Altv« •to this dtf&cuky, Mr. Toun^ has cautiously acvoide^ 
these two dCKtremes, and has here exhibited a true specimen of 
what a county report ought to be. His statement has been 
colargedon its present appearance, especially by the communi- , 
cations of several gentlemen, wliich are given ui the form of 
fiotes ; generally, with the names or initials of the comma* 
nicators affixed, as Mr, Toung was not solicitous qf shining 
ia boq;owed plumes. 

♦TJnder the heads of—Geographical State of Suffolk— Pro- 
perty -^Buildings — Occupation,— -Implements—Inclosing — , 
Arable Land — Grass«-Gardens and Orchards «. Wood and Plan- 
tation — ^Wastes— Improvements— Live Stock-— Rural economy » 
-—Political Economy— Obstacles to Improvement— and Mis- 
cellaneous Observations,— the author exhibits an instructive 
survey of the district which he undertakes to describe. — ^To a 
pu^ rf thi seil ei Suffi»lk, he adds an account 6f the different 
management prevalent on the different «oils, and suggests hints 
for improvement. 

We shall not be expected to follow this intelligent agricul- 
turist through the various details contained in this memoir : 
but a few of the facts which it comprehends we shall lay before 
pur readers^* 

Mr. Young estimate^ that the county of Suffolk contain^ 
800,900 acres J of which 30,090 are fen, at 2S. 6d. per acre; 
46,6($6| richloam, at 14s.: 156,66/$} sand, at ics. : 113,3331 
do. at 5$. ; 453j333i strong loam, at 136,4 jsp tha( the average 
rent of land in this county i§ los. 6d. p^r acre* 

In noticing the course of crops on different soils, and the 
preparation for them, (especially wheat,) he observes, in re- 
spect of manure^ that ^ it is common with many farmers tq 
manure their clovpt lays for wheat with the farm-yard com- 
post of the preceding winter. The same husbamiry is common 
in parts of Norfolk, where they c|o it with a view tg a crop 
of barley to follow the v^heaf. There is scarcely any 4oc trine 
in husbandry more orthodox, ^han the propriety of spreadiz^ 
-all the dung of a f^rm for the turnip crop ; a practice '61% 
which depends not inconsiderab^ the progressive amelioratioa 
of a farm, since, by making the turnips as productive as pos« 
sible, the live stock is increased, which increases dung, and 
go^ round in that beneficial circle which makes cattle the 
parents of com/«^There is much good sense in this remark, 

.F4 . ' . -and 

t}% YouagV Fuw rf Suffolk Jgricultdrf, 

tad we transcribe it not only as acceding to its justice^ but with 
the hope of exci'tipg general attention to it. 

Next to brlfiging manure from the fartn-^yard or compost* . 
hill, and feeding off with sheep, is what is called ploughing m 
for tnanure; a practice to which farmers are forced to resort at 
a distance from towns, where the manure whtcli they make by 
their stock bears no proportion to the size of the farm. Buck 
' wheat is commonly ploughed in as manure for the succeeding 
crop. Mr. Y. informs us that the Rev. Mr. Moseleyi of Drinks 
Ston, fans the mejit of planning and executing a system of tare 
husbandry^ which deserves considerable notice ;«— The following 
is his own account of it : ^ 

*^ When I last had the pleasure of teeing you at Prink ston, you 
espreoscd a desire of hearing from me, as spon as I could ascertain 
the effectQ of ploughing in buck wheat, at a vegetable manure for 
\vheat, after having previously taken a crop of tare$ for fodder. In 
compliance with your request, you receive the following imperfect 

^* Your excellent method of managing liglu I^ndsl generally ad- 
here to, VI?. turnips, barky, clover, and wheat 5 but finding, froni a 
failure of clover in my two last crops after barley, that the succeed- 
ing ones were not equal to my expectation, I determined to try some- 
thing as a substitute for that excellent preparation. Tares, I waii 
aware, were frequently aown, and excellent crops of wheat have su^- 
4:eeded ; but, as there were neai* three months between the time of 
putting tares and SQwlng wheat, I thought that something might bt' 
done in the interim^ in order, npt ofily to k^ep the l^nd clf^au^ but tp 
improve tjie succeeding crop, 

<< Jt Y^as necessary to consider what would answer this end, thai 
would not be attended with considerable expence ; buck wheat claim- 
ed the preference, as it was of quick growth, and had been recom<f 
mended as a strong and lasting manure.. 1, therefore, determined to 
try the effects of it, and have reason to think that my expectation 
was not too much raised ; for, although { cannot whk that certainty 
ascertaiQ the real prpduce of the land as I can wish, as a considerable 
quantity of the wheat has been destroyed by vennin, yet, still have 
I had the satisfaotion of lodging in my granary as much as I usually 
. have don^ in the commo(i method of husbandry. The loss I sustained 
was, indeed, vety considerable, and almost incredible^ from such^ sin al} 
anim^ as mice, for there was not a rat in the barn, and wiD be a 
standing memorial to me for thrashing my com in the proper season. 
It was computed at one fourth of the whole crop. But, even de^ 
ducting the loss, and allowing the increase to be equal to former 
years, wiU it not be right sometimes to alter the usual course, an^ 
substitute a preparation equally profitable as clover for the farmq:^^ 
graiid crop, wheat I 

" The lajid upoii which this experiment was made, was U^t^ an4 ' 
produced excellent turnips and barley, but seldom more than a mor 
derate crop of wheat ; twenty bushels jfv acre, were as puch as might 
be expected in a good seaso^ 

« Btttj 


ToiingV r/m> 6f iuffolk Agrkultan. ^ 73 

*^ But* althou^ii I oipnot speak with precision Iq rmrd to the 
wheat crop, yet I can tho's far a£Bnn, that the additional profit from 
|hc lye^ as soring^ feed, which succeeded the wheat , was more 
than equal to the original price of the buck wheat. How long the 
effects of this mainure will qo&tinue, I cannot possibly say ; but, from 
the luxuriance of the rye, should not have made the least doubt of 
its operative qualities to the ripening that crop. The expence la 
trifling, fgr you f?annot find any manure, even for a single crop, equaf 
in all respects to this for five shillings, which is in general, the price 
pf two bushds, and 13 sufficient for one acre. " - 

** But a material advantage there certainly is from two vegetable 
crops, the one immediately succeeding the other, in cleanm^ th^ " 
land ; forakhpuffh the rye was sown as ^oon as I could conveniently 
plough after the haulm wa? carried pflF, yet, upon breaking up the 
land after the rye was fed off, it was much cleaner than it was after 
the last fallow. 

** I wish I could have drawn a mpre accurate conclusion from th{i 
experiment, as I find that it is the first that has been made in this 
manner ; and wpuld not have troubled you with this, had it i?ot been 
by your particular desire, it being impossible to. ascertain precisely the 
loss t sustained, consequently, from mere presumption to offer any 
ihing as certain from it. 

** I Ipope hereafter to be more accurate, as I have six acres, which 
have produced this season twelve waggon loads of tares, and are now 
town with buck wheat, to be ploughed in the latter end of this 
pionth as^ a preparation for wheat. The produce of these you shall 
be acquainted with, as I -wish to give you a fair account of this, as I 
think, valuable vegetable manure." 

* And in a succeeding letter— r" I am now able to ascertain the real 
product of my field of wheat after my tare and buek wheat system ; 
"iind it gives me peculiar satisfaction to assure you that the increase 
has exceeded my e:;pectationt 

*^ The field contained near 6 acres, including bordera, and the 
produce was ^ coombs a bushels of clean wheat, scr that it may rea- 
sonably be set at 5 coozpbs per acre, which is a muqh larger crop 
than I expected. . 

** The appearances at di^erent times were such, as sometimes to 
promise a large crop, at others, a very moderate one. At first, vegeta* 
tion seemed to be very luxuriant ; tjiis continued till April, when it: 
(lunged nsuch for the worse, and from that time till harvest, appear- 
ances wer^ against it. For this, I believe, I can in some measure 
account. The tares and buck wheat were both in too forward a 
atate ; the. one not to exhaust the land in some degree, the other> 
to afford that food for the succeeding crop which might have be<;ii 
expecte4, had the tares been cut a fortnight sooner, and the back ^ 
ivheat turned in before it had formed the seed. Delays from frequent 
iktorms occasioned the latter. 

" However, upon the whole, I am so well satisfied w?th my ifle» 
^ess, that I shall try several methods of applying this useful manure, 
sometimes to assist my crop with others, and somctimesi as the paly 
pkamire that c;mi gonveiueutly be procuttfd. 


74 Young'/ View ofStfffolk Agriculture. 

<* On^ obserration I have made in watching the tare and buck 
wheat system, and which cvcrjr cultivator ought to hare primarily in 
Yiew, viz. that in order iorensuriC the siicceeaing crop, it will be ne- 
cessary to mow the tares as early as possible, that the buck wheat 
may be sown and ploughed as soon as it is in blossom. By this ma- 
nagement, much time will be eained> the land little exliausted, and 
the buck wheat in a state to afford the strongest vegetable manure to 
the succeeding crop : and could this be performed early enough in tlus 
antumn to aQow three weeks or a month for the buck wheat to rot» 
' I would then adopt Mr. Elh's's mode of harrowing the land, and then^ 
plough and sow the wheat in broad lands, under thorougli. This way, 
ite says in his treatise upon buek wheat, will dress the ground for 
three years; whereas clover, vetches, or turnips, ploughed in, will, 
only for half the time. My grand object, in adopting this prepanu 
tion, has been hitherto to secure a crop of tares as a substitute for 
clover-ha^, and it has answered the intended purpose ; the crops of 
tares having been uniformly good, and the succeeding crops of wheat 
cqualy if not superior to former years. 

•* If what Mr. ElKs has asserted be fact, in respect to the strength 
of^ck wheat as a manure, surdy it woidd be well worth consider- 
ing, wherein this comparative difference of buck wheat, and other 
Tcgf tabic manures, consists.' This only caji be brought to the test 
by a chymical gperation, and, according to my opinion, well deservr 
ing a serious trial. If you think it of that consequence in the gene- 
ral system of husbandry as I really do, I am persuaded that you will 
favour us with sopie experiments to asccitarr^ the reality of this asscrr 
ttmi, and point out the respective properties of the manures, iron* 
that and other vegetables. 

** I iind in your experiments upon the best preparation for a crop 
tjf barley, that beans claim the preference, and that the buck wheat 
land, with *aH the apparent advantages of the crop for manure, di(J 
not answer so well as the fallow. Having thought much of this 
preparation, I think that I can ^oint out a method by which it would 
iiave answered better, and that is, by sowing the wheat stubble with 
tares, immediately after carrying on the muck, and then upon one 
earth throwing in the buck wheat. If this had been done, I auestion 
whether the crop of barley would have been worse, as the nmck woulc^ 
liave forced that, and the creditor side would have made no despzcable 

'• If wc treat this article in this manner, we must adjust our cal* 
culations in the following way * : 

* * Mr. Moselcy here alludes to an experiment published in the 
Annals of Agriculture. The observation and the calculation arc 
perfectly fair ; and had the trial been a part of my design, I have nq 
doubt but the result would have been correctly as this very ingenious 
correspondent states it.«— ^» T* 

♦+ Ta 


- 1 

TolingV FUvf of Suffolk Agriculture. 


L i: A 

Creator* /. /. 


To manure - -199 

2 Loads of tares. 

I noughing --060 
Tares for seed, 2 bushels 150 

' iL 158, - - 3 


By 4 quarters^ 2 bush- 

Sowing, harrowing and 

els and 'I peck bar- 

rolling - - 6 3 

ley, at 2od. - 4 



Mowing, &c. • . 5 9 
iPloughing, harrowing, 

By straw ... 




&c. - V - 7 3 




9 BusheU of buck wheat c 
Rent - ^ - 10 Q 





Sundries - * 2 i 

To profit ^.0 



4 Earths - - i8 
Harrowing and rolling 10 


Seed and sowing - lo 3 

Harvest ' - - 5 ;q 

; Threshing ' - - 4 6 

Rent, tithe and rates 18 

Sundrj expeiiccs - 3 8 


£'^5 5 

V 1 think that I ha^ve not placed the tares ;^t too hi?h a rate to the 
qrdit account, as I really thnik that the fodder is well worth il. 158. 
per load ; nor do I tHink two loads per acre too much, as, upon mo- 
derate land, I have seldom had less : I have therefore estimated the 
'pro&t accordingly, 

«* If we allow, according to my mode of treating your land, (seethe 
preceding note,) the same quantity of barley per acre, it will then, in- 
tcead of being the most unprofitable of aU the preparatione,be found in- 
finitely the most profitable. But even deductings something from die 
barley crop, or throwing but the crop of tares entirety, if it be true that 
this vegetable manure will continue to improve a crop for three years, 
your experiment of a single year is by no means complete, as, accord- 
xng to the common course, the succeeding crops might be expected 
to derive much benefit from this manure. 

*' I have never sown buck wheat upon wet cold lands, consequently 
cannot ascertain the effects of it as a manure upon them : what I have 
hitherto done, has been upon a light sandy soil, and from experimentt 
upon that, my mite pf information has been drawn." 

•< I may call (says Mr. Young) for the attention of farmers anxious to 
become acquainted with real improvements in agriculture, to this ac* 
count of Mr.'Moseley's system ; which is one of the best' imagined ar- 
irangements that has been discovered. One ploughing puts in the winter 
tares; that earth is given in autumn, and consequently opens the soil to , 
the influence of frosts ; as the spring advances, and the sun becomes 
powerful enough to exhale the humidity, and with it the nutritious' 
particles of the land, tlie crop advances and screens it from the action ■ 
of his beams. Whatever weeds are in the soil, vegetate with the 
young tares, and are either strangled by their luxuriance, or cut off 
vrith them before they can seed* A crop is gained at a very moderate 


j6 Yoving^s P'iew bf Suffolk Agriculture. 

<xpcncf, which 18 usually worth from 40s. to 3I. an acre ; ofunttmet 
much more. But this crop is cleared so early from the land, that k 
would remain exposed to the sun through the most burning part of 
the summer for three months, as that ingenious gentleman rightly 
observes ; if left so, there would be a call for three ploughings to do 
mfschieff except in the point of killing some weeds. To give one 
c«rth immediately, and harrow in buck wheat, spares that expence^ 
•srad covers the earth when it most wants to be so protected. But 'n. 
great deal more is done ; for according to this comparison, a coat of 
manure is gained at absolutely no expedce ; and the year is carried 
through from Michaelmas to Michaelmas, and three crops put in on 
only three ploughing*, viz. the tatres, the buck wheat, and the 1 
wheat. It is not easv to invent a system more complete. Let me 
go further, and remarK, that Mr. Moseley in this husbandry is ori- 
ginal r many have sown tares ; and many haive ploughed fn buck 
wheat'; and most have given a year to each ; but it is the combina- 
tion of the two that forms the ment, and is a plan not before re- 
gistered ; and therefore, we are to pronounce (as far as the advance- 
ment of the art is concerned), not yet practised. 

« When we see the universal eagerness and anxiety expressed by 
the experimental philosophers of the present age, to secure to them- 
• selves priority of discovery (an smxiety fair and honourable, as speak- 
ing a noble emfilatron in the best paths of fame), ought we not to 
. do justice to those who in a less brilliant, but more useful walk, in- 
vent new combinations of old practices that have the merit, because 
the advantages of novelty v 

In the subsequent section, Mr. Young relates some expcri* 
ments made by tiie late Ret. Mr. Laurcnts, of Bury, to ascer* 
takn the distinction of winter, and spring tares. As far as these 
experiments go, they prove a real diflerence; winch madj 
{>eople doubt* 

Mr. Toung not only speaks highly of the culture of turmpr^ 
Kwhich we deem with him the greatest improvement in English 
luisbandry that has been established in the present century^ 
since it has changed the face of the poorer soils,) but urges the 
£ulture of cabbages i though it does not appear that ttiey.are a 
profitable kind of crop. By being drawn and carted off, they 
impoverish and poach the land on which they are raised. 

.There is a district of Suffolk called the Samllings, which is 
edebrated for the culture of carrots; — a crop which appears to 
be extremely profitable, as well as peculiarly adapted to a light 
sandy soil. * for many years, (generally till abovt six or seven 
past,) the principal object in the cultivation was sending the 
carrots to London market by sea ; but other parts of the kingp 
dom having rivalkd them in this supply, carrots have of late 
. fC^rs been cultivated chiefly for feeding horses; and thus they 
00V ascertain, by the oommon husbandry of a large district, 
tiiat tt will aftswer veil to rftise carrots for the mere .object of 

•S the 

the teams.' Mr. Yeung concludes the detail of thk practice* 
by ' calling on all persons who have sands, or li^ht sandjr 
loams, to determine to eipancipate themselves from the chains 
in which prejudice, or indolence, have bound them ; to cul- 
tivate this admirable root largely and vigorously ; to give it the 
best soil they have •, to plough very deep ; to hoe with gre^t 
spirit ; and to banish corn from their stables, as a mere luxury 
and barren expence that ought to be extirpated ; an effect that 
flows very fairly, from the preference which the instinct of the 
four-footed inhabitant generally gives to carrots/ 

A cheap mode of feeding the team is an important desideratum 
in agriculture : this the author of the present ^nerhoir Knows ; 
and therefore we do not wonder at the energy of the above * 
exhortation : but we are surprised that he does not say a word 
of tht farsnip, a root equally valuable with the carrot, which 
may be cultivated both on strong and on light soils,' ahd may 
be mixed with carrots for the food of horses. 

A long article on the culture and manufacture of hemp oe« 
curs, which we must pass without more particular notice. 

On the subject of wastes, Mr. Young informs us that there 
are in Suffolk wastes to the amount of 100,000 acres, or itU 
part of the whole, comprehended under the terms slieep walk, 
common, vvarren, &c. These, however, strictly speaking,- 
are not really waite ; and perhaps the old Horatian maxim, h 
vitium duett culpie fugOy si caret artt^ may apply to the r^ge of 
inclosing and cultivating wastes. Very poor districts will not pay 
lor fencing, and for the management necessary for arable cropsl 
One of the author's correspondents (or rather annotators) is 
- of this opinion \ and he tells us that, within a few miles from 
i him, several' heaths which had been broken up and improved 

under skilful occupiers, about thirty years since, have within 
these last ten years been laid down again, and reconverted 
into heath-land. . In a -politfcal view, it may be prudent to 
have land of all sorts : but surely .the waste land ot^bt not to 
bear so large a proportion to that which is inclosed and culti- 
vated, as it does at present. 

Under the head of IftaprovemmtSy notice is taken of, that 
valuable practice of Hoflonu draining^ which, the- author tells 
vs, is general in all the wet lands of Sufiblk; arul which, we 
hope, is extending^hroughont the kingdom : as thus the quan- 
tity of corn produced from the same land, will be greatly in« 
creased. This will better pay the farmer, and be more advan^ 
tageoas to the public, than his expending his money and his 
atretigth on large tracts of barren waste.— The practice of hri^ 
goHorti or of watering meadows, though unquestionably: ^port- 
ant^ k scarcely known in the county of Suffolk. 


yS-^ ^d^Xi^s t^iiVf ^ Suffolk Agrlcutttift. 

Vlt. Tounglias taken much pains to ascertain the {^opuiatioti 
of the county of Sufiblki' and he has collected and brought 
together, in one view, a number of very interesting particulars^ 
to which he has added the following statement respecting taia-^ . 

' An account of the number of houfles, servants, horses, dogs, and 
carriages, in the county of Suffolk in 1796 : 

Houses* Servants. Horses. J>cfs: Cgrritges, 

Uiuler 7 wxodows, - 8,376 

From 7 to 9 windows incL 3,607 

10 to i», ditto, a,ii7 

i3toaO, ditto, 1,977 

ax to 24, ditto, 265 

25, and upwards, 602 







4,710 456 


. . • An account of the number of inhabited houses, servants, horses, 
and carriages, as assessed to their several duties, in England and 
Wales in 1796 : 

Houses under 6 windows, 354»39i 
From 7 to loind. 160,084 

IX to 15 ditto, 61,47. 
14 to 19 ditto, 61,356 
aoto 24 ^itto, 19,898 
25 and upwards, 3 1 ,64 2 



•j. Ho 























» For Suffolk to be in propoition to 


it will contain 


acres : 

Horses in husbandry. 








Horses for pleasure. 


* •/ 






Carriages, fbur-wheels. 



- 33^ 

Ditto, two-wheels. 




Proportion by rent, of 444,000!. to 26,ooo,oooL 

Horses in husbandry. 


« m 






^ HcMTses for pleasure. 



- 3^^5^ 



, . 


Carriages, four-wheels. 




Ditto, two-wheels. 




* Hence it appears, that this county contains more than the double 
of its proportion of horses in husbandry ; oue-fourth more of those 
kept for pleasure ; one-fourth more houses ; about its proportion of 
•ervants ; about a-fourth more four-wheeled carriages ; and nearly its 
proportion of two-wheeled ones. This Is on the supposition that the 
kingdom at large pays correctly. 

f Let 

If^fmits Mecuh isf Oresfei^ isf Wakefield'/ BiatrBf. 79 

* Let iu» 00 the contrary^ suppose that Suffolk is correct, and 1$^ 
^nuT what ought to be^he proportions of the wliole kingdom 1 

.Anstver, JUalfy 
paid for., 

{ZZA1A horses in bnsbandryn (^y91^yOOif\ ^oojooo 

4/jia horses for pleasure, [ Whrt should 1 %S7PTi I ty^fico 
l6,944 hoBses, I a rental of J 1,001,235 (688.000 

1,065 servants, ra6mmionA 62,931 f 56»oci> 

456 4-wheel carnages, J maintain ? f 26,945 1 19,000 
440 a-WRccI ditto, J ' V QiCjOooj %AJ0O(f 

On the whole, this work reflects credit on- Mn Yoang, not 
only as a rural but as a political economrst, .and may serve as x 
guide to other reporters. We most sincerely wish that the 
agricultural, surveys of the several counties may be so executed^ 
as to collect from every district the most valuable and accurate 
information, and to thpow light on the real state and capability 
efthe> country. 

Accompanying this memoir, are a nrap of the soil of SufibQc 
•—a plate exhibiting a machine called the extirpator, {qt (kstfoy* 
log weeds, invented by a Mr. Hayward of Stoke Ash— and 
another j^late representing a stage to a^ist in building the yppet 
part of hay^stackd* 

Aar- XL ETPiniAOT EKABH. EuripiSs Hecuha^ ad fidem Maw- 
scnftorum emendatay et brevtbus Notts emendationum Jfotusimum m* 
Hones reJdentthus mftructa4 In usum studios^ j^uvenfutis: 8vo« 
LoniBmy Wilkie. 1797. 

Art. XIL In Eur^pidis- Hecvbam Londim nuper puhRcatam Dia» 
tribe esaetnPoTidu. Ccatfwmt GUbertus Wakefield, ^. B. 8to. 
LofuMtdf Cuthell. 

Art. XIII. ETPiniAOr OPEXTHT. EurifidU Orestes^ ad fdem 
Manuscriptorum emendata^ et brevibus Notts emendatkmum potissimum 

rrraAomes fiddentthui instructa^ In usvm studiotJB Jwoenttstit, 8vo. 
Ltm£ni9 Wilkie. 1798* 

I QoMC apology is due from us to our readers, and to the authors 

! ^ of these works, for the 'appearance of neglect, in having 

permitted so long a time to elapse between the publication of ^ 
die two former, and their being admitted to take their station 
in the MontUy Review. 

"AarAoi/f • fAvvo^ Tii< *A\tAetag ?^«r,— — Some few arrangement* 
were made for a critique on the new Hecuba, when Mr. Wake* 
field's^ Diatribe appeared. It instantly occurred to us, on 
Derusing these extemporaneous remarks^ that the editor of the 
Greek tragedy might, perhaps, be induced to answer them, in 
a. preface to the play next expected : in which case, we should 
liave judged it necessary to have presented ah account of the 
pasaagea is dispute to our readers, and to have stated, ^t the 


So Porson^/ Hecuba & Ore^n^ (^ WdkefieldV JXatrlU. 

a^me time^ our o^n opinion at length, and widiont restraints 
The Orestes, however, is ho^ pnWished, But without any 
preface.*— It seemed also that a second Diatribe might have fol- 
lowed this second tragedy : but, no such piiblicatipn having 
reached our know!cge, we judge it proper ro include the re- 
views of the Hecuba^ the Diatribe, and the Orestes, in one 

We shall now begin Our examination without farther pre- 
ambft ; .only observing that, though the name of the editor is 
not prefixed to the Htcuba and the Orestes, internal evidence 
and some other circumstances have induced us to adopt the 
general opinion, which attributes them to Mr. Richard l^orson^ 
the Greek Professor in the University of Cambridge. First, 
then, for 

HrcuBA. Prstfatio. 

The Preface, Dkrtiich is given with this tragedy, may in some 
degree be considered as an introduction to the appeats^nce of 
9 complete Euripides: whose plays the editor purposes t0' 
publish in separate little volumes, and in the common order. It 
. begins with informing us that, * nihil hie exquisiti aut recenditi- 
expectandum / tironum usibus hac opella potissrmiim destinata eji^ 
The Professor then proceeds to this purpose : 

* The text of this tragedy, if not perfectly correct, is, at least, 
purer than it has yet appeared. In all places in which the usual read- 
ing has been altered, the source of the change is mentioned in the 
notes ; in which the lections of the Aldine editions are recorded ; 
except in those cases which belong to a common source of error, such^ 
as the Dorism of uaVnp for uiItm, and the addition or removal of the 
final I, or IN. ♦ 

* The Faria Leetiones, except sUch as are manifestly erroneous* 
are generally mentioned ; though the authorities oa which they de» 
pen^ from the inattention of former editors, cannot always be fajrlf 
weighed, nor accurately enumerated.' 

He then adds: < ^otiescunque Euripidis ioca ab antiqm quo* 
piam seriptore cum varietate kctioms Jaudari ,tnemi»eram, seduk 
monui t#' 

In the perusal of tKe observations pp these two plays, it hat 
been with us a subject of regret, that the editor; lias jnot |re« 
corded all the authors who have cited verses from them, or 

^ I _ - ■ -- .... - I - X ,- L - ■ - . - 

* This edition of Aldus bears the date of Mpl. It, contains 
18 Plays, tour of these only had been published a tcvf yeai^ earlier, 
in capital letters^ at Florence. The Electra first appeared in 1545^ 
at Rome. 

i" A noble coHectioa of various readings will be derived from this 
aoufce; which we beg toreco^meBd earnestly to thc-att^ntloa' f>f 
those ,wV uod^xtake the; pubHcaftioa of the aaoiqit Greek Tipters. 


Ttrson^i li^cuh bf Orestes^ ^ WaicfieldV Dtairlie. ff'f 

• # 

^'hosc allasions to them ate evident. Those who exhibit 
new readingi are doubtless of the most consequence : but stlH 
those who defend the common text ought not, in our opinion^ 
to be neglected. In how many mstanccs might the corrections 
of modem critics be proved unnecessary, by such an assem- * 
blage of references ?— In how many instances might the style 
of the Attic plays be illustratedj and the sentiments be eluci« 
dated ? Not merely these poets, however, would derive great . 
advantages from such a measure : the authors, in whom the 
Quotations are found,- would reap still greater. The blunders 
which have arisen from the words of a citation being con- 
founded with those of the original writer are innumerable* — 
Mr. Person has not excluded these authorities from his 
Notes : but it is to be lamented that they were not studiously 
admitted. He, and he alone, could have presented us with 
such a collection of thefn as might be deemed nearly complete. 
His memory appears to be eminently tenacious: his. reading: 
seems to have extended through nearly the whole range of 
Greek literature ; and his familiar acq^uaint<^nQe with the re« . 
mains' of the Attic stage, both the tragedies and the comedies, 
may be clearly seen in every page of his observations.— To 
proceed : Mr. Porsop next observes \ 

. * In 'vociitu per crasin conjunctis^ ut xcin^ xar,. »«»(!•€. ita\ %v» xtu <!») 
H tlmUlhus scrwendisf rationem a yetustiqrtbus MSS* servatam Jiligenter • 
teaitus sum. Iota scilicet nusquam addt oportety nisi vht jiu\ cum dlph" 
ihongo crasln tfficlt^ ut in xfra pro xaX uia* Hoc post alios monuit 
Da^eslusm * . 

* *Aif, Psersofid juhenft^ Brunchib non nolenitf stntpe^ sine diphthong^ 
sir^if idem fachtrut in dzroe^ «^«a. et xaac. - . 

* Bruttckius secunda4 futuri fasslvl indicativi personal in i« Semper 4 
ntm m n* ferminavit ; sicundas Hiam pntsentis ego ad eandemformam r<« 
i/twt. jinalogia ntmpe poHulaty ut vocaKs corripiatur in in^ativoy pta* 
duattur in svbjunctivOf rvsro^i, tvttn, vsvmtTBu^ rtmrviMUf tv«ti!» 

' He th€n informs us that, in his Hecuba, there is no instance 
tS aiigmtrttum verborum wmssum^ nor of an anapasttts in pari sedi. 
-^As to thc^rj/, he says : • Planipersuasum habeo^ non licuisse 
in Attic§ sermone augmentttni abjicerei* As to the second, he ob- 
serves : 

' BrunciiuSy qui an^astgs in secunJo et qudrtd senarfl loco subtnde 
defendstyfatetur tamen Traglcos hone licentiamy quantum poterant^ vitasje. 
^mdm tgitur semper vitarlnt ? An volebanty et tamen nequlbant ? An - 
casu et incuria eos has maculae fu£sse arbitrabimur ? Adde quod MSS* 
auctontatCf scrlptorum cltatlontbuSf et crltlcis argumentis e^emphrumi qus 
in baste partem laudari solebantf numerusjam valde imminutus est. 

* ARam ipse rationem a^kioy qua si vsra esty omnesj pplnor^ anqp^stpm 
paribus senarii locis semper excludendum esse ultro agnoscent. Hanc ra* 

RiV. Jan. 1799, G tlonem 

iigiumf non plqnejuidfi nvoami J^msqve mmm ipuif4nh JWW» hitii^ 
Hfue ^xfReaho. Taniwn sctUcet abtst^ mea tenUtUta^ ut anaf^^ius fro 
secamfo aut quarto pede ponatttr^ ut nepro tertio qutdtrn- aut juinto lufiti- 
tm pouit* noc at tertio iede st qms vfrwn esse concedet^ concedet a for'' 
tiortf ut Logki dicunt^ de qmnto etiam verum esse. Daciylus emmy. qttk 
in tertia side crAerrime- usurpahtry in quinta tt un qu am i^faret* Jkuat^ 
p^shts iffiur^ si iUa excludituri iane kttrare Map9tesi»^ 

Wc h^ve transcribed the Professor's words, because the 
adTpissbi) or rejection of apgnvents and an;ipests has been long 
and frequently a subject of bitter dispute among the critics. 
In our opinion, the (questions never merited discussion : but 
they 9t^ now, it m»y be hoped, cpmpletely settled : for the 
single passage, in v^hich the augment was once opitted, in the 
Hecuba^ no longer appears ; and those verses in whif:h there 
were anap^sts in the secqnd, third, fourths or fifdi pla<;es^ are 
soccessfully corrected in this first play. We doubt not that 
they will be emended with equal ability in the other tragedies* 
when they are brought before the publip by Mr'. Person ♦. 

As to Escfaylus and Sophocles, there are six instances of aa 
anapcst in terfia sede-f, in the farmer, and four in the latter. 
These are thus incontrovertibty amended : 

I. JB. Prom, 246. Kal [xriv fi><oi; i^no^ itcrof^v lyti^ instead 
of cMEi^oV Rtthnkeniusy ta whom Mr. P. refers, on the Hymtt 
to Ceres 283. [not 264.] has only quoted a part of the article: 
from the Snn German grammarian. The whole shall follow^ 
• a6 it stands in our transcripts from the MS. which was once 
in the Coislinian library : ' 'Exciyov, dvt rou 'E^cei^oV. ^!B«gra2af 
'A'^^v • Ti>J,rm )i X^oXitucn ucUd (Mduuf to v "BMivf y Ts^^Kfy. 

fl. Jgamem^ 664. *'Hp«awtf' 04 U xt^ii^iHt/^m P*Vf fcc 

UL CSairpk. tf 54* ''^^w•f fO^t^m Wiy 'AiUc^ ^ mtead of 

IV. BttvuH. 896. EfaVi)^ dmffium oc^uV' Hx^ S jtu— for 
ii^vo^ The Attics always, as Pierson observes on Moms» 

i i :.\ 1 > . '■ 

/^ M(?« F^KPon^ might htJre g omparad the fonnatbn of the trochaic* 

wjth tliat qf the k^i^hi^ wr#c. I^ the fprvf^u t^e ^iffdr/ i^ adoiis* 
«ibl<; only in thp jxjpf^ pl^ ; za^ i^ U^e lattcri t)^ imijl»4^ i* allows 
able only In thcjfr//. We have not ^oora to enlarge on this siibjecttw 
but must be contented with reiparking ^hat, as the iam^i is arlnrfoi;^*; 
to the ProehanSi $0 is the antspststus ta the dadjius. 

The learned reader ig particularly requested to excuse any errors 
which he may^ observe in the Greek typpgriphy of this artiok. They 
most find their apolo^ in thehuny in whicn i| periodical work must 
laevitably be printed. 

t Those In the second'and fourth phees ane not mentioned {q the 

rThey have gcaeratty b^cn airrcctcd by th^ tt^ru 
14 . Wlite 

VxKWi^i Hictia en* Oreku^ (^ WakefiekTi IXdttHei S| 

vtite it^i%^ aad the Aldine cdittosiy in this rerse, gives *Oi^«V 
They also used ''Ot^ ^OmXnKj *OiXsi^ and 'Oi^^if ; of which 
word Mn Poraoa remarks, < m Euripide msque ad bunc diem 
semper editum est oialiff contra veriMi tnetmm^ c^rUra grammsii^ 
ceremi cttctoritateotm 

V. St^pl. 8oo. ITpoc Sy vt^ ^ i^fiXa yiWm x*»»t «8 St 
Stands ia Aldus and R^ertellus, and not ti* iijniKd. 

▼!• In a fragment of Eschyius, ap. Ptut. de Canielai. p. io6, 
"Offvtf fuy idT UifM r«)v srox^tSv mukSv^ ia the correction of 
GfotiuS) Excerpt, p. 55. instead of fuMop iofjLa. 

VIL SOpbocles, jfj. 524. "Cknrdk yinil* iv IvTx Wtwif emfi 
instead of Otfa a» >^tV 9nrf' oSro^ tJy* c^.^-^-emended, h*^ 
gendo ivvok pro iosrup from the Corpus Cb^ Qxoh. most excellent 
MS. of Suirias. 

VUL O. ST. 248. KaxiyL kax^ viv «M0f(v iJ»I(»4'«» fiUp^ for 

uL P^7. 1 188. n«c fT^tf^; ^^' 01/ [or Ifo] hvrs^ta JbXtv- 
fAsttf; by conjecture, instead of oix d^a* SiCli^^y, 

X.'And apud Hesycb. V. iyli7r>adlof. T$¥ dvl!vXa<flo9 vofm 
ix^ xix/biWranr, for t^ti vif^ov 

These alterations are defended by such certain argumetitSy 
that no critic, we imagine, will in fature allow an anapest in 
any foot of an iambic verse, but the FittsT, with the exception 
of proper names. The learned will peruse this part of the 
Preface with singular pleasure, and, if we be not xieceived, 
with much advantage* He must be referred to the book for 
the editor's account of these changes, as the passage is too 
long for transcription. — > 

'nie acuteness of this canoti, and the simplicitv of the emcnd« 
ations which were proposed for the questionable verse^ 
seemed calculated to demand universal applause : but to please 
all is rarely the lot of a philological writer \ and the Greek 
Professor must share the general doom of Greek critics f The 
new Hecuba had been published only a few weeks, when a 
review of it appeared under the title of DJatribk £XT£tf« 
POEALis, avowedly the production^ of Mr. GiI-Bert "W^AKS- 
JHELD.' In the opening of it, after a severe censure on Mr* 
Porson for i^ot omitting the N. paragagicufn, (oit which point 
we shall deliver our sentiments in another part of this artide,) 
Mr. Wakefield declarea ht$ dissatisfaction with the Kotes on the 
/mtrfi and nintb of these teti pas^ges ; principally, perhaps, be^ 
cause hia own name and his own labours are not recorde<f it 

them by the editor. rQn/Aic fiurti, JBL Eumen. 896. Vbe. 

Wakefield telh us that, in his own edition of this play, in th^ 
Tragadimrum Dehituf^ he has given Ot^vou ^^^ ^^^^ Oi^v^ 
Mr. Porson, perhap%^ never examined Vtd% 7>0;4rfMn^ffY D^ 

G a 1*^^ 

t4 IPcrfonV He^u'ia (ff Orestif^ isT Wakefidd'/ Dhtrii/; 

teetiis of Mr. WakcficW : but, even if he had consulted Itg 
there appears no ireason for its being mentioned on the pres^x^tf 
occasion. *OiC,6oi is the kctioh of the Aldine, the prihcepr 
edition, and is therefore property noted. 

In the comments of Mr, Wakefield on this tragedy, the*- 
reader might justly have expected some reason to be assigned,- 
why Oi?voi occupied the pi ace of 'or^vof, as Pauw and otherfti 
. have printed the word ; and there also, if the restoration was 
teMj intentional^ the lection of Aldus, and: the judicious eanoa 
of Pierson, ought to have been carefully registered. -^In repiy^ 
to the latter patt of Mr, Porson's observation on these Attic 
words beginning with OI sine res^lutione, Mr. W. thus proceeds t 

• * ^uud pehgit ajtrmiire :sofi£sstme V. D. /.xk "/« Euripide usqat^ 
ad hunc d'mn semper ediium est oiVrc/" Id plane in falsisstmis habendum ^ 
nam not disertissime edidimui in Here, Jur, 294. ad bunc-ipsum modum : 

fi/Lv^e^ owrraj a(fncm 

JPene indueor, ut V, D. Homereis nxrhis alloquarf te, lector I tuputem^ nofi 
improbante : 

Mr. PorsoR should undoubtedly have limited his remark 
about oioli;^ in Euripicie?- TThe mark of diaresis is found ia 
the Aldlne, Med. 640. oaliv. Andr. 1134. o.a7o/. and Herc^ 
Fur* 194. oiarlwq. In the two former places, Barqes states 
that the word must be read iiouXKxQa^^ and in the latter he has 
published oV7oyf,. with, ;. e. oiclovq^ on the margin. The merit, 
therefore^ of printing oicnoJf in the ti. Fur, belongs to Barnes, 
and not to Mr. Wakefield ; who should have mentioned the 
variation of the A/dine, and Barnesian editions, in his Notes, 
and should have produced his reasons for following the latterj— « 
5f> indeed, the change was intentiQnah 

! It is not, however, easy to determine whether the mart 
of di^esis is to be expected in an edition of a Greek poet, fjroin 
which accents and half the spirits are almost wholly discarded'. 
In this^ collection, indeed, Mr. Wakefield, in hn. 473, instead 
of ^oiSifio;, gives: 

4>ciif Mior cj'Oa yct^ 
'^QhZmoi^ as it stands in the note, [» wrong as to the place of 
the accent, though light as to the diaresis. The antistrophic 
.verse demands in this line an Jbnic a nmjore. It must also be 
jnentioned that, in Mr. W.'s Trachinia 237. the diaresis is 
used where it is not wanted, in the word £i/CoiiC» which Brunck 
likewise prints in the same manner. 

^ Mr. Wakefield, as was mentioned, is also dissatisfied with 
^r. Porsoti's correction of the mnth instance : SopL PhiL 
^288,.>fiS or /f.oV^ instead o£ai)« /^a; and$ays: * Pro* 
V...... " 15 * nuncient 

Porton'/ Ifecuia fsT Orestes, fef WakeficidV Diatribe, i^. 

guncieftt eruJiti, an nos in fditiprte nostra non dudum doctiuf, 
^quisiiiuSf atque ttiam Uviore opera^ correximus s aurium ope vi-* 
^um sentientesy sed originem ejus e^^ qua V. Z). sagacitaie npn: 
vakntes indagare : Ilwf tnsai; ; OT TAP 3: i9>iOvfA(0a.' 

In correcting the antients» no opera can be levior thaa 
transposition; for, as Mr. Porson observes in his Preface, 
• tutissima proinde corrigendi ratio esty vocularuth transpositio,' 
'Af' ou we deem the preferable emendation. It has more force 
than a^ot' alone; and as for ou .of, some explanation is re- 
quired respecting yo^g, beyond what appears in Mr. Wakefield's 
Bote on the passage, either in his D^lectitSy or in his DiaUibe* 

To return to Mr. Person's Preface. With regard to the 
choral systems, two rules are principally adopted : < Prima 
miravip ut quodque carmen ad nota et Lyricis poetis usitata, si fa*- 
die fieri posset y versuum genera redigeretur ; deinde^ ut eadem^aut 
sinnlis versuum jpeaes quhm srcpissime recurrent. ^^-^yii, P. then 
remarks that it is difHcult to define the licences, in which tht- 
tragic writers indulged themselves with regard to dialect. 
Some lonisms yS^ch. as Ifri^o;, f^oi/voc, yovvdla^ Koufo;^ and iovft^ 
are found ; even though the Attic word ^tvou and so on, be 
adimittcd : but the greater number of these irregularities have 
been introduce from Homer by unskilful transcribers. The 
instances of Dorisms in the Chural Odes are, indeed, more 
readily reduced to rule : but these forms are not regularly pre- 
fcnrejjd cyep in the best MSS.— where moderate copies have 
them, they are inserted in the 'text of this new Hecuba. 

Mr, Porson bas used, besides the edition of Aidus, those of 
Barnes, of King, and its repetition by Morell, of Musgrave, and 
of Beck ; a^id be has given new collations of two MSS. in the 
library of the R. Society, and of a third in the British Museum* 

The ]?reface thus concludes : 

* Imterfretandi et iliustrandi lahore ^fUtiSsfimo tdnej superiedendvm duxs^ 
fartim ne libellu^ iu librum etccresceret. Loca tantum qua LcUini imltaii 
ejuUf provt ofemgrifl suggessit^ adscripsi* Raro /urn interpret'u vicefudCm 
tuif nisi ubi cum critici officio conjunctum ei;et. Sin autem in ulla re 

justo parcior visus fuerpy in sequentibus fabulisf u quof postbac e£dero, hoc 
vitium cmendare an/iitar. Hoc enim monendus est lector ^ cater as Eurtpidis 
fabulas ordtne vulgato singuJas mox prodituraSf si modo hoc specimen ret' 
pvl/ica Uteraria non displtcere intellexero. Si opus adfinem perduxero^ ad* 
dam observaiiones quasdam in varia Scenicor'^m Poetarum metra.* 

It may naturally be expected that, according to our usual 
plan, we should now pr^jceeJ from tlie Preface to the work it* 

* These words demand the serious consideration of the reader : 
for, in defiance of this declaration, Mr. Wakefield, in his DiatHbe, 
iTrcqucntly cenaurcs Mr. Porson for not havioj acted the part of aa 
interpreter in hii a^tes on Hecuba. 

• P 3 wlf ? 

96 FonoiiV HecuBa V Orester, & WakefieldV Diatrik. 

self: but, as several parts of it hare l>een brought forwards 
and csasuned by Mr. Wakefieldi in the Tract which has been 
abeadj mentioned, an attempt dball first be made to iii?estigat|? 
the truth of the objections which have been raised against these 
particufar passages. They shall be taken in the Mder whkh 
1$ assigned to them in the Diitribe. After this discussioni 
if our Itaaited bounds are not too far exceeded, we shall 
add some remarks on the Notes and plan of Mr. Ptofessor 

. The reader is already informed that the Diathibe Extem* 
PORALis of Mr. Wakefield appeared very shortly after the 
publicatbnof the Hecuba. The work, indeed, in general, 
bears etidcnt marks of haste in the objections which are ad« 
vanced, atid in the alterations vwhich are proposed : in the 
Ladnity, and in the general style of the composition. 

These •ijietiom and alteratiom we must now diseiHS. As to 
tiie LatiMHyf it is not otir wish to be fastidious in examinmg 
the language of critical liisquisitions : but as to the uniTcrsal 
complexion of the whole Dimtrthfi^ we assert, in the most un« . 
(foalmed manner, that the resentful spirit by which the author^ 
lemarks appear to hare been dictated, and the splenetic style 
in which they are written, blended as it is with a mixture of 
what he tails (p. 40) atmenitaium ac Uporum cwdifruntis^ can 
never be too severely condemned. 

The gennioe Critic, when he undertakes the examination 
of any woiic, deliberates with coolness, and investigates with 
eaution. His objections are stated with civility, unalloyed 
ky sarcasm ; and bis opinions are delivered with firmness, un* 
nixed with petulance. His judgment is not obscured by an 
overweening confidence in his own acquirements. His taste 
is not vitiated by a perpetual search after novelty. His ardour 
in the cause of learning is superior to petty considerations \ 
nnd the sportive obtrusions of a playful fancy never diminish 
Ae force of his arguments. He proposes his own emenda« 
tions with diffidence ; while he docs not rashly infer that the 
silence of his contemporaries has its source in malevolence \ nor 
does he attribute their objections to a desire of degrading him 
Irom that post, to which he is entitled in the ranks of literature. 

Such are wr sentiments. Mr. Wakefield, indeed, thus de- 
scribes his own motives: ' PaucuU defroperato caUuno com* 

nuntabinmr: candiJum Sterata reipMicm judicium Ithentir perkli'' 
$aUf ei ammo a Jpe^ metu^ atqui flffectibus > quHusIiiet tnifuis% ab^ 
iolutissime def^ato! Prof. Diatrib. Extempor. p. 4. 

With the HECvnA of Mr. Porson, and the Diatribe Ex- 
TBMPORALis of Mr. Wakefield, the Animadversions of the 
Monthly Review shall ngw be submitted to the Public 5 and 


l?i)r$onV Secuha tif Orestes^ If WatcfieldV Dhtrite. 87 

Wore <h&t tribunal let tlie merits or demerits of the £ditor» 
«f the Critic, and of fhe Reviewers/ be decided. 

The Diatribe Extemporalis 
^ensists of forty pages : four of which are occujned by the 
title and preface : the following thirty-three are filled with re- 
marks on the Hecuba of EuripideS} which relate principally 
to Mr. Porson's edition of that tragedy ; and the bsc three ex- 
bibit some reasons for the publication of this pamphlet* From 
fliese*, let the reader accept the following extract, in the 
words of the author : 

' MfeR6re httdfi^tj ii afittiha henigmorUnu emoISttf qta ffertu jfhtctvs 
tit Actri^f uaUtaiamfirant veRtn^ an Wf ntitquak non afuepiuuiBiis 
'fxcefiust atque hahihu amke^ extujundus tU^ fuU in shhiH tliatertd ^ertU' 
HUf datum oceattMem md aAotustattiA non m9do noh arrfaeriif (ueqke 
emm idfuusem queiituj tidtaU neg^tnttd prdUrUriif quaRs haudinmmt 
chjcuref varwn contra falam fronntigetf legentibus miveriUy mea m Ktera* 
Cr£cas nuriia nuIRus esse prorsus fretis ; et memet insufer imRgnum uti* 
^ve, de sua saliem oplmone^, qui doctorum catibus inscriSar* Sin autem hie 
itssarem^ nequi acH/er calwnniam, sllentem quidem^ sed fut iUe ait) '/zavr^ 
t4^ii\9Tipay ^oya^ propulsarem gftavi bondnis officium per vecordtam pudi* 
hMdtm nUBi viderer prodere, et ufaXyf^rmc tttfpissima jure ptstulandus, 
Sed nee ^necors /flm, neque AoaAyirro^' il nMtht mtd shgnumf quodprins (ut 
qui per omnem vitam tot ineommoiStatihts tMpeditns fuerim^ tse dam Etb^ 
uenstnm iSscipKnarumt quas in sunuAd feruitate potuissem^ fruehu ) formidii^ 
wsem protuiisse, certe Hecuba faeit puhUcatay tit audatUr proferam s 


Thus is the gauntlet thrown : — «-but the chaiienge has ndt 

{yeen accepted. Mr. W. published thif Diatribe because 

neither his name nor his observations on the Hecuba were 
mentioned in Mr. Person's notes on tfastt play ; and nov^, the 
OrtsUs is publishedi and the same siknoe is observed. 

Ac, the end of the tract is a list of Mr. Wakefield's worU, 
and a diort account of his LucasTitJs : A part of which only, 
at that time, had appeared. The thi^ee volinnes are itow 
completed ; and the whole work forms an elegant and splendid 
ornament for public libraries, and for the cabinets of the cupi 
rious. It must, indeed, ever rank highly among the speci- 
mens of English typography, and most be considered as the 
grandest edition of Lucretius which has yet been published* 

The remarks in the Duttribe are about fifty in numbet. 
They shall all be noticed, in the cursory account of the new 
Hecuba and Orestes which we inteild to lay before our 

readers ; and^ for the sake of brevity, we shall generally venture 

^" -- - ' -■ -■ ■- 

* The dcnmtre passed 6n the traDslatof of Aohis Gelliui, p. 59. 
itf in ottf'op&ioir, impio^erly introduced into the Diatriie. 

G4 to 

99 Person'/ Hecuba fst Orfstes, i^ Wakefield*/ Diatrihe. 

,to mark Mr. Professor Richard Person's notes with R. P» only, 
and those of Mr. Gilbert Wakefield with G. W. 
V. 13. "'O Kxi fJLi yrii 'Twff£7r£,u4/£V— 

Mr. Porson sa]^s : ***0 videtur cum SchoL Barocc. interpre'm 
tandiim^ to lw»i vEurcdoUf quae res scilicet. ^lii pro 3i' acci" 
piurit. Litem dirimeret MS. HarL si ejus lectionem i amplecteremur* 

Mr. Wakefield says i * V. D. formulam in V. 13. parum per^ 
cepit^ licet pervageUisiimatfi:'^ — quam Lucretio frequentatam atque 
nobis ibidem sapiuscule illusiratdm^ piget hie vexare.'-'-'^HarL 
M&^ y-F iw in hoc sensu^ pace V.D> dixerim^ ne Gracitati qutdem 
qffinem puto! 

It would have been more satisfactory, if Mr. Wakefield 
had stated his own explanation of '^O, and opposed it to that of 
Mr. P. ; and if he had advanced some proof that the Pro* 
lessor did not understand the construction of the relative. We do 
not conceive why «, the Harleian lection, should be considered 
as not affinis Gracitaii \ though the explanation of the Baroc* 
cian Scholiast has always appeared clear and satisfactory. It 
still spem^ tq us preferable to any other ; and this opinion will 
^pt be readily shaken, while it is thus defended by the autho- 
rity of Valckcnaer : " In Hecuba, V. 13. Nualxlof f* iu ^fiar 
fAiicSr KXi fMB yHi *T7|{carc/A\]/ck male dederant iio quamobrom veJ 
quare, cum nihil aliud sit quam quod cVep, scilicet ro ciuat /i4S vciJ- 

laray tcSv ih'Sj^Vy yiyovp ailiO¥ tIu ifnreyLp6nyou /ke. preuti 

recte cepit Scfioliasfes in Cod. Barocc." The whole of Valckc* 
naer's note is excellent, and demands a careful perusal from 
|he readers of this passage in the Hecuba* 
• Mr. W. commends Mr. P. for observing that ^ in adjective 
ffcxl^ua contineri substantivum vcHn^f quo refertur ai/7o^' Mr. P«y 
he adds, gives three examples of this schema^ but has not men- 
tioned Mr.W.'s note on one of them, Soph. Trach. 259. where 
he has produced ^plura et recondiiiora\* as alsoou Lucret.I. 353. 
We think that Mr. W. should not have been oflFended at this 
silence ; as the Professor seems studiously to have avoided 
crowding his notes with references to the illustrations of the 
•critics on the tragedies. On several occasions, he has omitted 
to quote even Valckenaer himself. 

32. TpHeciov iifi ^iyyoi iicufoi/fAtvou 

R. P. * Mira locHtiOf rpOam ^syyo^ pro simplici t^Itqv. Uno 
tamen epcemplo se^ ipse Euripides defendit HippoL 275- n»$ J'ov, 
rpHoum y* oua^ ao-iiog vf^ipctp J* 

G. W. *Incogitatttiam equidem }^,D. satis mirari nequeo, Nimrum^ qvis* 
quis euaptna^ rptTatofifUfeUfper tres dies -aiwpitTou* qui vera Tpnot r)a*parr* 
per unum tolummodo ex tribus. Optima et Gracissime 2). Joannes^ xi. 39. 
Kvpf , rhi efi*' TETAPTAIOr yaf karu Age vero substitue TirapTOf, et 
§mnia corrumpes ac pestum dabit : nee xf 4tw tamen minm EuripuUs meati 


PorsottV Hecuha tsf Orestes^ W Wakcficld'i Diatriiu 9$ 

fisconveniretf nisi verhontm tenorem mutes, et ingenium coastruciionisf 
Hoc aatemt sil licet nonmhil inconstaniia serif toriiusy generaliter vertrni estf 
tt rectum* Ut, quid veRmy breviter dejiniam, Tpratoi ri^i^ac in eddem re 
wccessionem indicat ; rf%xt,^y non item* 

How can the masjculinesj rptloq ami rfuoLiou be joined to tlie 
feminine ii/*€fa ? How can nTafldtoi lSv6pui7rd;] in St. John, il- 
lastrate Tpi7aiov ^iyyog or rp!\ciioL uWp^ ? The mere coniinnation of 
iimt is sufficiently marked by the accusative case ; a^id the singu- 
larity of the expression in Euripides arises from the ^djec^ive 
rf^Aioif which comprehends in itself the notion of continuance 
of time, being joined to a substantive which also signiiies time*. 
The termination oto;, in ^his and in similar adjectives, is pro- 
bably derived from a£i or auiy being incorporated with an or- 
dinaL-T-As we have transcribed thp whole notes of the editor 
and of his' critic^ in order to render the point in question 
perfectly clear, we beg to recommend the following words of 
Vaickenaer to the reader's consideration. Hippolytus 274, 
T^Hxiay 11/x/frtw] " Tfiv rpHmv Y4JLi^av dixit Euripides rpilauoiv^ ut *t^ 
TTQoii^ay dicebant et T^oli^Mxv* Polydorus in Hecuba, V. 3 2. Tf<- 
lotiov ^ifi piylog ouuj^QUfAtiog^ ubi Schol, multa tradens de his numera* 
libuSy iviotvia iij to rodaiov cIi^tI tqu r^llcv ?<iyEiat, Hie (tstidi^ 
more scripsisset^ r^iloiTci f,in ocico^oiiMtvo^' ut twstro loco, r^Hxia'/ 
W i^i\ov cmissis vocibus fsy^o;. et i5/^ff av. iuam tiunc conjee* 
turam CL ReisliuSy opinory nollet doctis hominibus propositam.^^ 

Let Reiske's note on the line in the Hippolytus be added : 
275. ^* jiut r^ildioa [legcf/dum,'} ut ^.135. product a media 
vpcati metri necessitate^ ant alias soloecum dixit. Non enim de 
die dicitur r^ildtav xfAtfccv da^ii ic/ltv i «v9f5)7ro;, sed n avSfwiroj if 
Tgthfyvel T^iloitsi r.3>j acr/Iof hliy^ in nominatlvoy et absque xfAs^dey.** 

We spare comments. Vaickenaer compares the usage of 
T^ilcux for TfiTTj in Euripides with that of Tr^oleoocia for ar^ ojffa ; 
we shall quote the authority of Thucydidcs : v. 75. p. 362. 
Tr, Si v^m^oiici r.iii^ay and vii. 51. p. 479. TJ f/iv irfo!ip»fa. 
In both places, however, some MSS. give Tr^oji^x* The reader 
may c.'Hsult the notes ; and Henry Stephens, Thesaur. V. 
Tghatos and V. vr^oE^xiog. 

Tfilawv ^iyfpc, it may be added, is one of the few passages 
which the writer of that dull tragetly, Christus Fattens^ (attri-* 
buted to Gregory Nazianzen,) has borrowed from the Hecuba. 

41. Tlpoa-fotyfAa] This word is compounded of v^o and 
c^dyfAMy not of ir^ii and o-^.— as ^peivfAa is said, and not ^j oV- 
tvMO* Yet here, ^nd in v. 269, [Diatribe, p. 17.] Mr.W. 
wishes to spell this word with a double sigma : tl^ocfr^arfiiau 
tte has also published ^fojcr^af^alwy, in the Alccstis, 857. This 
is an improper addition. Markland gives it with a single S in 
i^c second Iphigcnia 243. and 258. and Henry Stephens says; 

9© PorsoaV Meetiia W Orisiis^ Hf WakefifcliTi t)lA{f»i. 

*" Ttfiovfd^ti'^unJe vfi^^ctffxa^ arof^ ri, fuod ex Murip. aj^eftut 
fro riostia^ Vkitlkd : v^dytof. Corson tamen significai id, quod 
jugulationi pteudis prdmittitur sacrj/tdum, utidem sit cum irfofia/^* 
^bisaur. IHw 1 1 59.** ^ 

Mr..Pot86o's conjecture of yift^t >axi^ff,\n tlits verftc^ for 
jutCttVi is properly termed inmtioium by Mr. Waktfield. 

53. — ir»i yci( ?3' etno crwmi viiot 

IThfc old readine i$ vVo ov. Mr. P. has pubiislied aird, and 
says * awi pro v^ri emindavit Kingius.* Mr. W. observed : 
* EquiJem verum ansimn vsripi f. e. super Iimen tent&rii transit. 
il€ vocutm ad Ver. 66. seriiis commutata sunt J* 

Rciske also proposes iiti for ivi^ but mentions not King's 
name* *TTff appears to be the true reading ; and we were 
rather Surprised at not finding it in Mr. P.'s text, ^runck and^ 
Iteck had both changed the ivi of Aldus into the conjectured 
M», and there was equal authority for the admission of Iwtf ; 
which, as might hare beeil stated bv Mr."^. is to be found in 
the notes of Musgraye : 13. J^^^iuJ * Legtndum^ni falJor^tr^o 
€mni' Sic »fo iofMt, ▼. ^g.-^-^Nisi malis i* f a/amv, extra ten- 
torium, ut inrtf Tffa/xiN»9 Orest. 1377.' — I'he authors of the 
£iUiotbeca Critica appear to prefer the former : ir^o ax^^c- 

Mr. W. proceeds : * irifft voia ntonstrum putc—Rescripierim : 
'^HA— qmdsi sonus HectA^ incedentis tmribus acctdiret. Jffoster^ 
Tbotn. loo^ 

Kfiffw vaXMM lOj^uttt 'EKIIBPA ItOAL' 

"We think that vrf ^ TtiijL is right ; and that the alteration into 
«r«Jl obscures the passage, and is not to be defended by wTrt^ce, 
^lAOMa 9oi\f where the verb is followed by an accusative 
joined to the dative. AH doubt will be removed by transcrib- 
ing a ^art of Mr. Porson's note on the Orestes, 1427. 

* Verha, que motum signtficoiU, reete aceusativitm adsciscwit intfru" 
menti auf memBri, quod trecipue adhtbetur. Sic na «-o^' t«»£«(» Hcc. 
10629 uii ffo^ muho faciBus quam vo^. Rid. ^3. «'ip« vtihf* Baifw 
s^ud jfiiicos neufrale est verhitm ; 0«im>v tamen vro^a mxit EuripidtSf 
£lectn 94. 1182. Imo jlristophanes Eccles. 16 1. 'EkK\^chourc9T cox ir 
4rpoCamv T«y tfo^s T<n trip»ty u fcig ra^ Mft'^Ma'tlM* JHox. 1475* [''* 
(kVs^ scil,2 Mmr.n^* o^oXav w-o^Cac. PhhI. I450» ir^^«f ^ Jtixn 

^{^. Sofhclcs apud Phatum * MS. in nota ad Haych. W. *Ox<h 
*AM$dlaHiif SuidaSf V. *'0;^jbpov* "Oj^ok 'AxMnabU'to'iy •^iCt}^ vol«/ 

' It may be added* that Henry Stephens says in hisThesaur* 
III. ^3^. <' Ad irt^oko signifkans sinipticitif, trmnsfirOj perHnti 

* A quotation from Photius F— Can wc forbear to express our 
ardent witthes that tliis valuable and eagerly ciCpe^ed Lexicon may 
soon appear f We f«l true ddight at the wjht and pemtel of these 
Gitek playtf :-*but let ntft the Patriaith 6#^ Gt>iisl!antibo|de be fen- 


fisi nc Buri^deaferiuTy ortf « yiro ^xnv^f ir«3% pro ; E tenhlrh 
frofirt feitmr — ^The rcfider will find in Lucian, if the se^rrch be 
tanti^ v^fAOTiv ir«9a{, and ir^oSaivf iv jgro^a. 
' 55* e* TVfamxtf» itt^.'\ Mr. W. hesitates in deciding whe« 
riier the editors and interprettrs understood this usage of EK^ 
%xA Infers to the explanations in his ZHvm Critka IV. which- 
Mn P. neglected* Whence the doubt springs, he has not in* 
fcrned us. The translation gives : t« regus mdkhuf^ The La* 
tins ose ex in phrases similar to those in which the Oreeki 
employ EK. The reader ma j consult Donatus on the Andria 
of Terence, L 1. 10/ 

<y^(^-74. As Aristophanes calls : HAmni ctufof^^u^mK 
Ntftfo; vdJa^ Mr. P. wishes the twocbuzscSf *il srorvia xlwV, abd 
*A €milia tu^, to change places. Mr. W. Would place V. 71. 
after V. 68. and explains ITcforof from Hesycbius by 'AWiiw 
* loM, jplmdor sotis^^'^O ! Dies^ 0/ fiax.^^Ufidgy utidchiiir 
mtem^ cof^iiur pl^ne^ ac SipeiMbt roMdity V. D. €rasmr suifiA» 
d9 daustdurumy » wma ^tof^ m vuSiha Nv^ irafupcii^^! 

If any change be necessary, the alteradon of Mr. P. is ai^ 
f urcdly . more simple than that of Mr. W. The refereaee s» 
the Rand proves, indeed, what has frequently struck us in th6 
^rii&al of the Professor's notesy that he is as familiarly ac^ 
quainted with Aristophanes as he is with the rragedtes*«*-Whyt 
because X%fo«i9 sometimes has the signification of 'Avf^, ^f?^ 
Ajo( mast be translated jplendor solis^ Dies^ is ,not clear. Tht 
text seems to require no change : t> yiM amAomki^i^mv iniptn 
fAiStfa, are the words^of Eustathius, in Iliad^ B« p. 131. Ed. 
Bas. Ihese are nearly repeated in Od. T. 713. and Tuvncbus 
has observed : Vtter^ semma e terra muci cndiJUrunt^ H ab in* 
firtsy matiibusfue mitti, baqui 7erra mb £uripidei /MXafHoirlf fvfiiS' 
/MTff intfWf in Mfcuta. Adversary XXVifx. c. 46. p. 6511 • * ^^ ' 

In V. 6^, Mr. W. proposes : 1 ' - 

Ti 7*T AF* wfOfAOi mox^i oJla^ 
instead of Tt vo? ai^euy which Mr. Porson gives from the 
Haileian MS.--Aldus has ii^o:*, and the rest ctiiOfo^MU la 
an edition of the Hecuba by Moreiiusy Paris, 161 a f, in 4to., 
which Mr. P. does not appear to have seen, the lection is also 
#«^o^cai«-*— Mr.W.'s insertion of AP' may be defended: Soph. 
4j* 90s. T<vo$ voT oSf hrgait xl<fi ii^f^cfoi^ Arist. Vesp. 1434 
Tr IXOT' 'AF n Mixm ^u 1 T»( «>« is also in Eur. Hipp, 
iaB* where Mr. Egerton has admitted into his text the ve* 

pudiated correction of Musgrave, without acknewlegement« 

-, --I ■ II 1 1 1 I " — '-■^^— » -> ■—■ — « — ' — 

* Nelth^ of these passages has efecapcd Mr. Person's its^rchcs. ' 

t We give this date from Harwood> as our copy has lost the title. 

• Let 

pX PorsoiiV Hecuia isC Orestes^ fcf WakcfidcP/ Diatrit^. 

^ Let this passage, and the proposed alterations, be left tq Mr^ 
Porson ; who, when he arrives at it, will probably remove all 

j[t must be recollected, however, that, though this insertion 
of AP* fnay he allowed, it is by no means necessary ; as there 
are other Faroemiacif or anapesucs of fourteen lines ii| thi» 
system, which ceases to be regular after V, 67. 

Instead pf alywgx t' f/*wy, Mr. Porson pijblishcs, aftcf 

0( fA.nof QiKoov ocyw^ ar f/CAwy 
Trik x*o*'^'^w OfWv Kxlix^iy 
which Mr. Wakefield chuses to render thus ! * ^t solus ut est 
tnia domus ancorcj liCf ut ancora tenet Thraciam ;* and boldly cor- 
rects : 'Of MENDS oimy ArKTPA t' £/«a». In the Attic l^cts, 
we recoUeet no instance of such a junction as /a(W$ ttwav. The 
position of t' for rr, after ayiajgo^ inclines us to join with the 
Professor, in judging Reiske's emendation to be true. 

The following passage of Suidas, omitted by the editors of 
Hecuba, had almost escaped our recollection : XaX^Vft? w 
itfd^ iyKv^av, ''Ayxo^ay fJLil^Q^acii aVo rcTy vnuVf ij a^pdMiat 
^ So^oxX)?; fv ^xi^^et t^ ^£t/ci7/^»}( iv 'ExAl^r. Hesychius, V. 
'Ayjwfaf, refers to the place in Sophocles, and the Sangerm. 
Grammarian preserves the verse : AXX' im |tAiiI(>i vaiiir c Symbol 
0ov» In Brunck's Lexic, SophocL p. 47. who has not mentioned 
Suidas. The line before us is the one intended by Suidas ii| 
the Hecuba. 

ICO. 'EitaSu, ^irwJ>) xfo'c c* iXtaVSiji', 

G.W.— ' VV. DD. vere xafAriXoiroloci olUissimum fnendum^^-^eott': 
coqucre quiverurtt,'^Sat scioj ncque juvtntas studiosay neque pr£cefi(tre» 
sfueSosa juventutiiy phrasem bcUuIam^ vfo^ <r*iX*aw0>}», nobis sunt daiara^ 
turi. Rescribendum scilicet : 

ExaCry ffvovh vpo^ 9 EBIAZOH^f. 
Interpretis officio fungatur OresU 456. ed Beck.* 

I'hc words are (for Mr.W. has not given them) : Vifovii iw^ 
• afn>^alai voii*. V. 450. Ed. Porsoni; which may, indeca, 
explain what meaning Mr. W. wishes to affix to cCiaVSny, 
but cannot be considered as a defence of the change. 

It is lamented that Mr. W. did not assign his reasont 
for wishing the alteration of vjo? y i\toiff6n¥. Aioc^m is derived 
from Ai'av, as the Etymologist observes, p. 27. i. and p. 620, 
1 . ; and not from *Axi'^w, per transpositionem f . It signifies 

* So the Latins use the verb contendere. 

f This is not merely the opinion of the Schol. on Eur. Hec« lOO. 
but alao Of the Etymologist, V. *A?J«<rio:, and V. Ai«^«.> ' * 


ftjrfionV Hecuha pf OrisUs, iff WakefifeWV Diahihe: 9} 

ogttOi jaciOf hirbo .-7- we transcribe from H. Stephcna ;T-ra'nd 'n\ 
file passive form, Separo mg, Declino^ Devito ; vcl etiam Ab- 
$C£DO, Secedo. In Horner, it is joioed with. Afi/po, E^, Eif, 
'iVf i) and IlPO'Iy with which last prepQ^on it is used by 

'EAiaVSnv is explained by the Scholiast on the passage TLoo" 
vifvyov, ?A6oy. Homer, li. X. I2. has lu ^ ithpo Xiciain^*-^ 
Tu vera hue ^/wr/w/i,— Clark, Tu autevi hue cucurristi. 
I>AMM. Lexlc. Pindar. E^t^wj^E;, UviTupa;^ 5 iv^ooffiin^. ScHo-. 
tiAStEs. Eustathius, indeed, says, (p, 1254. 35. Ed. Ilom#. 
1349* 39*) '£<^nV2a< it Koit to ?itajd%va$y oux iiil rou ^yyuu. 

iiilfobnii Tij^ iu6iixi ciovy v^ayiaaoc^' rAgain, p. 1 294. .22.. 

This verse of the Hecuba is quoted by H. Stephens la his 
indeY» V. Aja^a», without suspicion of error j and Aid^fifMn^ 
ducedoi IS frequently used by Apoll. Rhodius, as in III. 1 164^ 
*Ey x«f«, 29i Tov^ 7£ «a7anFOAin'nN 'EAIA'ieH. 

Let us now examine the proposed correction \ than which 
nihil ilegantiuSy nihil efficacius^ says its author : £BIAI0HN^ 
for EAIAZ0HN. The change of A into B is, indeed, slight : 
but what is the meaning of the word ? < that is to be collected 
from G.W/s citations, which are from Arrian, Dionysius Hali- 
eam. and Ludan ; three prose writers, who lived long after the 
age of Euripides ; and who ought not to be considered, alone^' 
as sufficient authority for the defence of an emendation in a 
Greek tragedy,, or comedy. 

As the force of the original word Aiov, omninOf nimirum^ 
nntlde^ has an influence in the meaning of the derivative Aici^up 
Mowo cthriter et valde^ and Aios^ojujci, Anwoeo vie ceUriter et 
imntnoff so Bia^coj and Btoi^OfxcUi the middle, vi urgeo, and 
Bia^viAoif the passive, vi urgeor^ always partake of the signifi- 
cation of BIA, from which they are descended. J^r. Wake* 
field's first citation is from Arrian De Venat. xvii. where he is 
•peaking of Hares : U Ta nni\a BIAZONTAI, i^t^oHsg ^p6g ti^ 
nvpci^. Vi summa per cajnporum planitiem cursum intendunt, 
eontendentes cum canihus. BIancard..«-The second is from Dio- 
nysios Halic. Antiq. Rom. II. 66. Vol. I. p. 122. During a 
fite in the Temple of Vesta, Lucius Cecilius, in order to save 
what had been left by the Priestesses, vaf&nyiupiucnv hc 'rd 
kziofova BIASAXBAI, summo cum periculo est ausus in ardent 
ptnetrak irkxjmpere. Hudson. In these two passages, as in 
the thii^ from Lucian, the verb in the present middle cannot 
be allowed as a defence of the admission of the aorist passive^ 

♦ Conf. Suidas, et Hc«ycliius. f From Damm's^ Lexicon. 


nthieh we do not recollect in die Greek plitys. Suidas, indeed, 
sap: iBAft^l?, mlI im tc^v irci<rxiil(af ^owtt^n^: BM^ofjiaf, 
in a passive sense, is not anusual in Thucydides ; from whom 
also die fidlowing words may be transcribed : i^iiXon ycU Hfn i 
hmliifti fii A¥\afuhfs^ouy cJf ^t^r^ii^—'^quasi vim passm fuerit^* 
X>qKE]t.IV. 19. p. 250. 17. 

If those remarks be just, how can iSiaainp be put into the 
month of the chorus in the Hecuba, who come, from' the 
tents of their Greciam masters, to inform their former qoeea 
what was the intended fate of Polyxena her daughter t They 
4hime in haste,— <nrov#? i^wJ^vr— but not by compulsion. «— 
,*BAaV9nv must mean, Have teen forced; which is totaUy con-^ 
trary to the sense of the context ; nor wouM eren the middle 
aorist, iCtcurdtfjoptf J havf forced myself or I have forced my tuay, 
be admissible.— This correction we reject ; though we are 
aware that we may incur the censure of possessing na true 
Greek taste ; for thus Mr. W. concludes his note 00 this 
pbcc. * Sed emm, hobis tacentibusy emefuUtkmem sMim veriifi* 
enam agnoscent genuino literarttm Gnecarum gusttn contactip 
IXatx^be, p. la. 

Mr. P. restores ''Ore from Aldus and the MSS. ii^tca4 of 
«ru the conjecture of Cantor, which Musgrave commends^ and 
which Brunck, Ammon, and Beck have inserted m theif texts : 
< Plus ernrn esf, observes the Professor, si quis simul et rem^ 
ipsam^ et ret tempusy quhm si rem solam tnemorai* 

Our opinion c^iucides with tti^t of Mr. W, who has bestow* 
cd his approbation on this restoration, bttt adds : < J^. Z7. (a& 
he generally teims the editor) ratimes suas minus accuraU vi- 
detur expostiisse. Sic eMpasit0S oportuii : plus esf^ H quis teinpua 
vei, qusm rem ipsam mtmoret^ quia in tempore c^mfrefienditur 
neetssario res ipsa, sed in re nm ita vicissim tcmpijts.' 

Mr. P. then si^joins, '0196a hie idem est quod fM^ufv^m^, which 
lie proves by another passage from the Hecuba^ from Sophodea, 
JJ. 1273— 1283, Aristophanes ^v. 1054. Fup. 354^in wiiich 
last, ""Ov*, he mentions, stands for ''Ort, and not for '0\ q{, 
•which the final Jbta is never elided by the conuc writCFB >^Aa 
ezcdlent canon, whicH Brunck had established in his np^s om 
the Rsn. 922. Lysistr. 611, and on other passages of AristiK 
phanes.<<-*It was probably unknown to Dawes, who, ia |iif 
Miseellan. Critic^ p. 239, or p. 237. £<///. Burgess, reads ia 
the Ratiii^i Aristophanes^ S92, 'O0* i roinaifo^or *07t i artfn^ig 
^-*, where the Codex Rofrnnn. of Invemixius given rightly ; *Ot$ 
i wnerti^, — ^ as it is tacitly quoted by Stwlcy^ in kis> note* 
on the life of EschyhiSi p. 707. 


&• P, < A&r MToT ^ud vetires virginihus plurimutn mti 
gesiare.* Mr. P. thcQ cites Hpiner. Jl. 9^ 973. A;ri$(e^' 
Av. 670 T^Thfi mstances merely ptore, 29 the note 96seitv 
tbat wgifxs used to v^^r gpM, \^ut i}o not refer directly to iim 
decorations of the Qeck. Mr. W. c^oipl^ns o( thjs ooiisaiMiy, 
and eiclaupa : ^Nug^l %iit^\A\c. atiquid d^uderawmt qwle 
unkum FirgiUi ItpidulU si^^nat. J&xi. VII. 3(1,— r-T-j£f tartite' 
CoLLO Aurum ingens colubfr* 

A most infelicitous example! Alecto throws pn^ 9C.^ 
serpents from her head into the bosom of Amata ; 
^ Ilk^ inter vettis et Iroia fedora l0psttsy 
T^nlmtur adtachi n^iiot jaUUquefurentemf 
Vtpeream Insfhram anhnam ;ju tortile coUo 
jlHntm ingenj coluheryjii hnga tania vitta^ 
Irmtctitgue comoff et memhris tubrkuf. errat** 

yr^ have tr?qscrib^d ^% whole passage ; and we canppt peu^ 
•elve in it any proof that the necks rfvir^ns were antiently QC« 
qamented with gold.'wThe SQa)Le» indeed, is cHanged into a ' 
golden twist for UiQ neck of 4mAta :^ but Am at a wa^ not 9. 
vraQiM. She wa; the vt^f^ of I^atinus, and the motmsb. o£ 

^« W. then remarks that Polyxena could not easily procure 
mdtum^ fffori^ ^nd he thinks,, * eJegaw ingenium, Potf^e ^ natu«^ 
rail fwJW»i d^^QTf, fum aJjaUy cogiUfurum Juissc in. hoc h€$^ 
Hi; grc^Qse^ to read 1^ X?T£Q^OBQr iu^p instead of xg^o^ 
piftix^ "J^h^ ^thet 'X^vf^p^H appears to be used in this placc^ 
in ^onsequenqe of the gustpm amgn^ the antients of decorating 
>i<;tim^ whether hpmai^ or animal^ before they were sacrificed^ 
Thus in the HeracUd^^ Iplaus say^ to Maearia^ who had oScred 
ha lUf ii^ cqnspqu^nce of die degree of the Qrax:Ie : 

Sa in ilie &upplk£S^ Ipkis questions his daughter Evadne,. 
vfao bad resohred on dying, self^doTotod, on the Ameral pilr 
of her husband Capaneus : - 

1052* Shiuh a Titfc too pifiifot moi&i, iifAoc ; 
The carious reader may consult Elian Fmp^ ISst* h XVT.. 
and his camflsentstors^ with the authors to whom they refer^ 
M the Tunica and Pallium which Apbllodorus brought to So* 
cnttes befefe he drank the poison. Dorville m Cie^, p. 69* 
m^j b# added, who b cited by Markland on the verse in the 
Sttpplices. From those it will appear that, whether the person 
was condemned tp dici^or stood forth as a voluntary victims the 
custom' was the sama with regard to external decdrations. 


tfO PdrsonV Hect^a far dre^i/^ f^'^akcfiddf/ Dtatribe. 

As to the means of procuring ornaments', (multthn aurr^ 
Diatribe 13.) it is not certain how far Polyfena, who was in- 
tended for a religious ceremony, might have been' stripped j 
and Hecuba herself aftefw^rd proposes to collect, from the 
captives, whatever they might have beeif able to conceal fronr 
thcilr ht^ masters, 617—622, iff order to adorn the dead 
body of her daughter Polyxena. On this very passage, Mr. W. 
gives a note, Diattib^^ p. 27. 

" It has been stated that Mr. W, proposes to change XPT20* 
♦OPOT into XPTSO^OBOT. He points out this great wmK 
litude, and thus defends the correction : 

* Natter i Phan. 198. 


EaJem meJictna Ckarcho facienda tit apiid Atherutumy xui. i. p. 5*64* 

Ma>^9 TO v^wou LegCy TTu^^tfUf XPTlC)<l>OBfiN^ ut mox in tddem pa-*' 
jittd: n «aX?u?rfo?<ywi XPriEOBOSTPYXE TaXaTfia. Numeros io(;0' 
rum non att'mgo ; quum me lottge pertt'torem arttficem^ Porsonum dicoy 

' This emendation fs liable to objections, ist. There is*" no' 
such word as xf'^o^oJof.— adly, If there were sirch a com- 
pound, it would signify, qui aitrum tltnety aS *T3f o;poCo; rtiearts; 
^ti aquam timet : there are no similar compounds of Oc ftr,- 
Coiwtf*— 3dly, If It were sufficiently authorized, and if it could 
signify Golaen-hairedi ought it to be applied to a mortal > The 
Heroes and Heroines of Antiqility are celebrated by the Poets' 
for their HavOoi v:(iftafjiot, but not for x;f&(r£W. T6 spealc of 
Euripides alone : the adjective Hay9oji f ap9r?, f«v9bV, is joined 
to the substantives, Bocflf i^xoj, "'Eflfipflf, Kafa, Kf^aXjJ, K(fjuw, 
K/jaV , UXoxofioif or XdHfiy according to their respective geqdefs, 
in his descriptions of Hippolytus in Hipp. 1359. — Lycus. 
Here. Fur. 232.— Menelaus* Orcst. 1558. Iph. A. 175—-* 
Orestes. Iph. Taut. 52. Electr. 518.— PARTHEWoPiEUs. 
Phoen. 1194* So also with regard to females : CAssAXDRii. 
Iph. A. 763. — Clytemnestra. Electr. io78.*-Electra.' 
Electr. 523. Glauce. Med. 985. — Helena. Helen 1244^^ 
JpHiGENiA. Iph. A. 685. 1376. ,Iph. T. 173.— Ph«dka\ 
Hipp. 133- 222# To these may be added tfic Son of Her- 
cules, Here. Fur. 995, and the Children of Medea and Ja« 
son, Med. 1150. f *- 

* Here Menelaus is called iufBoc^ without the addition of another, 
substantive ; as Harmonia is iut&r,y in Medea, 859. 

f A few passages are omitted, which are not to the present pur- 
.po8C J as, Cycl. 499. Troad. 229. Hcic. Fur. 362. . 


torsonV Hicuka fa* Orestes, fa* WakcficldV Diairihe. 97 

Similar forms of expression might readiljr be produced from 
the other tragic writers : but we have intentionaliy confined 
ourselves to Eutipjdes. From whom, howeverj can iilstances^ 
in which mortals are described with golden hairy be produced ? 
Not so the son of Mnesarchus :~he afiBxes/ indeed, the epi- 
thet layfiv to Harmonia, in Mid. 859, and ifwAoi to Bacchus, 
in Cycl. 75, and in Bacch. 22S%''^GoJden Hair^ however, with 
him, (as it should be,) is sblely the attribute of Divinity \ ' 

Creusa thus addresses Apollo, IdH. 903. 

# ♦ # # 

Maf/Aoiffav • 

So Apollo is styled X^ww^iAo^i m the Suppl. 97 S; tplilg* 
Taur. 1244. Troad,a55. 
The same epithet Ts also applied to'^Efay;, in fyh. Aul. 548* 

. - "^^*/ *^ 

T.4' iifimSai xxqhwfi 
We quote from Musgrave; 
I Diaiia Is also thus invoked^ in the rery passage which Mr. 

• W. has cited^ Diatr* i4i-^£urip; Phoeniss. 200. 

Mil vol*, jttlf 5rc(?£ T«lJ* 
*X1 vorvta, X(^^<^i<^(^XH 

Hippolytus likewise thtii calls aa his tutelary divbityi 

I This passage brings to out tecbllection a tortupt v^rse it the 

* Electra'of Eiiripides; ift which, instead of imiiiAoClay which 

} closes the iambie with aii dbtruslv^ anapfest * in the fifth plae^^i 

I we venture to prdp<5sd, (V. 886-) 

; Aig« w/iJi;<r:f l3dcr?f»»x«v'ArAAMA'tAi 

I *AMi)i|Mda seems to have been derived from th^ Cited place 

\ of Hippolytus. ^AyxXfxala is used in tw6 verges of this play, 
immediately preceding 876 and 878, in which these very ormi^ 
i meats are ihentibned; 

The word "AyeOiAx ha^ betn illustrated/ wkh his Usual accu- 
I racy, by flxe learned editor of TimauS j who is nd longer in a 

' • Consult Mr. PorstfiJs PrcfiMJe to hk Hecuba, fi y'li* 

Alt. Jan* j799# H "- ' * state 

pS' PorsohV Hecuha 6r OresUs^ ' tsT Wakefield*/ Diairihe. 

State to enjoy th? praises, nor to repel the censures, of his con- 
teaiporarie$. — The inteljigence bf his death reached us very 
itely, — This mVlaueholy event has carried off the last of the 
sc)i6oJ <>f Henisterhusius j TIic limits of a Review are by no 
n^eans palpulated to .admit a description of bis virtues as 
^ in^'n, por of his learning as a scholar. Half a century has 
nearly cJap^^V^i.Cf^ tlje publkption of his first Epistoia Critica 
on Homer's Hymns, and on Hesiod, addressed to his eminent 
friend, Ludovic Caspar Valckenaer. This long period has 
scarcely produced any critic ^Vho has equalled him in elegance 
of taste, in depth of research j or in soundness 6f erudition ; and 
during all future ages, lY th» writers of observations and the 
editors of anticnt authors be desirous of arrklhg at the style of 
i genuine cdmmentatdr, i^ureiti his Latinity, clfcsfr in His ex- 
pressions, concise in his phraseology^ temperate In hte oesisuresy 
cahn in his decisions, sound in hrs judgment, actt^ in Jiis ' 
conjectures, secure in his quotations, disdainful of imaginary 
witticisms, and superior to petty cavils, ihey will** devote their 
days and nights" to those perfect models of critical composi- 
tion, the works of David Ruhnk-enius. 

N6S tictajbvehimuswsra v ^ . ;. 

Violis^ et frondt freqmnU i »• 

Titulumque etfx'igida saxa 
Liquido spargemus odor e J* 

Tojproceed. In the fourth plaqe, if there \^cre such a com- ' 
pound in existence, and if it could signify golden^ haired^ and 
If it could be'appiiedio R>eT<CDiortAlyroo\^, would Euripides 
have used it as an epithet for the neck of Polyxena ? It. wovld 
surely rather have raised disgust than compassion, if he had * 
described this ill-fated daughter of monarchy as having a neck 
coveted with. a natural teguix^ent of golden hair ? 1 he own* 
jpoun^s X9^^^^^^^?^^^^ ^^^ x^'J^o»^l^au a^c never admitted as 
Apitbet^ 0/ A«fl?f- • 'Ihwe is a passage, in Theocritus, indeed, 
in Which ti/6f »^ iEi^yf (Jccurs i but then the poet is speaking 
of the well-feathered neck of Cbant'icleer. It is at me close 
of the Epitha|amiunrx of Helen, Idyll. »iV36. 

«.<jvld say Si MfltamrXlI?. ' * , 

Pluma TEGiT voLUCREs : ovibtds sUa htia decofi est. 
-Euripidas, )n4€M}i,.1My^r distii;igutshcs the neck, of you^ul 

females by this epichtt, but he af^lies U with grea4; propriety 

ro the beard of Her cuks : 

^Afp^ «^fVl«^ tvrprxo' j^iwt»J(>f. Hdrc. ftlr. 936. 

Potsdn V Bfcuh isT Onstes, t^ WAefttl<P/ DiafMt. pj) 

*Ew9f«f may* be added from this passage fo ficct^s Index to 
Euripides^ in which it is omitted. 

Now to i?xa'mlne the authorities which Mr. "Wakefield has 
called forth in defence of XPT2O<>0BOS: 

The first is from the Pheeniss. of Euripides, 200. and has 
been already produced. In it, "Ajlf/xic is called x^v<rao6o(flgux,o^ ; 
but, as Diana is tl. goddess y?^Vii as the compound epithet golden^ 
haired is applied to her, and not to the neck of a mortal, we 
conceive that it can have no weight oh the present occasion. 

The second is said to be from Clcarchus : but Clearchus the 
i)0ct was a cum'ic writfcr. The passage is from Lycophronides; 
and if Mr. Feispn had recollected it, he would probaiily h^ve 
cited it as i confirmation of the. propriety of his poet's -jr^f- 
Jcwr &t x^;ycro^of oy Ssif r 5. It is quoted, indeed, by Clearchus 
the Perif^atetic, a pupil of Aristotle, in the first book of his 
Erotics y tl prose work, which is frequently mentioned by Athe^ 
naus^ ' The whole passage, with* the metres properly digested^ 
should stand thus ; 

ti^i$ ol?<fihiay jct^, tU^i'ffifi ^jml iiLA£APX02, fy Tw irp«T« Tcifi 

1. '^Oule ,vcuhi A/^^cMK, cm .9rap6iv(»v, 

2. Twy X^vtSQ^ifu^Vy pvSi, yvvaixujv (3a9t/»oX9r«^ 
7. KoC?^t TO wpoo-uirov* ,a>0\d Kiisuiov TTS^iKsim 

4, H yotp AiOtai otv^ nriffTtii^iu » . r 

f. Metrum E^horiatnbicum trim. aeataU 
a. Jpnicum a. majored ietram. io^adi/;* 
3* Idem* ,..:.. ^ ' , . ., > 

. 4. Epichortam- trimetrum hrachycat^ , . , 
Lycophronidesi as Yar as we recollect, Is quoted only in one 
other place by ^/^f/fcfi//, m' which the^sathe- liberties yrith re- 
spect to rae^tricaratran^ctnent arc observable: 

1. ToJ' aWl(9>i>r(7-6i 'PcJdy, . ^ /I '^ ;'' 

2. Ka?l&V ^ofy\i^ct' * ' .'"'.* 

3. KaJ miiXa^ itai xuviriVf 

4; Kal rviv inpo^ov'oy T^^y^^^V ^''■** MO^'v^ff^ 4tW? Wj^u7«- 
j. '&7n T«v Xapicri (p/AAV Tf TtdiiSa Hal KAXot^> 
t, Me,rKXJW[iambVdim. acat* 
a. lamhJ paribem. A Athenao le^itUr mjAeu ' 
■ 3. Choriamb, Jim* peat. ' , , 

4« AnijspastidUm pentam., brat'hye. ubi EdHi. Aid. et^BoHf! 
exhibent £»^ pro oL>d^^» ,. 

5. Idffib. trim, dcatat.' addidimus re., lita vocula^ omUsa^^ 
fnetturrifit Epionicuin a mino're trim, acat. In ^rhna* ie&'' 
MesomacroSy secunda longa soluta ; et in tertia iamb, syzyg^ 
Anothet m6de of division may be proposed. It is very dif- 
&^k tq decide which is the more eligible way of measuring 

H 2 the 

too Porwm*/ Heeuka iff Oftsteif H WaicficldV Diatrilu 

the fragments of Nqmes, and Dithyramhic Odes, or unfettered 


Mrn,W''s third instance is from the Cyclops of Philqxenus, 
ihd may be thus arranged : 

I . ii?/;/V. a wo/, dimeirl brachycat. 

a. Chriamb. dimctr. hypercat* In sicuhJa sede, prima hngg 

3. Choriamb', dimetr. hypeteat. In prima sidcy prima longa 
soluiai / ' . 

. Our opinion of i^hfloxeritisr, it must be added, perfectly 
agrees with that of the learned arid elegant translator of Aris- 
tode's Poetics, Mr. Twifiifig ♦. In p. 1 78 of his Notes, h^ ob- 
ierves that the poefti of Philoxenus, intended by Aristotle, in 
chapter Vli. ** must cjearly have been cither a Nome, or a 
Dithyramhic poem \ most pvobably the latter. Philoxenus ui 
recorded as a Dithyramhic poet: it is by no means certain^ that 
the C)v/tf^/ of Philoxenus" mentioned by Aihenteus, J^Hian, and 
others, is the piece here alluded to: and ff it were, which, 
undoubtedly, appears rather probable, I know of no sufficient 
proof that it was a drama^ as it has been repeatedly called. 
If -ffilian is to be regarded, it certainly was iTot J for he calls 
it /tc«x«; — a term appropriated to Lyric poetry. — Ta l^uxXurxacr 
iipya<ralOf twv iaitdv vAE A flN rts ka^Ki^ov/* 

The Cyclops was cfcrtairriy not a phy. In the Exeerptq of 
Grotius, two verses are inserted, which are assigned to ther 
tomedy of the Cyclops by Philoxenus. The first of these : 

*Altfi>^i^e^ Tdv 04V0V imyfXi S3«f, 
is quoted by Athenaeus, VIII. p. 36a. A. — by Zenobius, II. i6* 
and by Diogenianus, II. 32. widiout mentioning the name o( 
the author ; though tlie two latter state, that these are the 
Words of Polypheme to Ulysses, Iv Kit^Kfavo^ or TLito^mn 
S^d^i,. This drama> h6wever, was not the Cyclops of Phi* 
loxenus; forSuidas, in his note' on this proverbial iambic, ex- 
pressly tells us that it is a verse e^ 'A^terllau 'K.iio^Tcoif oa the 
authority of Chameleon, in his work Ve Saiyris f. 

The other fragment is talcen from Zenobius, V»4;. who 
•alls' this Cyclops A^fta, and from Diogenianus, VII. ip. 
'bfw ij! i ^difjiuv TCf(x7t o-to^ETjO^nr} they are the words of 
Uly€^es, when he was shut ii^to the cavern of Polypheme* 
In order to render it an iambic verse, Grotius- reads 0-97x0-/ 
^ .' — ' — ' " 

• See Rev. N* S. vol.'iv. p.383.'— vii. p. t2i.«»xL p. 241.. 
' f Cetif. ctiam Suidasf V. Afi^lteti idtti^* 

MoimtLV C ATAtfOGUf, Amerm. i o i 

'%&^0y ki does Gatakerus, Advers. Miscell. Posth. X' P* 522* 
^ The active fofm is right; as Euripides, Bacch. 509. 

Again, 61 8. 

Hcmsterhmius was aware that the middle voice was not to be 
admitted, but he wished the line to be made a Trimeter. He 
Jtherefore proposes ^vynoAu^hy &v ; in his Notes on Xenophon*3 
Epheslaca^ Miscell. Obser. Tom. VI. p. 303. He should have 
explained the use of this additional particle, and should have 
proved the necessity of rendering it an acatalectic, instead of ;i 
catalectic vc^-sc. Valckenacr, indeed, justly observes ^* 9\rywA^ 
tip^cQo Gr^dSf qulbus msira ^eben^us motjumet^ta^ fwft'^n usu 
fuhse/* Yet he would change the word into irvyxcclmKiVy in 
order, it should seeQ2> to iCompIete -the verse. ' Adnot* in Eur. 
Hippol. V, ,1389. p. 314. The fragments of Phi4oxenus» 
. wtuch still remain, undoubtedly bear not the traces of the usual 
jdrattiatic measures. The Cyclops was in dialogue, as were the 
Mimes of Sophron ; which, though of a dramatic c^st, were 
not playSf or i^aW/f.— There is a verse, indeed, which much 
^sembies the line from Philoxenus ; 

which is said to be from the Andromeda of Euripides, by 
Casaubon, Animad* in Athen. III. a^. p; 203.«-^by Gataker^ 
A. M. P. 52>.— by Barnes, in his ^^<(/f»^.-^by Valckeri. in 
Hipp. Eur. 13^9.— and by Beck in his Addend, ad Musgr.fra^-* 
finenta. We know not, however, in what antient writer it is 
quoted, nor on what authority it is aligned to ,the A/i^roQiedg 
4pf Euripides. It is omitted by Musgrave. 

[To he conimued,2 

For JANUARY, 179^^. 


Art. 14* A short Account of the priiulpat Froceedmgs of pongress^ in 
the late Session, and a Sketch of the State of Affairs between the 
United States and France, in July 1 798. In a Letter from Robert 
Ooodloc Haiper, Esq. of Sout^ Carolina, to one of his Con&ti- 
Inents. 8vo« is. Philadelphia printed ^ Loadon reprinted for 

^^E French are certainly not to be ranked ainong the very few who 
make ft'moderate and just use of power.. Their continued aggres- 

iioi)^ have at length deccnnined the United States ^o put themsdve^ 

I(f2 . MOHTHLT CATAiuq^yB^ Mis^.' 

. in a condition of defence: i^inst attack and %q rtpel insult. In this 
letter, Mr- Harper Inforoifi his conatitu^ts qS the preparations 9n 
which' Congress had resolved, and gives a short accoiipt of the annual 
rerenue and expenditure. Great moderation is shewn in the resolu- 
tions of Congress ; who, notwithstanding the depredations commit- 
ted on their trade by the French, have only, for the present, autho- 
rised their shfps to capture,, and bring in for condemnation, French • 
'^tmed vessels* Unargued ships are not to be lAolested. Mr. H. 
.warmly recommends a vigorous resistance on the pait of America; 
and this, he doubts not, will soon induce the all-grasping French to 
keep their proper distance. 


'^rt. 15. Anew and imj^oved Histon of England from the Invasion 
- of^ Julius Csisar to the End of the Thirty-seventh Year of 
George III. By Charles Allen, A. M. Embellished with Four 
Copper- Plates, and a Chronological Chart of the Revolutions in 
• Great Britain. Concluding with a short but comprehensive his- 
torical View of Europe, from i\\t Abolition of the Monarchical 
' Form of Government in France ; the Military and Naval Opera- 
tions, with the Conquests and Revolutions in Italy to the Peace 
of Udina,' the Changes and Revolutions in the French Republic, 
&c. i2mo. 4s. bound. Johnson. 1798. 
^ The knowlegc of history is justly considered as a very important 
part in every system c^ education, as there is no study which pos- 
sesses gfeater efficacy in removing prejudices of everydescription, nor 
any which conveys tfif^t ^neficial instruction. This knowlegc is 
admirably calci^laUid to instil into young minds, just and liberal sent^ 
rnents, and Xp inspin? iheni with a generous spirit of emulation. The 
censure and contempt with which hiatory nxarks the characters of 
the vicious and the mean, and the praises which it bestows on the 
▼irtnous and the noble, will naturally inspire the minds of youth with 
the love, and lead them to the practice, of what is laudable aud 

In addition to these advantages resulting from a knowlegc of ge-' 
neral history, that of our.oiun country holds out benefits peculiar to 
itself. Independently of the interest which every man feels in the 
transaciiona of his ancestors,-.— an interest which it would be degrading 
sot to feel and to cttltivate,— there are few histories more replete with 
events of importance, or njiore diversified^ than those which form 
the annals of Britain. 

' The present abridgment comprises much useful information in a 
amall compass^ aad is written in a plain and perspicuous style. It 
lia also an advantage which no other History of England on this 
plan of abbreviation possesses, by giving a summary, account of the 
most recent events ; — events, top, which, have no parallel in the his- 
tory of mankind. — On an examination into the contents of the vo- 
lume, we observe nothing in the opinions of the author that could 
have a dangerous bias on the minds of young readers; hisscntimenta 
a^.iear to be the dictates of good sense, andto be regulated by modera- 
tion; and on the whok we conceive the ^ork^ to use the author'^ own: 


> - 

expressions, to be < calculated for geoeral lue, and porUcakiif adapted 
to seminaries for the educatipn oi either sex.' 

Art. i6. -/f new and imfroved Rtman History^ from the Foundation 
of the City of Rome, to its final Dissolution as the Scat of Em- 
pire, in the Year of Christ 476, including a Period df about Ii28 
Years from its Commencement under Romulus. By Charles Allen, 
A.M. i2mo. 48. bound. Johnson. 1798. 
' Commendation similar to that which we have bestowed on the 
author's History of England, in the preceding article, is equally me- 
rited by the present work ; for we discover in it a considerable fund 
of information, conveyed in plain and intelh'gible language, Mr. 
Al'en has selected his facts with Judgment, and has delineated his 
characters with impairtiaiity and a strict adherence to the best evidences 
of hinoric truth. He has also introduced soxtiments and remarks 
which from their propriety, can hardly fail of proving beneficial to 
the ductile minds of youth. 

Wt have.little praise to bestow on the plates designed as oma- 
mcnti to Mr. Allen's Histories. 


Art. 17. Delectus Gracarum SerUentiarum^ cum Notts turn GrammatictSf 

turn Philologicu ; in usum Tsronum accommodatis. 8vo. 4s. bouo^ 

Richardson, &c, 1798. 

It was the great benefit derived from Dr. Valpy's Latin Delectusr 
which induced the present author (who, at the close of his Preface, 
signs himself S. P., Seaming, Norfolk, and whom we understand to 
be Mr. St. John Priest J to compile this work. The sentences are 
chiefly selected from Euripides, Sophocles, Socrates, ^lian, and 
Xeaophon j and the compiler begins by short simple sentences, pro- 
ceeding to lengthen his examples through sixteen sections; contain- 
mg ill all 40 pages. The division of Sections was adopted, for the 
purpose of arranging the principles of Grammar and Idiom which 
were intended to be inculcated. The Greek text is unaltered. 

To enable our classical readers to form some judgment of the wort, 
we subjoin the whole of Sect. III. with the Notes corresponding to 
the first five numbers. 

4 Atyacrt TMK >^oi Hv^nuXf Toy 'H^oueXtiv, rat Aio; nai 'A^xyuim^ Vftiiis, 
ii^fMMi tltrt* 

10 'Am^ )(;^o( ;ig^o» J fu^i 9roli« 

1 1 "Oof vtwm |ov(/x«r a/»^?i. 

1% 'AsramK i »»JJiwK i^^ wtvh* ' . ■ 

H 4 13 'Oifri^ 

1^4 MoKimT CATAtoCPBi Sdtteolkn^isfc. 

I i 'Oiert^ XvW ft^ (^h 

15 Honi^ev «m)^« fMitwolt iroMr f iXtr* 
10 'EycuntTf Ttf\' fvy«SiK* 

2 1 To«( 0y^S«c IV retii* 

22 'Tiir»of irway Tii« itxki^^rw ittfAoif 

24 £i/^r AfMiypr T euax^%* 

25 Mi iC^ti; f iX&f «v^^* iM^rriliv «XX' *^X'' 

1. 'AXt|ay^f*f ) B* in Latin Alexander. n\»am) v, hxaa;, Atffsio»} s, 
ta^f^y Uan^t. 

2. Nia) mo< adj. see the Rule in Sec. I. N. 28, agrees with ^;o>7iof) 
ip ux) sudv. x 18 added to i non^ when the next word begins %Wth ^ 
vowel having the smooth breathing, *^7«t») v. ayy%v^ infin. after ^ixii) 

3. nxar«;vy 6. Ploto. Proper names are used with the article some- 
times as if to give them eminenee. Thus rnv *£Xi»n»^ See. I. sent. 4. 
rof 0».Caf, Sec. I. sent. 44. and in this sent, d nxa2«irr, ftc : , Not so 
'PfrfAi7, Sec. I. sent. 3. 'OfAij^ov, Sec. I. sent. 5. 'aaxiCio^i:; ibid. 
AMry Sec. II. sent. 5. nroXi^ato^^, Sec. II. sent. 9. . 'A^ifofJ^o^ and 
Aa^i.or. sent. I. of fhjs ^ec. ^c. ixtyti) see Sec. II, N. 9. and 
Sec. I, ^. j^. ' T«( txirthui) s^ i^9r({• See Sec. II. R. at the bc« 

f Inning, iyfvyopilw) p^> y^ny^^f which fprms r]pgu)arly iy^nyopap 
erf. Mid. whpifce the partt iye^oi»^» »»«> of» &c. Its sMb^tantive 
is dfB^uwuff a gen. understood after om^vs) s« wm^* 

4. Tuywi) V. Xi>M, its nom. is X0701) s. Xoyoc. rmc) adjf n^. This 
pronoun has two distinct sign ifip^tions | it is sopietimes used as an 
tnterrogathve and signifies, fubot what} and sometimes as a pronoun 
inAeJinUt and signifies, any^ ttme^ certain* Here it \% a pronoun Midt- 

jfni/f. It agrees with A^^or. 'H^ocXny) a. 'h^jkXik by Crasis for 
H^otxXir.^. Tliis word is declined both as a jpansyllabic and an impa- 
risyllabic. For its declension as an imparisyllabic see the prammart 
Here it is declined thus ; ^ 

r^«» It 

— 1>5» Ji 

—in, K 

pee HcrevJa in the Biblioth. Class, irfttlis) s. ir»K* put m afpo^iHm 
to *H^a«Any. A»o«) S4 see Sec. tl. N. 5. 'AAxfA«)»iK) <• 'AAxf^nHiy 
jiknuna. ' avo) prep, governs a genitive only, From ytna^) s. 
7tn», see the Rule in Sec. I. N. 4^. 'h^omAi »^ii») S. 'Hf«KXc»^» 
HeracUdeu xixAr^rSdu) v. xoAtiv. This verb PiXiJ(CI m-w in the future 
«i(} 9«a in the perf, 

by sync.**^4ctyXflKa» 

5* Aionitf'iof^ 

MoNTBLT CiTALOGUCi Poetry^ Isfc. lOJ 

5. Aioftw»9() B. Dionysius; sec N. 5. of this See. i|) prep. I« 
// used before a consonant^ t{ before a votveh It governs a genitive 
onJr. From^ out of dieot^ufi) adj. a^rA;, agrees Avith u^&^y) s. r6^o>« 
rm) arti The article Rie an ae^ective (see Sec. I. Obs. R..3»).in0i/ 
Advr A ntbetantlve expressed or- understood j with which it agrees in gender ^ 
mmmSer and case. The substantive here is »i^jj. The article is often 
fre/ixed to a participle^ and must be rendered as if it were the relative of^ 
it If vsitb toe 'verb i».«y» before the participle made to agree with the rela- 
iivt, or as if it were the relative he, »?, 0, with the same tense dfthe verb 
in the indka^ne mood cu the participle — ^thus ^fya>t may be rendered as if 
It were o^ W\ hrr^n^ who is speaking j or as if it were o( Xivit, whospecdts* 
7hepart\cipk in instances^ where a preposition or adverb follows^ is rften 
/Mb^/loAst— thus h if TOK »^2»oK i* e« ut Ir TOK u^«vo^^ the ^me ^s hq 
Wt» b loK t^'^ttMK : roc i^or 1. e. ret oilet i|a;> the same as a iio'y ii^n SuCm 
la the present instance o»Iv» (see m, tura, or, the imperfect participle) 
from ufM U understood before the prep. I v, which may be rendered as' 
if It were t» v^-av itf vuhich were in» Tv^uxucruti^} s* X,v^a«»ffyou^ it 
has no singubry in Latin Byracusst. v becomes jf, and ui becomes ^r as 
before* See Theba and JEthiops, Sec. I. N. 33 and 44; kavKr^t) 
^m ffvKsMfm • ret x'^**d^^) ^« yfrifAa, acc» after the verb.' 

The Tohime will be found to be aji useful Chrestomathia .* but per* 
haps it would liave been of more general utility^ if a literal Latin ver- 
sion liad been added to the Greek. 

It W2LS once the author's intention to have subjoined a Lexrcon, 
and some notes on the First Iliad of Homer ; calculated to sliew the 
prigin tsnd progress of dialects^ the use of the Greek particles ^ the laws of 
Greek quantity^' and similar passages from Milton and Virgil : these 
notes are now designed for a separate publication* 


Art. 18^ ClapidgOf a Tragedy, in Five Acts. Translated from the 

German of Goethe. 8vo, ^s. 6d. Johnson. 1798. 

We gave some account of Goethe's Iphigenia in Tauris, in vol. xu 
N. S. p. 51 ; and of his Stella, vol. xxvi. p. .579. His Clavigo, or^ 
as the tran4ator calls it, Clavidgo, now solicits attention. The plot 
M founded .on fact^ and departs very little from the real histor)'. 
beanmarchais> the editor of Voltaire's works, went as here described 
to Madrid, to fight a duel with a Spaniard who had deserted his 
•isler.— The play is worthy of the German Euripides, and the trans« > 
lation is, in general, unexceptionable, 
^rt. 19. Reformed in Time; a Comic Opera, in Two Acts. As. 

performed at the Theatre RoyaI| Cpvpnt Garden. 8vo. js. Ca.- 

dell jun. and Davics. 1798. 

Kot having seen this Jittle musical drama exhibited, wc arp unable ' 
Jo judge of the jf fleets of the dialogue when delivered, or of the 
music of the songs when sung. It seems, however, on mere perusal, 
not to be devoid of merit in the compoaitioiS. The fable, indeed, is 
pot quite new, nor are the characters cither very original or strongly 
marked : but th^ piece is innocent, and of a moral tendency. 

There is a variety in the measure of the songs, with a bii/fh humour 
|»»omc 9f tjljem, very favourable to dfamatic music of the burlettjt 

\o6 MoNTHLY-CiLTii^CUE, P^r^ Isft. 

cast; hilt- we Txiu»t ©b$erye that- the character of the /(9u^r^/<, Mr». 
Handyj (Lady Insight's woniaii,) is overcharged with assurance, itn- 
jpcrtiuetice, and absurdity. 

Art. 30. ^he Patriot ; a Poena. . Br a Citizen of the World. 8v<k 
IS. 6d.* Ridg^vay. 1798. 

Patriot y and Cifixen of the Woridy arc contradictory terms. A 
patriot is a lover of his own particular country 4 and a citizen of tlic 
world IS one who cares as much for one country as for another. 

We have not room to insert olir remarks on particular defects in 
this poem, though in the course di examination we had wTitten 
down more than twenty ; exclusively of bad rhymes: such as fmorte"-^ 
*iue. Death-"— <ufraih* Prepart~^rear, Began — dawn, Grace — rn^ 
crease. • Eye>-^oyt. Joy — melody: — but there are slight defects, 
«uch as oare and diligence may rectify. We wish not to discourage 
'the attempts of young or anonymous authors in aiiy species of writ- 
ing, if the seeds of genius be discoverable : but in essays at poetrr, 
if no originality, no ideas, no poetical language, be discoverable, 
the case \a hopeless for the future. It is to be regretted that our 
worthy citizen of the world wadts to be told, public!}', that he is not 
afflatus 'numlne^ not gifted with inspiration ; and that he has chosen a 
subject which is above his powers. We observe that the 2d line of 
each couplet is in want' ox ideas, and seems left to chance, with* 
out any {)rej)aration being made for it. Common thoughts expressed 
in common words will not constitute the language* of the gods ^ as the 
auti^nts called poetry. Many modems have usurped a place amon? 
poets by the mere aid of rhyme : but anticnt poets, who had no such 
resource, were expected to possess other requisites than the mecha^ 
nical art of arranging long and short syllables. A species of iuspic- 
atioh was thought necessary in their ideas and invention, as well as 
metaphorical cxpressio'n in their language, to entitle them even to 
the name of versifiers ; which modern bards acquire on easier terms. 

These remarks arc not addressed merely to' the author of the Pa- 
triot, but to poetical Tyros in general ; who frequently imagine that^ 
6y being able to put into rhyme common thoughto, stale stories, and 
prosaic language, thpy shall be digniJicd with the high title of poet. 

Tlie smaller pifcci^ which terminate this publication, seem of a 
better texture, and merit-m^ lenity than the Patriot. 

Art. 21. False and True; a ^lily^vinThrce Acts. Performed at 
the Theatre Royal, Hay-Market.^'^SscQ. ^ 2S. Bell. 1798. 

Out of whose cage this summer bird flevvVo the Hay-Market, wc 
are not told. We .Und, however, on examirfation, that it is a bird 
which not only sings but talh ; and thougii we have not been able to 
hear its warblings^ we are qualified to give our opirJon of its powers 
of speech^ since uttered has been primed. 

To get' rid however of a troublesome metaphor, and speak of this 
production in plain English, we may apply its own title to the 
merit of its writing and its characters. There are some good scenes, 
some comic and agreeable songs, and some amiable personagee in the 
drama : — but the character of Callari is too black and disgusting 
fur comedy ; Count Benini h too gay, fooliih, and frolicsome, for 


an ItaUan old man, though his archetype might possibly have becit ' 
fotind in France some time ago; the Manhesa Feteria is too coquettish, 
fantastical, weak, and ndlcuious, for an ugly old woman of any 
country ; O^Rafarfy is too absurd, even for a stage Irishman ; aAd 
the Assassins are too easily found and purchased, even for Italy. 

Exaggeration is the great defect of thiji drama. We are not 
unacquainted with the customs and manners of the Neapolitans, and 
can venture to say, from our own knowlege, that there was a 
greater. appearance of liberty, ihanllness, and personal safety there, a 
lew years ago, than in any other city in Italy. Its climate is de* 
lightful ; its productions are abundant, and of easy purchase ; and 
there was a greater cheerfulness of countenance, with more seeming 

I happiness, among the people of that kingdom, even in rags, than 

among those of any other country which we have seen. Such "are 
the warmth and salubrity of the air, that clothes are a burden to the . 

I iahabitants ; and the children of the poor will not be incommpded 

by shoes and stockings, even when given to them by compassionate 
strangers from northern climates, who imagine a warm covering to 
be the first of earthly blessings. 

Art. 22. The School for Ingratitude ; a Comedy, in Five Acts : to 
LIKE, in ffi^l»y Points — in one, so unlike— •* Cheaf Living.'* 
Rvo. Bell, Oxford-street. ^ 

Heavy complaints are made by the author of this comedy, which 

[ had been submitted to the inspcctioh.of the managers of Drury- 

lane Theatre, and suffered to remain in their hands almost a year, 
when another play on a similar subject, intitlcrd Cheap Lhing^ was 

! broaght on the stage, and his own rejected. He seems to insinuate, 

in strong terms, that some unfair use had been made of his MS. ; 
^d that the coincidences of character, sentiment, and expression, are 
as much beyond the power of chance, as the system of the universe.-— 
As he states the case, indeed, there certainly does seem a coincidence 
which is rather incredible, and unaccountable by the laws AF chance: — 
but not having seen the defence of the managers, nor of the rival 
author, we -cannot enter deeply into the controversy, nor pretend to 
decide, judicially, on this misprision of plagiarism. Let us see, 

r iiowever, what kind of drama it is, that has been thought worth 

I piU^ing so unmercifully. 

' - On perusal, we must own that commiseration for the author has 
not had the power of making us partial to the merits of the piece. 
We scarcely think that, with the best possible acting, it could have 
been well received by the public. The" brutality and villany of 
Perkinty one of the principal characters, are disgusting ; and we see 
nothing either pleasant or ingenious in the duphcity and rascality of 
• • ^anusy another prominent character. The scene at the Chop-house 
» vulgar in the extreme, and by no means risible. Low Comedy, 

k in the hands of a man of humour, is diverting, and often make$ us 

I laugh till we are ashai^ed of ourselves : but mirth and laughter cannot 

f be excited by scenes of dirty distress and pilfering. The characters, 

I here, verge too much <Jn Vice and villany, to be amusing. There is, 

indeed, no tragic murder nor conspiracy: but rank offences and 
immorality abound--— The only two characters for whom a wish can 


\ ■ . 


lie formed, except for their being hanged, are feebly written. We 
tJiought Hopeful amiable and innocent) till he joined in robbing the 
palace at Lambeth, — ** But what a genius P^ Thrice is this 
vulgar exclamation uttered at the gross thefts and ravenous appe«> 
titc of the principal hero, ^itchsant^ qn which the character sf 
Spim^e^ in Cheap Livings is supposed to be forraed* Tht whole is in- 
iieed such a farrago ; there is such confusion in the denouement ; 
siich indelicacy in seizing for wives, on such short acquaintance, tvro 
females,, who had been rather debauched by than man'ied to one 
nan ; and the dinncr-j/r/zZrr, not butUerf 16 so gross, unnatural, and 
liiilikely to he tolerated in society; that the loss to the public, by 
the rejection qf this play, .will certainly not be very great,— 'whatcvef 
it may be to tlie author. 

TJierc is a considei-able dtssimilrtude between a parasite who ob- 
tcins an invitatLpn^ or invites liimself, to dinner, where he is an ua* 
welcome, guest, and a man, like Mr. Scetttivelif (if such ever had 
existence,) who^ steals his diimer,by robbing the kitchen, the pantry^ 
and even the tabic during a repast. 

Wc were not much captivated with Mr. Rcynolds^s play of C^eafr 
Zfp/Vif*.* bqt with all its exaggeration and deficiencies, since that ai;d 
i^e School fdr Ingratitude are brought into comparison, Justice obliges 
w* to confess that the former is the best production of the two. The 
itnpiulence pf Spungeis outraj^eously overcharged : but we have heard 
of parasites, thougli never of town-footpads, or dinncr-liftersj robbing 
people's lai-dcrs and plates in open daylight* 

/Irr. 23* J Monody on tke Deafh (ff Mr. Jolm Palmer ^ the Cmnediam^ 
To which is prefixed a Review of his Theatrical Powers ; with 
Observations on the niost eminent Performers on the London 
*>tage; inscribed to Mrs. 8iddou8, By T. Harral» Author gf 
jytsjirc Moments. 8*0^ pp.20, is. Cawthome. 
This production comes from the pen of a cordial friend and en- 
thusiastic admirer of the late excellent actor whom it celebrates ; of 
whose various and extensive talents, his family and the public Avere , 
deprived by a sudden death on tlie stage at J^v^rpooly during the 
exercise of his profession. 

Wc perfectly agree with the author as to the rariety and excel- 
lencc of Mr. Palmer's theatrical powers, and the loss which thf 
lovers of the draqoa havje sustained by his decease, in the meridian 
of his fame: byt we are not so certain of the necessity and utility 
of that spirit of comparison >vhich runs through the whole review now 
teforc us. To instruct the people at large no>v to feel and how to 
admjfre in tl^eir amusements, is assuming a kind of dictatorial power 
whicK may make it difficujit ^o plca^ tUeip* >vhiJc it will not add t« 
their real enjoyment- 
Such a review as this mu$t be e3i:tremely ro.qrtifying to individuals 
whose talents are depreciated, ^nd will e^ccite envy, hatred, malice» 
and all uncharitableness, in the objects of the author's disappro* 
bation. The applause which each performer ireceivcs from the spon- 
taneous feelings of the public is the most certain test of his or he» 

♦ Sec Rev. D6c. 1797, p. 465. 

fpcrit } 

Monthly CAT/itocut, Poetry, ^c* * -. 19^ 

Jberit ; whSe the company which a performer c?ui Mtract to a lli^atre 
is the manager's most unerring ste^l-yard. 

We are ready to subscribe to almost all that tire animated autTK)r 
•ays of actots and actresses. of the first class, except when he d**- 
ducts from Mrs. Jordan's m6nt in the two serious poats of OpUHs 
unAjfuUeit 'Ilic bewitching tones and manner, with which she siii^s 
the little fragments of old melodies in the former, render her in that 
character (to our thinking) superior to any actress by whom it 
tias becii performed in our time ; and yet we well rtniember Mrs.' 
Cibber charming us very much in the songs of Ophelia, '^Thougii* 
so extremely playful and comic in gay parts, Mrs, Jordan's 
•peaking voice is so trply mellifluous, feminine, and touching, in 
terious parts, (such as Juliet^ for example,) that if, hke Garrick, she 
were placed between Comedy and Tragedy ^ it would be very difficult 
to determine to which of the goddesses she mo^l particularly apper- 
tained. . , . '' 

Wc old folks arc scarcely ever satisfied with a ntcv performer in aa 
M part. The best actors whom vre saw in oor youth, when judg- 
ment was weak and Feefing was strong, have taken such possession^ 
©f our affections, that we are apt to think that every deviation from 
their manner is erroneous, tt is In nenv pieces^ where all comparison is 
precluded, that a new performer has fair play, by the audience ' 
giving way to their feelings ; without drawing parallels, or comparin|;r 
them vHtn.Kny thing besides the images of Nature^ which Nature 
kerself has implanted in our existence. 

The poetry of our author is sufficiently Pindarki if irregorar mea- 
sures Stul continue to be honoured with that title : but the praise of 
the hero is so violent, not only .as an actor bat as a man, that it will 
be apt to excite an invidious wish to <* draw his frailties from their 
4read abode." By asking too much, it ffenerally- haippens that too 
)ittlc is granted. — ^The foUowinff is part ot his beatittuU :. 
* Behold, in yon cerukan space. 
An heav^ttfy chcruh takes his place 
With fadeless glory crown'd— 
He comes \ your hero comes \ eternal bliss t* share* 
^* Hark ! hark ! from yon ethereal doud. 
Angelic sounds advancing 
The happy soul entrancing 
Inspire the circling crowd." 
And having found **^ another and a better world." 
'* A bahny lulo plays around his brow , 
An at^il sweetness prompts religion's vow." 

ArL 14. Eli^ M a naah'laved Nieces with an Hymn from the 
£thiopic. By EuSfebio. 4to. is. Egerton. 1798. 
' ^Tis love alone that brandishes the rod 
' To ^ean us firom the world, to wisdom and to God.' 
Thtts sitigs Eusebio $ and thus no doubt we ought to consider 
the various afflictions with which we are exercised by Providence.. 
Indeed, before those who suffer the loss of relations and friends cam 
strike the mournful strings of the elegiac lyre, the mind must be 
teibewh^t calmed by religious and phiIuso|phic reflection ; so that the' 

XI • bttllding 

110 Monthly CaItalogue, 2ftf%W, tt*^?. 

• building of the lofty rhyme' is rather the eyidencc than the caoa^ 
of returning consolation. The muse may wonderfully relieve the 
mind and assist its rcsic^nation, after it has attained a sum^ient degree 
of calmness to arrange its thoughts in harmonious numbers. 

On the subject of piivations by death ^ the train of sentiment 
miist be for the most part common.' The survivor is told not to 
grieve, for this world is full of sorrow ; while that world, to which 
the departed spirit is fled^ is full of joy. Eusdsio makes this 
contrast : 

* "What is frail man, ev'n at his happiest height ? 
A wand'ring pilgrim through a vale of tears. 
' Think then, had Sorrow's storm or Envy's blight 
Nipt the sweet blossom in its riper years ; 
And own that Tate's inevitable pow*r 
In kindness interpos'd, and croppM the lovely FlbwV. 
The lovely Flower, more eminently bright. 

Now safe-transplanted to a happier clime, 
Imparts new beauty tp the Bowers of Light, 

Where it shall bloom in never-fading prime, , , 

Fann'd by the gales of Paradise, and fed 
With ever-living streams at Glory's Fountain*Hcad P 
Following unfortunately the example of Dr. Watts in this rc- 
tt)cct, he blends ths sentiments and representations of religtpn with 
ttose of the passioii of love : hence he represents his Fanny as * 

* Imparadts'd in her Messiah'* sums !' 
The serious muse should take care not to excite mich an idea as tUt 
description may possibly give. . Religious poctfi ought to be .Tcr]r 
cautious in the use of words* ' They should not convert the Idtb due 
to Christ into a passion, and the Chiittian's heaven into a Mohamme* 
' dan paradise* 

^rt. 2C. Song of the Battle of iht NVe. Published for tBe Benefit 
of the Widows and Children of the brave Men who feH on that 
memorable Day> and" humbly inscribed to the Gentlemen of the 
Committee.^ By the Rev- W. L. BoxtIcs, A. M. Rector off Dum- 
bJeton, Gloucflstershire. 410. is. 6d. Cadell jun. and Daviei. 
There is a wildness of subKmity in this patriotic celebration of 
Admiral Nelson's truly glorious victor}', which may tiot perfectly 
. gratify every earfnor suit every taste ; yet we think that, with most 
readers, it will* not fail of supporting the authof's unquestionable re- 
putation as a poet. Some objection we mfght, perhaps, have 
made to the irregular structure of the versification of this poem :— . 
but true criticism wars not with benevolence,' and the lovegf on^ 
Country, - . 

If it be objected that the title of " Sowo" is nntuitable to the 
lofty and awful spirit of this poem, the author answers [in a miel^ 
that it i» here used in its highest sense, as applioable to a lyrical com- 

Arti 5^5* yfrt Epistolary Discmston upon [W"] Religion, between 
G. W. a Protestanr of the Church of England, and M. J. B. B. 

a French 

Monthly Cat ALOGUE, ' 5<?%/Vf//', 6*r. lii 

a "French Roman Catholic. I2mcf; jpp. T90. 2s. €d*. sewed* 
. Cadelljun. and Davies, Boosey, &c. 179S, " 

The 8ubject£ of this dIscusLnon are; the church; statues and 
images ; invocation of saints ; service in an unknown tongue ; eu- 
dharist ; communion* under one kind only; penance [sacrament] $• 
tradition ; purgatoiy ; indulgences ; celibacy of priests ; monastic 
TOWS ; explanation of " Do this in remembrance of me ;^^ mass J Lu- 
ther's scntunent on the leal presence of Chnst in the eucharist ; 
eonfcssion -, relics of saitlts ; reading scripture ; the Pope ;' fasting ; 
theology; legends; holy- water; rites and ceremonies; singing; 
uncharitableness of the ^oman Catholics ; antichrist; submission to 
higher powers ; festivals of saints ; cruelty of the Roman Catholics ; 
toleration. ^ - 

From the French idiom which prevails throXighout this little work, 
arid from the tenets which it inculcates, we have -no reason to doubt 
that it was -written, as the title expresses, by a French Roman Ca- 
tholic. — G W. the poor Protestant, being the man of straw set up in ' 
xhU discussi9n, merely for the purpose of being knocked down by 
Mr. J. B. B- the doughty champion of cathoUcisn^^ ^c shall take nd 
. notice of the feeble rcftistance which he makeft- to his conversion : • 
but it mSLy not .hc^ai?>i68 to e^ew oar readers what xs the specious 
mode adopted in the prtsent day in order to gain proselytes* by the 
zealoue members of the church of Rome. 

The author sets out with telling his catechumen (who, by the 
way, seems half a Roman Catholic before the controversy begins) 
that there is bwt one way to Heaven, and that is a ntrrow one;: 
this, says he, *is what you believe as well as T: but what you may 
believe, afid I do -wot, is that, to be in- that way, it is enough to 
believe in Christ,' and to receive, as inRfHred from God, the old and 
new testaments, m wlftitiyer manner tfisy be understood ; as if tratk 
were not essentially one and indivisible, and two people oi a contrary 
opinion on the same subject might, be both right t surely, Sir, if 
one be so, the other is necessarily wrong". 

♦The Roman Catholic belie vee (contimies Mr. J; B. B.), 
that the church, out df which thcps* is -no salvation, i? the catholic 
and apostolic church, the head of which, 'the Pope, successor of St* 
Peter, by a visible and utttnterrupted succession of about -^ 50 bishiaps, 
acknowleged as such by -the Christian worlds has, ganeraUy speaking, 
always resided in Rome from her establishment ; for whoch reaSDiH 
•he is called the Cath^icy Abosto/icf and Roman chvLtck. 

• That the church is intallible : L e, that, if any part or parte of 
her happen to fell fntoeiror, Jesns Christ ^1> not ^rmitthat the 
others fall into it) at the same time ; so that;^^ w^eir: duly ycAexto^ 
gated on the controverted poirtt, their an^wer^nQWi. ariaking good 
his word recorded-in Mdtth. xxviii. 30, shaU alwar^^Aeckre the trutli, 
•uch as it was taught by Jesus Christ and preached by his apostlbs 
«fid l^jcirkwM- successors. • , 

* That there are seven sacraments of the new law, underJtanding ' 
"by k sacraitient, a iensibl^ sign ofin'mstlie grace i viz. baptism, eacha- 
Hst, confitmation, penance, holy orders, extreme unction, smd ma(- 
trimotiy ; ilie -enitence of which slaAcla proved by what -folh»w8£; 

,3 ,, ^Baptism, 

iti MoMTttLT CATALOGtTE, RiUgms'^ tsfci 

Baptism^ Unless ^a man be horn again ofwaier and the Holy Gt>pstf 
he cannot enter inti^ihe iingdom of God^ Jonn^ iii. 13. 'Eucharist, Un» 
less you eat thejlesh of the son of man^ and drinh his hlo'odf you shall 
not have Kfe injou^ John, vi.' 54, Confirmation, Th^ laid tbeir hands 
ubon them and they received the Holy Ghosts Acts, vilL 17, Penance^ 
Whose sins you shall forgive ^ they arefornven them^ and 'whose you shall 
retain^ they areretained^ John, xx. 23. Holy orders, I admonish tlrce, 
that thou stir uf the grace of God *ujhich is in tbee^ by the imposition of. 
tny hands f 2 Tim. i. 6. Extreme unction, Let them pray 0^ him^ 
anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord^ and if he be ih sinSf they 
shall be forgiven him^ James, v. 14. Matrimony is not so explTcitfy 
rccordeci in scripture as a sacrament } but the church, by declaring 
that it was always received by all the Catholic world, as a Sdcrament 
of the new law, has removed all doubt about its existence as such/ 

The author then proceeds to transubstantxation, purgatory, the 
power of granting indulgences, the stories contained in the legends, &c^ 
all of which he takes great pains to reduce to the level of the meanest 
€apacity. , , 

Art, 27. Ji Glance at the History of Christianity^ and of EngUsb 
Nonconfomnty, Third Edition, witli additional Notes, and a Post-i 
script on the present Movement in the East. By Jan&es Bicheno^ 
M. A.« Bvo. IS. Johnson, &c. 1798. 

A tempendium of the history of popery^ of the rise of 4>rote$t-> 
antism, and of English noncontormity ; the principal reasons for 
the latter of which, as it exists at present, Mr. B. says are sevens 
z. The frame and constitution of the established church, it being 
national* 2. The officers of it ; the scriptures knowing nothing of 
many of them. 3. The mode of worship. 4. The ceremonies. 
5. The terms of admission to membership and to the ministry. 6. The 
choice of ministers. 7. The discipline of the church. 

In his justification of nonconformity, Mr. B. remarks that * in 
the New Testament w^e read of no national churches, made up of the 
mass of the people ;'-— surely for a very good reason, since the New 
Testament history only relates the introduction of Christianity into 
several states and kingdoms, and not its triumph or complete e8tal>- 
lishment in atfy 6he. By referring us therefore back to .the infanpy 
of the Gospel, nonconformists do not produce a case in point, nor 
fix on precedents exactly suited to the state of countries professing 

Mr. B. is one t)f ^ose who have undertaken to interpret Apoca^ 
lyptic prophecies, and to explain the signs of the times \ that is to 

S, he views the politics of the day through a theok>gical medium^ 
18 therefore of opinion that ' the commotions which now shake - 
the world are judgments which are to dash in pieces the nations of 
the earth — to cleanse the sanctuary of God, and to make way for 
the kingdom >of Jesus Christ.' Can Mr. B. think that what is now 
passing in Europe has any tendency to < dash in pieces' the Cliinesc 
cmpue ? 

Mr. B. proceeds to tell us ' that we are just entering on the cab* 
mities of the €th vial of wrath^ which is to be poured out on the 
grtat river Euphrates ^ or the Ottoman empire.* What authority. ha^ 


MoKTHir CATALOGtJB^ MisCiUanfOtiS. 11 3 

lie fot taking the great river EuphraUs to tnean the Ottoman eniplre * ? 
A conjectural interpreter of the Revelation (and all is mere conjec- 
ture) may have the seven vials poured out in each of the wars in 
which Europe has been engaged for centuries past. It is better to 
exhort to christian piety, virtue, and charity, than to pretend to ex* 
plain what is completely beyond explanation. Conjecture, which 
corned In the serious garb of piety, and in the shape and semblance 
c^ prophetic interpretation^ is frequently respected : but we think 
that it is a species of p;*esumpt(on which ought rather to be disi- 

Art. 28. An Address deTvoeredto the Committees 6fthe several Parishei 
rfSf. Peter and Pau/9 St^yemes^ St, Michaeli Lyncomb and Widcwnh^ 
and Bathwlci^ met to deliberate upon the Propriety of incorporating 
for the better Relief and Employment of the Poor by the Establish- 
ment of an. House of Industry. By J. Wood, a Director of this 
Shrewsbury-House. 8vo. is. Dilly. 

Perhaps no question has been agitated with more warmthj by 
those persons who have employed their thoughts on the management, 
of the money appropriated by law for the maintenance of the poor, 
than the expitiiency of establishing houses of Industry in different 
parts of the Kingdom. It cannot be denied that houses of Industry, , 
10 some counties, have been attended with all the adva^ntages which 
their advocates could expect ; — and it is not less tnie that, in other ^ 
parts, tl\ey have proved the source of distress and misery. In the 
tatter case, something may be ascribed to local and accidental circum- 
stances, and yet more to negligence and mismanagements 

Withoiit presuming, however, to decide on k matter of so much 
importance^ we can with truth say tjiat the work before us is very 
well written, and deserving of attention. The author ^eema not only 
to be msister of the subject, but to possess .a feeling and benevolent 
bcart : the arguments which he advances in favour of houses of Iiv- 
dustry appear to us venr strong : from lus situation in life as a di- 
rector of the celebrated. Shrewsbury-house, he milst have had the 
best means of information ; and we think that we may safely recom- 
ineod this address to the perusal of these who, actuated by a 
philasthtopic spurit, interest themselves in subjects of this nature. 

Art. 29. Bmnaparte in Mgypt : or, An Appendix to the Inquiry into his 
dUpposed Expedition to the East. By Eyles Irwm, Esqv 8vo* 
IS*' Nicol. 1J98. 

Mr. Irwin's Inqmry was the subject of a brief article in our Cato* 
Ipgue for September, p. 107. That tract was, riece^sarily, a work of 
speculation rather than intelligence ; and the same may be observed 
of this supplement, in which Mr. I. communicates to the public his 
remarks on this extraordinary scheme of the French govemmcnc, 

• If Babylon be interpreted to mean Rome^ the river Euphrates f on 
-whose banks antient Babylon stood ^ may mean something relative 10 
Rome :r-but have we, protestants, good and sufBcient authority for 
jaying that the Pope is indeed the ivhore of Babylon ? 

Riv. Jan. 1799. I and 

I r4' MokthLy CjLTAt6Gmi MisaHane^. * 

ami on \i% /twown cifdinnstances, since'Uie destruction of tliHt fl^Ct ' 
by tlie victorious Nelson. 

Mr. Irwin is now, if possible, more strongly, th^n ever persuJ^ded • 
of the total ruin which from the beginning awaited, the Gallic invadtr». 
of Egypt X yet be somewhat dubiously concludes this pamphlet with- 
the following paragl-aj^h i 

* Wc ate arrived at times, when probabilities are no longer to be 
werghed, but measures to be adopted against seeming impoi^sibib'ties^ 
Buonaparte's appearance in Egypt has put calculation to the blush j . 
and his reaching the coast of India, is only wanting to make us du?' 
bious of every thing, but the success of these' marauders, , in the 
breach of all laith, and the contempt of all rule and experience ! Let 
the Company, let the Nation, be aware of the catastrophe. Though 
tlie present moment be unfavourable to him, Buonaparte may so Far 
succeed in his vjcws, a6 to establish himself fn Egypt. If theplagtc 
.spare what thw prowess and military genius may preserve from the 
sword, a year or two may produce a revolution at sea, to enable him 
to build and collect vessels for his projected expedition. An Admiral, 
whom Lam proud to call my friend, has been long appointed to the. 
iiidiaii station. \Vliat delays the sailing of Sir John Colpoys ? and 
why are his local knowledge and cnterprisinjr talents so long with- 
licld from the threatened scone of action ? Jf a pass be once made* 
over the Gulf that separates Egypt and India, by the undaunted 
perseverance of Buonaparte, the charm will be dissolved, and our 
possessions contested. No less fatal wiTil it prove to the British gran- 
deur, than the bridge which Sataa ttrew over Chaos, tch mankind^ 

<* Sin and Death amam 
Follo'.viug his track, sucH was. the will of Heaven^ 
Pav*d after him a broad and beatqn way 
Over the dark abyss." Milton.^ 

Art. 30. Reply to Irivtn t or, The Feasibility of Buonaparte's sup-- 
posed Expedition to the East, exemplified. By an Officer in the 
Service of the East India Company. 8vo. is. 6d. Cadell jun. 
and Davics. 

These remarks on the above-mentioned * Inquihy* appear to hav<» 
presented themselves to the public under a disadvantage to which 
Mr* Ifwin't pamphlet is not exposed : the jiruwer wantjs tlu; 
credit of its author's name. — ^With Mr. L'§ abilities, and his per- 
sonal k'nowlege of the countries concerned m those discussions, we 
were previoUBly acquainted, and were conscqijently prepared to afford 
him that attention to which his respectable character was entitled-; 
hut h»^ anonymous opponent comes forth with no such advantage. 
He inforivis us, in the course of his observations on Mr. I.'s tracts, 
a3 well as {i\ his title-page, that he has seen military service in the 
lastern parfs of the globe ;' and for this assurance we are inclined to 
;<ive )u*m full credit : but we have no doubt tliat his readers would 
have been better satisfied if his name had accompanied his pages, a3 
op<ntlv as that of Mr. Irwin has appeared oa this occasloxi. 


Mom'ULY Catalog jUE^ Hmellaneous. 115 

Sotypithstandrug .this objectfon, we have Httle doubt respecting the 
Author's personal acquaintance with some of the countries which have 
'l>een, or were proposed to be, visited by Bqonapartc ; and there h an 
appearance of candor as well as of soh'dity in hts objections to some of 
Mr. Irwin's representations. In brief, as, "on -the one hand, he de- 
clares himself to be • by no means influenced by a spirit of despond- 
ency,' neither, on. the other, does he * in the smallest degree desire 
to excite a false alarm.' He adds, * there is certainly an appearance 
of an extensive confederacy * against the British possessions in Asia, 
and to obviate the effect, we have only to be prepared to meet it, by 
the adoption of such permanent arrangements there, as to obviate 
the necessity of resorting to temporary expedients, which, in a go- 
vernment so far rettioved fr-om the motlier country^ may fatally p)ove 
too late ; and not leave, what is allowed to be the " brightest jew^l 
in the British crown," to that fate on which one of its greatest rulers 
iias emphatically expressed its existence to be suspended, ** by a 


*^* These two arficles were written for insertion in ou]- Review 
■for November, but could not, till now, fijid room. 

Art. 31. Remarks on Inland Canals y the smail System of interitjr 
Navigation, various Uses of the Inclined Plane, &c. &c. In a 
JLettcr from William Tatham, to a Proprietor in the Colebrobk- 
Dale and Stratford Canals. 4to. is. J. Taylor. 1798. 
This tract affords but small ground, to merely speculative per- 
sons, for ascertaining the relative merits of the lock and inclined 
plane used for t^e purposes of inland navigation. It may, however, 
in some degree, be interesting to those pci-sons who are previously ac- 
4|uaiated.with the subjects to which Mr. Tatham refers. 

\Art. 32. ji brief Account of Siratfdrd on Avnn ; with a particular 
Description and Sun'ey of the Collegiate Church, the Mausoleum 
of Shakspeare, containing all the Armorial Bearings and Monu- 
njental Juscriptions therein : to which is added, some Account of 
the three ^fniuentPrelates who derive their S/rnames from Stratford, 
the Place of thcii Nativity. i2mo. is. 6d. sewed. Strat- 
ford, printed : London^ sold by Robinsons. 

■'The contents of this small tract arc sufficiently specified in the 
above title. It has been, we understand, the innocent (and, if lei- 
sure admitted, the commendable) empk)ym<int of a youth, who was 
persuaded to ijiJ^ke public what he had collacted on the subject. 
J)ugdale's work is too voluminous for general recourse. To persons 
who visit a spot so famed, on one account at kast, this pamphlet may 
j>robably prove an agreeable companion, ^nd not wholly unacceptable 
as amusement to others. — The young author has judged rightly iji. 
affixing a brief Account of John, Robert, and Ralph, De Stratford^ 
•^ho were natives of this town, and assumed their distinguishing 

♦ Tlie principal of which he particularises in the course of his'ob- 
fen^alions. Rev. 

J i6 Monthly CATALoccfi, Mlse€lUnimSi 

name from it; all of them were eminent in the annals of the Eng- 
lish history, particularly in the reign of Edward III. Other authors^ 
as well as the present, have written //rname instead of /wrnarae. 

Art. 33. The ancient Histtny of Ireland^ proved from the Sanscrit 
Books of the Bramins of Indw. By Gknend Vallancey. 8vo. 

?p. 30. Dublin. 1797- 
n our Review for October last, we gave some account of a recent 
,pyblication by Mr. Maarice, intitled << Sanscrit Fragments ;*' and 
It now appears that the last part of it, said to relate to the British 
Isles, is a republication of the tract at present before us. We then 
expressed our hopes that .Capt. Wiiford's communications respecting 
the allusions to the British Isles, which that gentleman imagined 
he had discovered in the Hindu Puranas, had not been given to the 
public without the permission of the ingenious author. This obt 
serration was not of a nature to be overlooked by a man of Gener^il 
Vallancey ' 8 character ; and he has, accordingly^ convinced us, by a 
letter from a Mr. Ouseley, in India, (though not from Major Ouse? 
)ey, as the General supposes,) that he was at liberty to make what 
use he thought fit of Capt. Wilford^s remarks. These remarks have 
been (by the aforesaid Mr. Ouseley ) styled extracts ; and thiis the 
General has been led to imagine that the conjectures of Capt* Wil^ 
ford are actually extracted from the Puranas. They begin by observ- 
ing that << the British Islea are called in the Hindu sacred books 
Tricatachal, or the mountain with three peaks," &c. Now, is, this, 
we ask, an extract from the Puranas ; or is it a conjecture of Capt. 
Wilford, that the place thus called in those antient poems may (pwr 
grand hazard J be the British Isles ? The first supposition does not 
^serve a comment.*— Capt. Wilford has not assigned a single reason 
in support of his opinion above quoted ; consequently, Geoeral Va^ 
lancey and Mr. Maurice assign none : but, a&suming it as proved 
that the Suvornachal, or golden mountain, (the others arc ot silver 
and iron,) was no other than Ireland, it remained only to explain 9^ 
legend respecting a pious monarch of that country, contained in a^ 
real extract from the Brahmanda Puran, accurately translated by 
Capt. Wilford. His name was Cracaclieswara. Now there is mention 
jnade in Irish records of a King Crach, whp attempted to kill St. 
Patrick ; ergo — We leave the sequitnr to be deduced by those vho, 
may think that history is susceptible of illustration ftom verbal 
analogies. v 

We hope that General Vallancey will not class us with " the un- 
lettered tribe, who have aimed the shaft of ridicule at the vindicator 
of the history and antiquities of his country.*' Nothing, indeed, can 
be farther from our intention : but we think it deserving of his seri- 
ous contemplation, how far such discussions as are cohtaincd in this 
pamphlet are calculated to elucidate the history of Ireland. 

Art. 34. Voyage du jeune Anacharsls en Grece^ abrege de VQuvreige 
de PJibhe Barihekmy \ Sec. See. 8vo. pp. 377. 6*. 6d. Boards. 
Yernor and Hood. 1 798. 
This French abridgment of the travels of Anacharsis closely rc- 

ftcmjjles an English epitom? notjiccad by us in vol. xxiii, p. 234, ani^ 


MoMTHLT CATAtocUE) Thahtsgwing Sermwt* t \j 

15 decorated with the same printt and maps as that edkion. The 
historical introduction has here been wiaelyprefixed ; and the Tolume 
js farther enriched with a life of Barth^lemy, from the pen of the 
late Duke of Nivemoisy which was mentioned in our zviiith voU 
p. ^§9i. The work is well adapted to the use of schools and yoon^ 


Art. 35. The Privileges <f Britain, preached at the Meeting-Hpusc 

in the Old Jewry. By Abraham Recs, D. D. F. R. S. Svo. 

IS. Robinsons^ 6cc. 

This discourse is rational, pious, and Ipyal. Dr. Rces has made the 
walls of the Old Jewry resound with a discourse which a Bishop might 
have preached at St. James's, and which would probably hr?e given 
universal satisfiEiction to his audience : while at the same time the Boc- 
tor has not violated any one of his own principles. From Isaiah , v. ij^ 
he has exhibited ovar local, civil, and religious privileges, with a view 
of exciting our gratitude to God for the bluings which we enjoy. 

Lord Nelson's splendid victory is thus loywly noticed- * The 
late victory on the coast of Africa, so important in itself, so beneficial 
in its consequences, and so honourable to all who were engaged in 
atchieving it, wiH bring to our grateful recoHection the gloriooa 
Jirtt of Aufirusc, which has been long celebrated as the sera of the 
accession of his Majesty's family to the throne of these realms, aild 
by none of his Majesty's most loyal subjects more sincerely and more 
Joyfully than by protestant dissenters.' ' 

What would Mr. Burke have said to stich a sermon preached ik 
the Old Jewry > 

Instead of commenting, we will make one more short extract. 

* Such have been our late victories, that we have reason to hope 
that the attempts of the enemy against our rcllgfon and liberty wffl 
prove unsuccessfuls and that neither their licentious principles nor 
their present conduct will find any advocates in this country. That 
Providence, which has hitherto fenced us round and preserved our 
possessions and persons inviolate, will, we trust, yet deliver as, and 
render our salvation complete and permanent.' 

Art. 36. 7be Lord protecting Great Britain for his own Name's Saie» ' 
Preached at the Lock Chapel, and at St. Mildred's Church, 
Bread-Street. By Thomas Scott, Chaplain of the Lock Hospi- 
tal. 8vo. IS. Matthews, &c. 

In introducing the subject of this discourse, Mr. S. observes: 
^ We do not meet here to enquire what men have been doing, bat 
what the Lord hath done for us as a guilty nation.' So far he is 
right. He well understands the extent and limits of his provineet 
clergymen are not invited to preach Fast or Thanksgiving Scrmbns 
in order that they may discuss the merits or demerits of statesmen* 
but seriously to trace, if they can, and to improve the over-ruling Prd- 
yldence of God, who is carrying on his designs amid the contend- 
ing interests, passions, and vices of men. Mr, 6. has not undertaken 
distinctly and fully to explain what he means by the Lord's protect- 
ijT it« 

,iiA i MONTHLY Catalogue, Tianksgrplag Sfrfnofts. 

:ing u^ for kis own name^t saie; though we.lhmk that he meais 
; for the sake of the honour of his divide perfectioiis and moral govcm- 
: fBeni ; for the sake of religious truth ; anti for tlie promotion of that 
. great system of mercy which is the bbject of rcvelatipn. In this view 

pi thc.matter» there is something truly sublime ;-r-sonictbing to whiqli' 
' the vision of the mere worldly politician does not extend. 

This serious , preacher enumerates a variety of instances in which 

tho hand of Providence (when our own arm was Tmpotent) has inler- 

|K>»ed for us, especially in the preservation of Irelai^d, and dunng the 
^ inutii^y on board our fleet. . Wjth suiial)le praise to each of our 

victorious naval Lords, he blends gratitude and praise to * the a/one 
. Giver of all victory/ Jrle seems to cortwder Qr^at Britain as pre- 

tccte4 and preserved^ as Judah was of oldr in order tp promote soae 
. religious purpose among the nations of the eartli ; and we sincerely 
. fcope that he has pjredicted rightly as to the future scheme of Provi- 
^ fiettce* He remarks that, * notwithstanding .all our heinous cnmes, 
.. we have not by any naitonal act renounced iliepiofession of Christi- 

aaity.' He farther notices, (what wc wonder to see omitted in mo^t 
, of the sermon^ on this day,) the diffeieut language of the British and 
\ French commanders, In reporting to their respective governments the 

]?!ctory of the NJlc. JLord Nckon ascribes ihe result to Almighty 
J God :— Buonaparte^ to the Destinies ;-r-* And ^o long (says Mr. 
. iScott) as God '}& thus openly acknowledged by us, and dcsp^cd or 

defied by oi^r enemies; we may hope that *f he will withdraw* hfs 

hand, and work for k[s oame's sake, that it should not t>c polluted ia 

the sight of the tieathen." (Text, Ezek. xx. ?2.) 
.- Y^' M*"* 3cott is nq^ for boasting ?ind vaunting on acconTit 

of our successes. * A consistent Christian (he observes) will J^c 

pained to hear of JSritain^J ruling the wa'oesy for he knows that the 
^Lord qlone rules the sea and the land.^. This perhaps 'is carrying 
jscnou&ness too far : but it proceeds, no doubt, from a spirit, of gf« 
^jnuinc piety, 

A volume of Sermons by Mr. 5cott has lain for so^ne time on oijr 

i^hclf, but is not forgotten. 

'Aff. 37. Preached at the Mceting-House ip Carter-Lane. By 

Thomas Taylcr. 8vo. 6d. Dilly. 
, .Wc kavc met with laughing ti-ajjedics and crying comedies; with 

"sprightly fast -sermons, and melancholy discourses. Mr. 

.T.'s sermon is of the latter description. Apprehensive that we may 
probably be too happy ^ he exHorts, us (Tsal. ii. 11.) /'; njuice %:iih 
trembling ; -since, notwithstanding our victories, * we arc still in cir- ' 

-cumstances of danger and uncertainty.' It is true that he is not i«- 

, sensible of our national blessings ; for he freely confesses, for himself, 
tliat he has never heard of any country, 111 any part of the world, 
which he should prefer to his own : but he mixes witli his pious gr?^- 
titude the most, fearful apprcliensions ; — so that his sermon might have 

'been intitled — Reasons (v;;al!ist premature Thatiks^ivir^s, ' At such an 
interesting period as» the present, (says Mr. T.) who can say what w;c 

,may'yet hve to see or to suffer ?' . ' 

It is but justice to add that Mr. Taylcr views the great events, now 

jpassing in the world, through the medium of genuine rcKgion and 

. Christian 


Clinslian pifty ;* and that he has too v much yeaBon for the gloomv 
"Seniiments which he has interspersed through the offcriu^a of thaidu<« 

Art. 38. Preached at Weston \inder Penyard, Hcrcfordslu'rc, 'Br 
Charles Nosworthy Michcll, M. A. of Oriel Cull. Oxon, and 
. Curate of Weston. 8v<>, is. Dllly. 

Multum Ittparvo^ Mr. M. shews that we have reason to be tlwnk- 
£ul, and ought not to object to abridge our luxuries in order to prfc*' 
serve our. many substantial blessings. His text is Psalm cvii. 2. 

Art. 39- Before. the Honourable House of Commons, Nov. jo^ 
1798, at St. Margaret's, Westminster. By Thomas Rennell^ 
D. D. Master of the Temple. 8vo. is. Rivingtons. » 

Popularly and well adapted to the great and interesting occasion '^ 

and suitable to the times, and to the audience before whom it was 


SINGLE SER^fOKS Wl OthiT OccashflS* 

Art. 40. The Duty of T/jarihghinj^ preached at the Founidllng'- 
Hospital, Dec. 19, 1797, being the Day appointed for a GcncraF 
Thanksgiving. By the Rev. John Hewlett, B. D. 8vo. is. 
Johnson, Sec*. 
A judicious exhibition of the strong reasons which we have for 

icing thankful to the Giver of all good, for the various blessing*^ 

which he bestows on ourselves, on our neighbour, and on our 

country ; from Psalm cxxvi. 26. 

Art. 41. Preached in the Ciiurch of St. John Baptist, WakefitJd, 
for the Benefit of the Choir of the «aid Church j for defraying ne- 
cessary and incidental expences, and forming a Fund for its future 
- Permanence and Prospcnty. By the Rev, Richard Munkhouse, 
D. D. To which are added Notes and an Appendix. 4to. pp.fOt 
IB. Rivingtons, &c. 1798. 

Dr. M. here discusses the subject of Church music with the en- 
thusiasm of a professed amateur. Viewing psalmody as * the most 
cxalttrd and ennobling part of Christian worship,' he is desirous of 
lendering it as perfect as possible ; and it must be confessed tJiat^ ia 
most of our churches, this portion of the service requires much Iin- 
provement." Surely, if psalmody is to make a part of the public wor- 
ship, it should be executed with propriety ; and both the translation 
and the music should be as excellent as they can be made. Eveiy one, 
therefore, who is desirous of having the service in* our churches con- 
<3i!ctcd with decency and effect, must wish success to Dr. M. iu the 
^ect of thi^ iliscourue. 


To the Editor of the Monthly Review* 

• t Reqnest yon wUl inform your readers lh;it a reply to Mr. Wood'j 

* Letter, Inserted in yonr Review for November, relative to some 

animad versions 1 had incident^illy made on his *' Account of the 

Shiewsbury Hoiuse of Ii\du8try," hft^ appeared in the MQQtbly Magazine 


1^ doRKfisPoiffi>circ£« 

Ibt X>ec(mbcr : and that I should hire begged your insertion of tbil 
vcply in ycMM- Review for the preseut montb» but was persuaded that^ 
from it9 lengthy it would' have been inadmissible. I am» Sir» 
• Caroliae Plao?,Guildft>rd- Your obedient humble Servant, 

Street, Jan. lo. 1799- JOHN MASON GOOD/ 

We have received a polite letter from Dr. tjnderwaod^ informing 
us that the publication on (he disorders of cfjiidboody . tcvicvrta. 
in our Number for September last, is not intended fcy him as a new 
i^dition of his work on the Diseases of Children ^ — ^but as a separate 
production a^fed exeltuii)ely to domestic ttfr.-*^Wc Icam also-, that 
a new edition of his former treatise is almost completed. To this 
edition, which will be ealculdted solely for medical readers^ we shall pay 
the necessary attention on its appearance. 

In our last Number, we noticed Mr. Salmon^s new edition of Les 
Aveniures de Telemaqtie, as a correct and neat impression : it may also 
be acceptable information to our readers to know that there is aa 
inferior edition, printed with the same types, and comprised in one 
volume, without plates, price 3s. 6d. in boards* 

B.iD. is informed that we intend to examine into the merits of the 
wotk which he mentions, as soon as opportunity permits. It has 
already been some time in our possession, but we have not yet beea 
able to peruse it. 

'i. ■ ■ » 

It would be improper for us to comply with the request of X. Y. Zv 
—Some intelligent hiend may be able to satisfy him. 

We must not^ suffer ourselves to be drawn int© controversy, by 
anonymous correspondents, on such points as that which is the ob- 
ject of a letter signed CUricus Westmoriensss. Our duty docs not rc- 
Hjuire, and our time will not permit, that we should enter into debate 
with every unknown co-respondent who may dilFer from us in opinion. 

A correspondent who signs Z>. gives us reason to conchide that 
Mr. George Forster, son of the late * Dr. J. R, Forster, could not 
have been the author of the Journey from Bengal to England, men- 
tioned in our last Review. We were also incorrect in stating that 
Dr. F. and his son accompanied Captain Cook in his Jirtt voyage : 
it was in the second voyage* 

*^* The readers of the Review are requested to take notice that 
the Appendix to Vol. xxvii. consisting of copious accounts of 
various important Foreign Publications, with the General Title, 
Table of Contents, and Iudex» for the Volume,, is (aa usual) pub- 
^'shed with this Number. 

C^P.Sp. L 26. forr^roiia?, r. r^tlalje^; and 1. 27. iorf>9cal\^ r.vocaU^. 

* His death has been announced in some foreign papers ; to iK^iich 
we must refer as all our authority. One of our magazines has aha 
recorded the decease of Mr. G. F. 

,„:.-: r t It E . • 


■^ For FEBRUARY, 1799. 

'A^T- I. .Pbtloiopbical 7mtuactm* of the Royal Society ofXmdoni 
for the Year 1798. ?art ll. 4to, 158. sewed, Elmaley and Breinner« 


fE proceed without the formality of introductory remarks^ tO" 
the review of the artides contained in this volume'; • several • 
■of which are peculiarly Talti^blc and interesting', a Al' wift 
therefore require co'n^jdenJble atteritiott. We. shall distribute' 
them according to pur usual arrangement^ and begin with th^: 

Mathematical afd PHiLosoPHieAL Papers. 
, A Disquisition on the Stability of Ships *^. By (Jeorge AtwooJ^ 

4^^. F. R. S. • : 

Wt hive already taiin notice of the general principles oa 
which .ttis elaborate dlsqjaisitioh is founded 2 Sec M. B.CT. 
N.S. ToUisdii. P..45. .Ipthe paper to whiph wehaye r^jfcr-, 
rsd, the author has demopstrated a, general theorem for deter« 
.fDining the floating positidlis.of bodies, and has applied it to 
those of various fonns. He has also shewn that the same 
^theorem is' not -lees applicable to the stability of vessels ; mak- 
%ig due aH(^anc6s for 'the shape 'of the sides, their inclination 
from the xrpright, and other circum'stances^ by which their ' 
^staMKty canbfe afftcted. He here pursues the investigation of 
]the ;8ame subject, '.whigh is equally useful' apd curious, inji 
'nuoner that doe^ hibnoor to his judgment and diligence ; and 
1>7 i great.variety of n^ath^matical proces84% hehasadapted his 
.tbcoreme to aU time <^i^d whith are most^ikely to occur. In 
jAxkag this^ ht has extended and improved the theory of naval 
ascfaitecttire, corrected the mistakes of some of the modtdi^'* 
uagmshed i^rkers on this patt of mechanics, and has furnished 
principlei; and calculations which cannot fail'to be of consi^ 
derabte service both in (he construction and in the navigatioji 
of ships. ... 

This paper, however excellent and valuable in itself, an^ in 

its reference to the ^various important piirposes to which it may 

.bc.appUedt is oot susceptible of abridgment i nor can we dis« 

• ** The uahittty of «hips is their beiug able to «arry a Sjifficxeat 
quantity of sail without ^^nger,' ^c. 

Vibi,. kxTXii. K . SincUj 

112 Philosophical Transaction's of the R. S. Part ILfor 1 79?. 

tiiictly detail its con ten ts^ SS a'tnafiner that will be intelligible 
and interesting to our readers, without the figures on which 
tkeriHustraaon erf thenr depends : |)ut the foUowlnf |et*cri[l 
%c<*oiint, Ipranistd b^ the auth^ hiAisdf, wifl afford $ufecfeitt 
Information to those who direct their attentioa to subjects o£ 
this nature^ and who tnay be tkairoiis T)f*enlaf^g their ac- 
quaintance -^th theifi. 

In estimating the stability of vessels in particular cases^ by 
means of flic theorem previously demonstrated, the author ob- 
serves that ... ' - . , 
: ' * The form of the sides, and the inglb of zntliiiatidii firom thfe 
^e*l>endtcTilary must be giVeii. *t\\^k cbtfditions advtiit of great 
^Jiraricty, cofwideriiig^ the shs^ of tire -sikki^ hbth above the water- 
line and beneath it $ for we may iirst a^m« a da6e> which is oi«e %»f 
the most simple and obvious : this ia» when the sides of a- vesic) 
are parallel to the plane of the masta, both above and beneath the 
^atcr-line ^ or* secondly, the sides may be parallel to the masts un^ 
'•dcr the \vatcr-Hne, and project outward, or may be inclined inWard*^ 
above the ttaid line ; Or th^y lAay be fni^^l to Bie malts above the 
water-line, and inclined^ cither inward or outward beneath it) Ipme 
Vf these ca^es, as wtfl as those which follow, being not improper m 
the construction of particular species of ve99els^ and tbe others,, 
lahhotigh not practice, wul contribute to Illustrate ihc gene- 
•ral' theory. The sides of a vessel may also coincide with tlfe sides 
' -^ ft vt^ge, fhelined to each other at i givert ahglb^ Which *vg;!e» 
SaSormd at an iftia^iiar^ line, where the m^f iS produced, wonla in» 
(tewct each other, may be smiated either <if|djEr or above tSie^t^titc^ 
.HMrikc«b To thoie bases may be sKlded^ the circuiBr form of tlft^ 
sides, and that of the ApoUoniait or conic parabolai l^e wdes ttiF 
vessels may also be assumed to coincide with curves of dificfwift 
'species and dimensions, some of which approach to tlM foRnO' 
adopted in the practice of naval architecture^ particularly ia thp 
larger Aips of burden. A^d lastly, the shape of the sides may b|> 
-reduofijle to no tegiriar geometrical la^ ; in which case, the deter- 
-mJtiation of tlrt stabilfty, m respect to a "Mp^s rollmg, rfentlh^s the 
'WeMiMcieaa of tfa^ tdMlAtfces of iht VM$M tectiohs whidk &vfer- 
sect tbe longer a^xiB.iat ri^ht an^i sittHflr iiieMUMi€»As hire %kK> 
reqiHrad &>r determihitf^ Sae^tiabiHtr, in nspect to tht sboiter aMw 
.round which a vessel revolves in pitekingk la order %• doscifa 
rdistinctlj^ these several cases,, the yariatida of the SeefioBii botk.iyt 
'furm and magnitude, from head to stern of the vesaei,,has not been 
considered; Uie 'sections being supposed equal and similar ^figure^^ 
%ach «e they iti ftfattty aV6, near the greatest section oi'a sJiip, grow- 
ing smaller,, and altering their form, toward the. head knd steni. 
ii&^ beiFovt thb alteration can be taken into account^ it is necessan* 
first to asoeflaiii the ^t^tiity eorrespon^g to a vessel or fte^eiit» 
ia which the. sections »«\0qual and simflar fij^^a $ -froth whidi 4^ 
*:termiaati<Hiy the stability is infured which a^itally existi, wfa^tfaft 
:form and magiiitade of. the sect4ons alter eotatiniolly, from one'ev 
tremity of the vessel to the othek'% The -coRuderation 6f the.oKea 

PlUmffk^i Thmtdtti^f pfihi M. 8^ Pott tt.J^ iy9f. 12} 

^AqAl have been iicre stated, with iQferences and obeertatloiiil 
^Kreony h die subject of the ensuing pages ^ in wHich» if any idefl» 
ttf« sagg^sted which may be at all useful in the practice or oatid 
tfdiitecttife, or may eontribute to remove imperfect or erroAeoua 
irottons which have been entertained respecting a principal brandi ^ 
ky the iBtcntloR of the author will be accomplished.* 

^pHqoii Remarques iPOptifUiy pfincipdlement re/aiives h la A^ 
JhfUiiiif Jes HafM di la Lumteirt. Par P. Prevoat, Profyfffur 
diPbUoHpkie a Geneve^ Sec. &c. 

Tkead optical remarks iirere suggested by the perusal tt t 
paper of Mr. Brottgham, published in the first part of the 
PhikMophical Transactions for 17969 (see M. Rev. N. S« toU 
xxiii. p. 42,) and {:ontaining some objections to the Newtonian 
dieory of die reflexibility of light. M. Prevost begina with 
tCating ^at Newton means by this term^ and in what setise 
it is uacid by Mr. B. \ and he then proceeds to inquire^ in the 
£m piace, whether the homogeneous rays of l^ht differ in re«* 
JexSiility according to the Newtonian sense df the expression 1 
xa^ in other words, whether, under the same angle of incU 
4eace, ansi all other circumstances being precisely sln^ilar^ 
the violet ray will be reflected while the red ray is dot ro» 
fleeted. To the welUknown esperiraents by which Newton 
demonstntes this proposition, Mr. B« objects that *^ the dc* 
flianstfation invohres a logical erron When the rays, by ro- 
Iraction through die base of the prism used in the experimerit, 
•re aeparated into their parts, these become divef^ent, tht 
%iotet and red emerging at very different angles, and these wem 
niKi incident on die base at different angles, from tht refract 
ikn of the side at which they entered ; when, therefore, the 
^riMtt is moved round on its axis, as described in the ptt»pontion» 
tlie base is nearest the violet, from the position of the rays by 
•tfinMtins, and meets it first; so that the violet being refleetei 
ns seoD as it meets the base, it is reflected before any of the 
#dier tnys, not frosn a different disposition to be so, but menl]f 
Jiwn its different vefnmgibility.'' 

In examining this objectioni the author allows that, whik t4e 
fvism 16 turned round on its axis in the manner described hf 
Newton, the white ray, which fell perpendicularly on the 
nnterior side of the prism, wiU now fall obliquely. In the case 
irlueh he represehls, and to which his figure is adapted, the in- 
-cidflBt rays will be refracted towards the perpendicular : bnt 
the moat aefrangibte, t. e. the violet, will approach the nearest 
io it ; nod 4he least fefratigible, i. t. tiie red, will be the most 
ff«MMe Arom it« The former will, there&m, xdAr a greater 
angle widi the base of the prism dian die latter ; and, as the 
«B^. «( incidesica are fkut compknenti td these angies rt^ 

K 2 spectively^ 

spcctivcly,. the violet ray will meet the base or the reflecting 
side of .the prism under a less angle of incidence thgn the req 
.ray, and consequently it in circumstances less favour-r 
able to reflection than the other. Nevertheless, the violet ray 
is refl«<?tcd sooner than the red ray 5 and, therefore, the former 
is, in its own nature, more reflextble than the latter, according 
to the Newtonian sense of the expression. Hence M. Prevost 
infi0|» that Mr. E.'s conclusion^ which is unquestionably just, 
furnishes an argument a fortiori in favour of Newtou^s --propor 
eition'; so that we may aflSrm not only that the violet ray is 
reflected sooner than the red ray at the same incidence, but 
even when its incidence is less favourable to reflection thaa 
that of the other. .: 

The author proceeds to establish the same principle, and to 
vindicate it from Mr. B.'s objection, in the case in which the 
refracting angle of the prism is about 40*^ : but, without the 
diagram, wt cannot do justice to this part of his reasoning. 
He concludes, on the whole,* that Mr. B.'s objection is not suf- 
ficient to invalidate the proposition of^ Kewton ; and that we 
are still warranted in affirming, in the language and according 
to the precise, sense of this great philosopher, that the most 
refrangible rays' are also the most rcfiexible. 

M. Prevost next inquires whether homogeneous rays difier 
in reflexibility, in the sense of Mr. B. : in other words, whe- 
ther, under the -same angle of incidence, the red ray forms a 
less angle of reflection, and the violet a greater angle of rei- 
flectibn, than the angle of incidence ? In order to ascertain 
this point, Mr. B. presented the convex surface of a polished 
cylinder, of a very small diameter, to a white ray ; and having 
measured the coloured spectrum which was reflected from it» 
and made the necessary calculation, he found that the mt^9. 
rays, or those at the confine of green and blue, were reflectetl 
at ah angle equal to that of incidence : but the red were re« 
fleeted at a less angle, and the violet at a greater angle. M. 
Prevost investigates the evidence afforded by this expetioiei^ 
in favour of Mr. B.'s principle ; and with this view he de- 
scribes a circle to represent a section of the small polished 
cylinder, and a larger circle on the same centre to represeSntt 
the corresponding section of the 8^here of activity of the re- 
flecting force, which encompasses this cylinder. . He then svtp" 
poses a white ray to f^l on the surface of the sphere of ao- 
tivity. Since the. red rays are mote powerfully jrepeUed than 
• the violet, (which is Mr. B.'s own hypothesis,) thi letter will 
penetrate more deeply into the sphere of the repulsive foKC^ 
tlian the former ; and, as this force acts in lines perpendiculv 
•to tke reflecting surfa^e^ the coucse \vhuch an;hpinPgf^neo%i 

- :. . ; -. raj 

P^tatopiicai Traniactions of the R, i. Part IL/or 1798. 12 f 

lay describes 'rt'jthin the sphere of activity will bfe formed of 
two equal and similar curves or branches, whose axis passes 
through the cefttre of the sphere : hence it follows that the 
homogeneous ray will pass out of this sphere, so as to make 
an angle of reflection equal- to that of incidence. Thus all 
the homogoneous rays, which form the same angle of inci- 
dence at the point of the reflecting medium on ^hich they 
fiffi, will be reflected under equal angles :•— but, as some of 
them penetrate deeper inta this medium than dthers, they 
must diverge in their, progress ; because" this divergency" is 
accessary to render the anglefi of reflection equal. By pur- 
suing this kind of reasoning, and availing himself of the 
figure which illustrates it, the author deduces this conclusion ; 
dSuat homogeneous rays are not unequally reflexible in the 
sense of Mr. B. ; or that the law of reflection proposed by 
Newton, and evinced by his experiments, is the true law o£ 
Nature. . 

In the sequel of this paper, M. Prevost . discussc* other 
questions pertaining to this subject j and he thinks it probable 
that the rays of light are r^sfracted, reflected, inflected, and 
deflected, by the same power variously exerted in different 
circumstances : but this^ he observes, is a proposition whicht 
is not yet demonstrated. 

Account of a singular Instance of Atmospherical Refraction. 
JnM Letter from William Latham, Esq. F. R. S. & A. S. . 

About 5 o'clock P. M. in July 1797, theclifl^s on the French 
coast were discovered from 'the shore at Hastings in Sussex, 
though the nearest distance is between 40 and 50 miles, and 
they are not usually discernible from that low situation by the 
laid of the best glasses. The places oa the French coast, which 
were known to the sailors and fishermen, were described by them' 
as appearing to be as near as when they were sailing, at a 
small distance, into the harbours. From the eastern cliflF, 
which is co;i8iderably high,^ a very extensive and beautifid 
scene, comprehending Dungeness, the Dover Cliffs, and the 
French coast from Calais," Boulogne,' &c. to St, Vallery, pre- 
sented itself to. view. * This curicfus phjenomenon continued 
in the highest splendour till past 8 o'clock, (although a black 
cloud totally obscured the face of the sun for some time,) 
^hen it gradually vanished.' T-fae day was extremely hot) the 
thermometer at 5 in the afternoon being at 76^ ; the mer- 
cury in the barometer is supposed to have been high, as the 
day was remarkably fine and clear; the 'air was in a very 
calm state, so that scarcely a breath of wind was stirring ; and 
ft wa^ high- water at Hastings .about z p'clock in the afternoon, 

K 5 Such, 

W(J PliUsspbtcal Tr4i^aetiom of tie R. S. Part fl.fir l^^ • 

Such are the principal circumstances which are recited in . 
ihis paper, and which a(:coinpaaied the eizigul^r appearance 
h^e commemorated. 

Observa$i§ns of the £urnal Vsriatun of the Magn<ik NeedU^ 
in the Itland of St. Helena ; «ttVA a CsHUNuation rf fie Oiierv 
pthns at Fort AlarlS^rougi, in the Istatid of Sumatra^ ^j Johi| 
iifacdonald, Esq. 

Iti^pears from the&e oheervattoos that the genieral variation 
at St. Helena, in November 179(1, was 15^ 48' 34 J'' West % 
mid by subtracting the medium diurnal afternoQQ ¥ariatioi| 
from riiat of the morning, the vibracing Tariation proves to bo 
3' 55 ^ < The magnetic needle is atationaiy from aitout 6 
. o'clock in the erentng till 6 o'clock in the morning ; when it 
commences movinff, and the west variation increases, tili it. 
amounts to its maximum, about 9 o'xilock *, diminishing ^f^er^ 
ward till it becomes stationary :' whereas, at tiie apartment^ 
pf the Royal Society, this species of variation is found to 
increase from 7 A. M* till 2 P. M, The quantity of l)ie 
diurnal variation is greater in England than at St. Helena or at 
Sencoolen. This, says the author, * will naturally arise from 
this country's being more contiguous to its affecting poles*, 
than tliose islands situated near the equator,^ He also sug- 
gests, in consequence of observations made at St. Helena and 
JBencooIen^ that the dip of the needle is subject to a diurnal 
variation in its vertical movement. 

JExperwmUs to dUermine tie Demit f of tin Earths Bf Henry 
pivendisb, Esg. F. R.S. & A. S. 

A method of determiniag the density of the earth, by ren- 
dering sensible the attraction of small quantities of matter, waiL 
contrived by d^t late Rev. John Michell : but his apparatus 
for this purposie not losing completed till a short time before 
his death, he bad no opportunity of making any c^erimcntji 
^ith it* This appa^us is vo^y simple. 

^ it cofisists of a wooden arm^ 6 fe^ ]pn^, made so as to uail^ 
great atrenffth with little weight, ThiA ami is suspeadcd in an hori^ 
zootsl pp9itton, by a skjider wice 40 inches lon^, and to each ex- 
tremity is bun^ a leaden ball, about ^ io^h^s in diameter ^ and the 
Vfhqlt h enclosed iu a narrow wooden pasc, to defend it from thq 
wind. As no more force is required to make this arm turn round o^ 
iu centre, than what h necessary tp %y;h% the suspending wire, it i« 
plain that, |f the w!re Is sufficiently slender,^ the most mmutK §orce^ 
such as the attraction o9 a leaden wc%iit a'f^w inches •« diaMKtcr» 
frill b^ jiuiSoient tq draw the arm senWbly aside. The weighty 
which Mr. MichcH intcfided to use w«rc i inches ^iamcter. Owe o£ , 
dMfse was to be pkoed on one side of the pse, opposite to one of th^ 
balls, and as near it as coyld be conveniently done> and the otlier oa 
|{ie othex> sifelcf opposite to the odicr haU> so that the attraction of 


Phiktfpa^Tt^nw^/lt tff^it Jt*;Si Part ilfir I7f 8. f^i 

both th«c weights would .conspire in d/awjiig the arm ^jdc; and, 
wlicn its position, as'jdfectcd by these weights, was ascertained, the 
weights were to be removed to the other side of the case, so as to 
draw the arm the contpwy way^ and the positron- of the mth was to 
be agrain determined ; and, consequently, h^lf the difference of the« 
PQsitJQO^ would shew how nvuch the arm was dj:awn- aside by the at- 
traction of the weights. 

* In order to determine from hence the density of the earth, it is 
itficessary to ascertain what force i^ required to draw the arm a«ide 
through a given space. This Mr. Michell intended to do, by 
patting the arm in motion, and observing the time of its vibrations, 
from which it may easily be computed.* • 

As soon 33 the present kig^nioiJis authoi: became pods^&s^4 
^ (bis app3^tu«, be directed that atteatioa lo the iRipraye*' 
mi^ilt and use of it, which, on vatious other cuxasions, has 
beea laudabJy employied in the advancement of pbilp^Opbic^ 
science. Mo person co4ild bafve been loore disposed to ^ply 
it to the purposes for which it was designed, nor moFC cap;^b]e 
of accurately and advantageously conducting the experiments 
for which it is adapted. After having described (with the 
asMStance of suitable figures) the several parts of this curioijs 
apparatus, in its altered and improved state ; and having ape^ 
ciied the matlner of u^ing it, so as to avoid the various errors 
to which the observations made with it arc liable ; Mr. Ca- 
lEcndish gives a particular account of bit numerous experic 
meotft. ^Bfi of the conclusions which lie deduced from theni. 
The detail 13 so Qiinut^ and so extf nsive^ that no sibstractj^ 
withia (lur restrictied limits^ ca^ be rendered inlefestiog to our 
readers. The result ^ the whok, howevei, is exhiWed in ^ 
table*' Hy a mean of on« set of experimei^* the density of 
the earth appears to be 5^,4^ times greater than that of vater ; 
and by a mean of thofic of another class, it comes out the 
same : the extregie difference of the results of the 23 observ- 
ations belonging to this latter class is only ,75 ; ^ so that tlie 
extrfioie results dp not differ from the mean by more than ,3&, 
OS Yz ^f ^^ whole i and theref6re the density should seem to 
be determined her-rby, to great exactness*'*-' It seems very un-' 
likely (savs Mr. C) that the density of the earth should differ 
from 5,40, by so much as t^ of the whole** 

* According to the experiments made by Dr. Maskelyne, on the 
•attraction of ue hill SchehaUIen, the density of the earth ia 4I times 
,tha^ of water; which difiFers rather more from the preceding deter- 
minatioQ/ ikys Mr. C.,^ than I should have expected. But I for- 
bear entering into anv consideration of Mfhich determinatioa is most 
to he dep^uacd on, till J have examined more carefully how much 
the preceding determination is aiFectcd by irregularities whose quau- 
*ptj I canDQt measure' 

. K4 The 

12S PctrJar*/ Mediaal Histories and Refiecttonsy Vol. IIL ' 

The other papers of a mathematical nature, which we havo 
not noticed, admit of no abridgment ; and we must, therefoce,^ 
content ourselves^ with re(;iting the titles of them. They, are, 
M follow : 

• On the Roots of Equations* By James Wood, B.B. Fellow of St m 
John^s College^ Cambridge. • , ^ 

General Tbi:orcms, chiefly Porisms^ in thi Higher Geometry, By 
Henry Brougham, ytf«. Esq. . 

An improved Solution of a Problem in Physical Astronomy ; iy. 
'which swiftly converging Series are obtained^ which are useful in, 
computing the Perturbations of tie Motions of the Earthy MarSy 
Zind FenuSi by their mutual Attraction. To which is added an, 
Appendix y containing an easy Method of obtaining the Sums of many 
' slowly converging Series which arise in taking the Fluents of be\ 
mmial Surds; &c. By the Rfv. John Hellins, F. R.S. 
A very elaborate papor. 

[To be continue J. \ 

" - ~ 

Art. \l. Medical Histories and Refleciions* Vol. III. By Jolm, 
Ferriar, M, D. Physician to the Manchester Infirmary, &c. &c* 
^vo. 5s. Boards. Cadell jun. and Davics. 1798. 

I^UR medical readers, we doubt not, will receive with satis- 
V^ faction the information of a new volume from the hand of 
this ingenious writer. His first topic is that terrible disease. 
the Rabies Canina^ of which a second ^case has occurred to him, 
Uiat seems to have produced some change in his ideas of its 
nature. An effusion of blood into the substance of the hings, 
and the appearance of inflammation in the stomach and oeso- 
phagus, (which last he has traced through the descriptions of 
several writers,) have induced him to consider the Rabies as 
:Qwing rather to an inftammatory than a spasmodic affection. 
He has, in consequence, laid down a plan of cure ; in which, 
however,' we cannot discern anythi^ng that has not- been re- 
peatedly tried without success : nor can we flatter ourselves 
that his researches have thrown any material accession of light 
on this singular and hitherto incurable malady* 

The Account of th< Establishment of Sever^Wards in Man* 
Chester affords a yery pleasing example of the success of a plan 
for the prevention of disease ; that best, but most neglected, 
•branch, of the medical art. The prevalence of infectious fevers 
in manufacturing town^ is a melancholy fact, which many 
writers, and the present author in particular, have taken laud-" 
able pains to place lu the view of the public. To prcyent. 
them from arising in the first instance, a variety of precautions 


RrriarV Medical Itistortes and Reflections y Vol. III. i ig^ 

pre requisite ; and Dr. F. ha^ had the merit of affording n^uch. 
ipstniction on .this head :r-but, to prevent the progress of in- 
fection once generate^, the grand point is separatlo?i \ and it' 
is the accomplishment of this, by the Board of Heahh at Man^ 
Chester, which forms the principal subject of this paper. A 
kind of Fpvcr-hospital, under the popular name of a House of 
Recovery, ha§ been established in a proper quarter of the 
town, to v^hich all who arc known to fall ill with fevers of the 
infectious cl^ss are immediately conveyed; and the effect of 
fhis institution in extinguishing epidemic disease has been truly 
surprising.— "We shall not attempt to abridge this paper, since 
every part of the detail niust be interesting to those whom 
motives of humanity, and regard to the public good, may cr- \ 
cite to similar exertions ; and whom, therefor^, we would adr 
yise to consult the volume itself 

An Affection of the Lymphatic Vessels y hitherto misunderstood^ 19 
the subject of the next article.* Mr. White of Manchester, 
several years ago, called the, attention of the faculty in tliis 
country to a sin^^ular svelli^g of one or both of the lower ex- 
tremities, sometimes occurring in lying-in women. He clearly 
discerned this to be owing to a disease of the lymphatic^ of the 
part ; and he attributed it to the rupture, dipring labour, of thp 
great lymphatic trunk which on each side passes over the brinoi 
of the pelvis. Other writers afterward bsought additions to 
the history and description of this disease, and formed different 
iheories of its ca\ise. Dr. F. here adduce^ a case of a. very 
$unilar affection in a man ; and, generalizing hjs ideas, he con* 
ceives an inflammatory state of the lymphatic system in a part, 
^hich may occur from various causes, without being limitecf 
as to sex or part of the body. From this notion ^f the dis-y 
ease, he adopts a practice calculated to unload the sanguineous 
vessels^ and tq diminish local and general irritability. H^ 
directs the f^ee and repeated application of leeches to tho 
swollen limb; together with a continii^ed use of gentle cathaiw 
tics; and he proyes the success of his method, as well by the 
event of the ca$e fir^t mentioned, as by that of a woman 11^ 
'whom the attack commenced on the day aifter delivery. 

On the Croup. The purpose of this short paper is to cha-j 

raeterize the genuine croup, and strongly to impress the neces-t 

sity of employing (without delay) the only remedies which are 

. -worthy of reliance, visa, copious bleeding, emetks^ and large 

glisters on the breaft or shoulders. 

A still more brief paper on the Hooping-Cough ends with re« 
commending^ as the most efiectual remedy for shortening this 
tedious disordet, the solution of white arsenic. We cannolt 
.t)utwtsh that the author had given '$pme details of his own 

\^ practifjcn 

Ij# . Vmizfs.IUuiiratlpns of Sterne^ 5s£. > 

]^sK:tice (which he represents as very successful} in thb deli- 
tfate pbmt* 

^h Use rf tie Nitrous Add in SifibylUf and in some other Dit^ 
mtses, is next considered. The general result of the attthi)r'8 
opericfice, in this matter, is that this remedy is cftpabk of rc- 
Aiovmg certain symptems in the advanced stages of the vene-* 
iral 1«€S, but that h would scarcely be prudent to trust to it 
$ione. He has never been able to ascertain that the acid ha^ 
»»y other action on the salivary organs, than what proceeds 
ibom its external application in the act of swallowing. In 
irhronip rheumatism^ and as a jgeneral tonic^ he has found it a 
faluaUe medicine. 

^ section on tie Treatment of tie JPytng contains some curious 
jMfedi probably Itttle-I^own facts> ^relative to the practices of 
nurses and other ignorant and prejudiced persons in this parti* 
cular ; and it is worth perusing by all who wish tb procure fo)r 
dicmselves, or their fciendsi that last of blessinjrs to poor snor- 

•• The Appendix contains two papers. The first, hititled 
Advice to the Poor, was originally drawn up for distribution by 
the Board of Health, and consists of plain rules directed to the 
pteservation of the. manufacturing poor from contagious fevers, 
^e second is a oommunication from Mr. W. Simmons, sur* 
ceeii, relative to the use of the Kali purum as a caustic in thip 
Site of a mad dog, and of the nitrous acid in lues venerea.^^f^ 
remarkable instance of the fallacy of report is given in thi$ 
€»ramttnicatk>n. Mr. Dent affirmed^ in the House of G)ra« 
mons, that 40 cases of hydrophobia had occurred in the Man^ 
Chester Infirmary within a fortnight. The fact was^ that this 
fmmber of persons Utten by mad dogs, real or supposed^ ha^ 
offered, but that not one of these was attacked with the hydro- 
phobia. Mr. S, is led, by his own experience, to think that 
^ tiwicly application of the alkaline caustic to the woijnd is 
•« almost certain preventive. — His cases of the trial of nitrous 
^id in the Ven. Dis. gtf to prove that it is capable of curing 
%\\t primary, but that it fails in permanently removing secondary^ 
symptoms.' This, certainly, is a statement very ht^le \n ic% 

^tT. III. Illustrations ef Sterne : with other Essays and Verses. Bf 
John Ferriar, M. D. Hvo. pp^3i4. 5s. Ikliurds. CadcU ju^^ 
and Davie$. 179B. 

LiKC many others of his profession. Dr. Eerriar has made s| 
happy combination of the literary with the medical eh^- 
^acter ^ and after having in various ways iostruQtecii he hens 


aims to amuae, tbe publk. The variety and unuiual tuni cf 
his reading have ahready beeo displayed in cartain paper$ in* 
«erted in the Manchester Transactions; piutictilarf]^ in one^ ^ 
pointing out the source of vaf ioiis imitationt^ or rather pla- 
giarisms! iii ^^ writings of Sterne, which excited constderabit % 
notice from tbe curious in literature *• The greater portidii 
of the present volume consists of an augmentation of the Doc» 
tor's discoveries on that topic ; or rather of a new and more 
methodical exercise on it, comprising the most material part 
of ^he former paper. It is a piece of much entertaining re- 
search. The story of Sorli&i, though little connected with tho 
subject, ii a good OBe, and is told with many touches of Stcrne'a 

The second piece, * Ofartain FarUHa §f ManJ is chiefly 
occupied with authorities antient and modern on the existence 
of pygmies, and of tailed men. Several of its quotations are 
amusing instances of the extravagancies of fiction^and credu* 
lity \ and tbe lesson deduced from the whole, inculcating cau* 
tion in the admission of pretended facts, is a very necessary one 
to those who form systems on the observations of q/Htusn. 

The Memfpean Essay on English Historians is a composition 
not easily characterized ; rather too grave to be jocular, an4 
too light to be serious. It is written in that whimsical mix- 
ture of -^^^ and prose which some authors of note have oc6a* 
sionaHy adopted, probably by way of frolic or experiment* ^ 
l>r. F. is no bad versifier, as the following quotation maj 
ehew \ at the same time serving as a specimen of the humouff 
pf fhi^ piece* 

^ From bardSf inspired by meady or Celtic beer. 
Burst forth the bloody feud, or vision drear. 
Till caA attendant bazpipe squeak'd for fcarf : 
They sung how Fin Mac Coul \ controU'd the fightg 
Or Merlin ravM with more than second -sight. 
Bown Time's long strcafti the dying music floaM, 
And cheats th' impatient ear widi broken notes. 
JLull'd by the murmur, antiquarians snore. 
Of Highland-epics dream, and Druid-lore ; 
Or CO the seeming steep, and shadowy plain« 
Hunt the glass-castle, or Pbei^ici&n fane $« ^ 

^ * ^ — - 

. f See Rcriew, VoL xiii. N.S- p, 183. 

< f At thy well-sbarpen'd thumb, from shore to shore 

The tnsblcs sgu^ for &ar« the bj^ses »>^* ^^ Flctlnp.* 
^t Fingid.' 

< i Glass castle.'] Vitrified ioKts la Scotlaad ; mfd the celebrated 
«hip?tem|^ h Irebmd^' 


Iji thrtizt^f Illustrations efSterneykc. \ 

« Next doleful ballads troU'd th' immbrtal ihtmty. 
Bung to the' car, or whistl'd to the team * : 
Tho° wicked wits, from age to age, refuse 
The homdy ditties of the hob-nail-musc. 
Long tost, the sport of mountain-air and winds f , 
These P — Y comments, and these Edwards binds. 
Now from his store each restless rival draws 
Rhyme's tamish'd flowers, blunt pointVi and rusty sar\rs^ 
Till our bright shelves, in gilded pride, display 
The trjish our wiser fathers threw away. ^ 
] ' • Our early hist'ry shuns the judging eye, ' 

In convents bred, the urchin learn 'd to lie ; 
• White plrantoms wave their palras in golden meads» 
And the pale school-boy trembles as he reads. 

f The later chroniclers, with little skill, 
Darkling and dull, drew round th' historic mill, 
Jn wild coiifusion straw' d, appear the feats " * 

Of shews and battles, duels, balls,, and treats \ 
Here the rich arms victorious Edward bore. 
There the round oaths which great Eliza swore ; 
And quaint devices; justs, and knightly flames. 
And gay caparisons, and dainty dames.' 

The serious purpose of the essay is to point out the different 
faults of English historical compositions at various periods. 
An imitation of Gibbon's manner (we iake it for such, though 
it is not ayowed,)i8 one of the parts which has most pleased us. 

The Puppet-Shew^ a poem, chiefly translated frogi Addisot^'s 
*' Martina GesticulanteSy^^ next occurs. It is not unsuccessfully 
executed ; though some of the elegant humour of the original^ 
consisting in classical phraseology applied in the way of 4>a<- 
Tody, is necessarily lost. Compensation, however, is made 
by the introduction of modern satire : of which yre shall giye 
jspecinjen.' ♦^ 

* Behold Noverre the mimic art restore \ 
Medea raves and fhaedra we^ps no more. 
Here ^ense and shew decide their long dispute. 
For man turns. puppet, and the stage is mute. 
Ungraceful Hamlets, aukward Romeos fly I 
Let Mother Goose % more worthy themes supply. 
On the vast stage, o'er many an acre spread, 
5p lowing herds and num'rous squadrons led ; 

* *. Sung to the wheel, and §ung uqto the pailc. HaWs Firgidem,^ 

* f ^rapidis ludibria ventis.' ' Vir<3.' 

* X This passage might very well have been written at the time 
when the poem is dated ; for the entertainment of Selitria and Jii^or 
vas taken from the story of Beauty and the Beastj in Mother Goose'^ 
Tales. The stage is now further indebted to tliat learned author.* 

femtfs Slusiiratlom cfStertu, &c, iii 

1^ • Whtk Bi'UE. Beard fierce tKe Fatal key demands^ 

Or Puss iH Boots aeouires the Ogre*'8 lands ; • • 

Or fiair Red RipiNG-HooDy in luckless hour^ 
A helpless victim falls to fraud and powV. 

• Froceed, great days ! till poetry expire. 
Till Cbngjcve pill us, and till Shakespeare tire |, 
Till «?'ry tongue its useless art let fall. 

And nK>ping Silence roost in Rufus' hall ; 
Till nimble preachers foot the n^oral dance. 
Till cap'ring envoys check the pow'r of France* 
And full St. Stephen*8 see* with' mute surprise* 
The Opposition //hi, and r render rise. ' * 

* But oh! what God inspires my bodin? mind 
To paint the glimmering prospect yet behmd ! 

I see in gesture eVry wish eicprest, " -^ 

Each art, each, science quit the lightened breast : 

No wand'ring eves the distant heav'ns explore. 

On two legs tott'ring, man descends to four. ^ 

Then, great Monboddo, proves thy system true j 

Again in caves shall herd the naked crew ; 

Again the happy savages shall trail 

(A long-lost gin ! ) the graceful length of tail I 

In that blest moment, by indulgent neav'n, 

Thy wish,. Rousseau, and Swift's revenge arc given,* 

A paper en Genius turns on the idea that, in the use of tbit 
word to denote a particular faculty of the mind, writers hav^ 
tieen led into obscurity by attaching to it something of the 
mystical notion of Genii^ or inferior deities, under whose spe- 
cial direction every man has been supposed, according to some 
theological systemst to be placed. Several learned proofs o£ 
the prevalence of this opinion are given ; and its connectiom 
.with inspiration, enthusiasmi and the prophetic spirit, is point- 
ed out. 

The topic of a , Dialogue in the Shades^ between Lucian ani 
Neodidactus^ is the new or Godwinian philosophy ; the moral 
principles of which are exposed partly to ridicule, and partly tQ 
disapprobation of a more serious kind. The dialogue is shorty 
und, we suppose, will not be deemed conclusive by the adepts 
in the system which it is intended to combat. 

Knaaer, an Elegy^ is a piece of local or personal humour. 
Knastery it seems, is the name for a kind of German tobacco^ 
6moggled into England. 

The concluding piece is an ode, intitled A Northern Pro* 
spect. The «cene is painted from a rock in the neighbourhood 
of Alnwick castle, and . comprises a variety of o^'ects, inte- 
resting (doubtless) to the inhabitant who is familiarized ^o the 
ideas of the vicinity, but too local for general impression. 
The poetry. iS| atleasti very tolerable : but, as in most other 


#d^f tlie clumget «f tlk measure have sefdom any (eettltat. 

From this brief Maljrsts of the co&tenta of thle volume, our 
teaders will judge of the entertainment which thef mav expect 
ki a perusal of it. We ha«e ito doubt that it will be wel* 
come to those who love varied nstdtng ( and who majr there* 
lore exclaim with Lord Shsftesbttry^ as quoted by Dr.Ferriar for 
a motto to his volume : ^^{Ptaes h mth the smtl tftheti charitable 
mmi courteous Author ^ noho^ for the commf>n ien^t of his fellow^ 
mUbors^ introduced the ingenious iuajl j^ Miscellaneous Writing t^ 

" '■ " "■ ■ ^ - - ■ *■ ■ 

Aar. IV4 Asiatic Researches. VoL IV. 410^ Inflated at Caletitta* 
^Art, ccntimied.2 

XKT^ tavc already given an account of part of this interestiiig. 

^^ volume^ in our Number for June {ast^ vol. xxvi. ; and in 
the following Review, (p* 463)) we informed our readers ^t a 
London edition of the work h^d been published by Messrs. 
Vemor and Hood, under the title of Disselrteaiotu and Miscet^ 
laneous Pieces relating to the History and Antiquities j the Arts, 
Sciences, and Literature of Asia. VoL IV. 8vo. From this 
Edition, we shall now proceed in our abstract ; which^ by an 
^avoidable acctdentj has been too long delayed. 

tin seme extraordinary FactSj Customs^ and Practices of tiet 
Hindus. By the President. [Sir John Shore.] 

Among the Hindus, the person of a Srihmen is inifMatui 
And to occasion his death» in any way, is accounted a crime 
Which no atonement can expiate: — wlvence the foundation of 
the singular practice which formerly was frequent at Benares, 
and whicjii in its eiTects approaches the nearest to our eaf/tioet 
tx arrest. The Br&hmeny who adopts this eapedient in order 
to procure redress, proceeds, armed with a dagger or , p(»son» 
to the doot of his adversary's house } where he deliberately setf 
himself down, and threatens to commit suicide, if the of^^ 
fefider should attempt to pass or molest hihi. He fasts with. 
inflexible rigour, to which the other party likewise eub^ 
ihits, and perseveres in his resolution until satisfacttoii is bb* 
tained. The practice of sitting in Dhema is not confined to 
tbe male Brahmens only ; for an instance occurred at Benetres t^ 
1789, of a widow directing that engine of opinion against her 
brother-in-law. Both fasted obstinately during thitteto days 4 
when, worn' out with hunger, her antagonist at last yieldtA 
the contest. 

No traces of this extraordinary custom are fotind in Sengtif^ 
not in Behiir ; though even in Calcutta it is not ufrasuf 1 lor 


j|}rjS/»/nx to extort clianty {rom th^ Hmdus by posdnf tlMii^ 
ftelires at the dooi;8, declaring their determination not to retire 
till thek foIlcLtationt are granted ; and in the Vizierh domi- 
!^ons, they have heen successfully en^ployed to recover claimfb 

Another practice of the Briihnuns 9tK\uMy singular and moiHi 
^Eruel, IS called erecting a Kocr. They construct a circular ink 
of \i^ood, and, placing on it a cow or an old woman, jirepaMS 
to consume the whole together.' The person who should «C^ ^ 
casion this desperate act is believed to incut a keiooiaa sia ; att4 
%he object of the irite is to deter the ageats of govenuneiii: 
from urging importunate demands, or tevyinggrievous exactions!^ 
iTht «m1y dite of setting up % Kpor, that occurred for many 
yiear^, faapneticd neat Beftares in 1788 : but the sai^ifice wa« 
Jarerentcd oy the timely interposition of authority. 

Thete are a few instances of still more atr^ciouB acts, bjr 
wluch the Brahnem Seek to repel injuries, or io wreak cheir 
4ed>le vengeance } us by murdering, with tautaal consent, their 
iMMlest ted «iest , beloved relation, from a persuaskm thdfc 
hoitox of the deed will redound on the head of their oppressor. 
Sir John Shore relates three shocking cases of that nature, whid), 
^ jkte iis ^ years 1 791 and 17939 cume under his cogni^an^ 
ii ^ |>rovincc of Senairei. 

fc somecbuntries, otherwise admired fortheir political wisdaoit 
^h6 taws, trusting to the prevalent force of natural affection 
liaye overlooked or permitted the practice of infanticide. Yet 
tueh are the pleadings of helpless innocence, that a crime ^ 
Vepugna^t to the feelings of a mother is seldom committed h\k 
^n tte most extreme cases. It excites our surprise, dierefopc* 
mi. ft rotxs^ Our pity and abhotrence, to hear that a whole 
tribe, in the province of Benares itgularly starve to death thdr 
-Semsdid offsptinr. The reason alleged by the parentis the utter 
impossibility ofproviding their daughters with the portions ns- 
quired tn chaniage ; and their youth seek wives from among tbe 
AeigM)aitainpf and less iildigent tribes. The servants of ctie 
£atf Indict Company have humanely interfered, but have not^ 
we fear, attacked the evil at its source. Wretched indeed must 
«te QietSQiidit^ion c^that people, in whom the dktaees of dahirc 
are ao completely stifled !— It is consolotary to d>serv^ tcM^ 
"few exccpfions: certaifti families suffer ^ letst otte fednak ehill 
'ID bo reared* 

• if aof of the old catie remaifts tmemployed, the pHpfiefiftr 
repairs to the spot pretibusiy to ilie 25 th Jey^ of i tth of June^ 

•Md^ hating sacHfic^d to NagMe^ the tutelar God of that |^lant, 

M earcfitHy sets ft« to the whoJe 1 it being firmly believed by 

the rycu or husl(amii»my ^t, if n siftgfa; eane should flown 

• . • ij after 

ijtf 'Aiiatic Ressarcigr, Pil. A^ 

after that term> it would portend the most dreadful calamitM 
fo themselves and their families.' 

When we reflect how loth Earope ivas tb reject the grossest 
prejudices, we need not wonder that the belief in charms, 
Amulets; sorcery, fascination, and astrology should generally 
prevail in the east. In the year 1792, among the Soontaars^ 
«}ne of the wildest and most unlettered tribes in Ihdia, £ve 
unhappy women were put to death ovi a charge of witchcrafts 
The ordeals bf trial are remarkable, and bear some resem* 
bhnce to those ^o learnedly described by our sage monarchy 
James I. in his Demoholdgy, 

* First. Branches of the Saul tree* marked with the. names of ail 
the feraalts in tile village, whether married or * unmarried, who have 
iittaincd the age ortwelve years, are planted in the water in the monif* 
ing, for the space of four hours and a half ; and the withering of any 
<u these branches is proof of witchcraft against the person whose 
name is annexjpd to itw 

* Secondly^ Small portidns of rice enveloped in cloths^ marked a^ 
fiibove, are placed in a n^st of white ants ; the consumption of thfc 
rice id any of the bags> establishes sorcery against the woman whose - 

. name it hears. 

** Thirdly. Lamps arc lighted at night : water u placed in <HP$ 
made of leaves, and mustaru-secd and ou are poured, drop by drop, 
into the wa^er, wnilst the name of each woman in the village is prov 
•noanced ; the appearance of the shadow of any woman on the-wateri > 
4urlng this ccrembny, proves her a witch,' 

The proofs succeeded to the wishes of the prosecutors. Tlut 
poor females had been frequently surprisecf at their, nighdir 
gambols, dancing naked by the light of a lamp, with a broqnci 
tied about their waists. It is not said whether those sportive 
ladies were old and wrinkled* 5 . 

A very curious mode of ascertaining the boundaries of pxoA 
-perty is sometimes practised in tiindustan. Two holes are dug 
in the contested spot, into each of whicli an old man chosefi 
by either party from tlie adjacent villages puts his leg, and re- 
mains there till he is tired, or complains of being stung bif 
insects ; in which case his employer loses the suit. 

On the Duties of a faithful Hindu Widow* By Henry Cold* 
brooke, E^q. 

\ The European compilations on the manners and religion of 
the Hindus are often replete ^ith error and fable^*from the 
want of judgment in selecting the authorities. 'The obligation 
of the widow to ascend the funeral pile of her deceased hus- 
band being generally misrepresented, Mr. Colebrooke has takas 
the pains of collecting, from the antient Sanscrit books, all tfaa€ 
may tend to elucidate a rityai so es^traordinary. . . ; r 


AsiaA Rnearcbes^ Vd. W. 1J7 

^ HaVmg first bathed^ tht widow, dreiBded id two clean ^rttient8» 
ted boUxbg some ctua grass, sips water from the palm' of her ha«d* 
£canDg cma and tlla on her hand, she looks towards the east or 
north while ^he Brahjnana u,tter8 the mystfc word Om, Bowing t9 
tTcrayana^ she next declares : *^ On this month , so named in such a 
Pacshoy on such a ///'&', I (ftaming herself and her family] that I 
may meet Arundhatt and reside in Swarga ; that the years «i my stay 
may be numerous as the hairs on the human body ; that I may 
csjoy with my husband the felicity of heaven ; and sanctify my paternaL 
and maternal progenitors, and the ancestry of my liusband's father.; 
that, lauded by the Apsarasa^ I maybe happy whh my lord, through 
the reigns of fourteen Indras ; that expiation be made for my hus- 
band's offences, whether he have killed a Brahmana^ broken the ties 
of gratitude, or murdered his friend ; thus I ascend my husband's 
burning pile. I call on you, ye guardians of the eight regions of the 
World ! . Sun, and Moon ! Ahr, fire, aether^ earth and water ! My 
own soul ! Ytima \ Day, night, and twilight ! And thou, conscience* 
bear witness. I follow my husband's corpse on the funeral pile/' 

^ Having repeated the Sanealpa^ she walks thrice round the pile \ 
and the Brahnuma utters the following Mantras \ 

* Om ! Let these women, not to be widowed good wives, horned 
with collyrium, holding clarified butter, consign themselves to the 
fire. Immortal, not childless, nor husbandless, excellent, let them 
pass into fire, whose original element is water. From the Rlgveda. 

" Om ! Let these wives, pure, beautiful, commit themselves to 
the ftrc with their husband's corpse. A Pauranica Mantra I" 

The last rites are more fully described thus : 

< Adorned with all jewels, decked with mtntum and otlier customary 
ornaments, with the box of mimum in her hand, having nadepujaf or 
adoration, to the DevatJi, thus reflecting that this life is noughty my 
Lord and master to me vtas all; she walks round the burning pue. She 
bestows jewels on the Brahmanasy comforts her relations, and shews 
her friends the attentions of civility ; whil^ calling the Sun and Ele- 
ments to witness, she distributes mimum at pleasure ; and having re- 
peated die Sancalpay proceeds into the flames. There embracing the 
corpse, she abandons herself to the fire, calling Satya I , Satya ! 

This sacrifice is not absolutely enjoined, but it is recom» 
mended by all the allurements which enthtisiasm can invent. 
There arc, however^ some cases of exemption. If the widow 
has an infant child ; or if she is pregnant ; and, among cer- 
tain casts, if the husband dies in a distant country^ — the cere- 
mony is interdicted. If the woman declined burnirfg, she 
must thenceforth- lead a life of the post rigid austerity, wholly 
devoted to acts of piety and mortification. If she feels reso- 
lution equal to the deed, the son ot nearest kinsman of the 
deceased applies the first torch. The spectators cast wood and 
butter on the pile, an act esteemed transcendantly meritorious ; 

Rev. Fcb.' 1799. ^ ^^^ 

f 38 Asiatic Researcier, Vol. IF. 

and cfen those who join in theprocessioa are rtwztici in hetvert 
for every step of their march. Such liberal immunises are a- 
proof, as Mr. Colebrooke remarlcs> Aaf bttrmiig could nerer; 
\M a frequent practice in the 'East.' 

On the Inhabitants of the Hills near Ra'jamaha^L. ^Iieut6« 
nant Thotnas Shaw. 

This aniple paper contabs much carious information, but 
is tedious, devoid of arrangement, and abounding in repeti^ 
tions. The rude and illiterate people of whom it speaki sub« 
sisted chiefly on the plunder of their richer ncighbdurs, till the 
arrival of -Mr. Cleveland among them ; who, by his gentle and 
prudent treatment, happily succeeded in forming them to habit» 
of regular industry. They believe in the Supreme Beings with 
a number of subordinate divinitiesw Their Deity, as in some 
other couhtries, is clothed with the attributes of an absolute,! 
inflexible, and capricious sovereign. By his express appoint* 
Qient, each event arrives ; and Providencic is continually 'at 
work in dispensing the punishments off the Divine displea- 
sure. Like the rest of^ the Orientals, they hold the doctrines 
ei metempsychosis. The souls of those who have acted with 
injustice or cruelty, while sojourninghere,aresupposedtobescnt 
back on eartli to be born of woman, for the cjiastisement of their 
sins ; and if they were guiltv of crimes of gre^ enormity, they/ 
are thrust down to herd with the brutes, or even degraded to- 
mingle with the vegetable tribes. Hence the . aversion' of 
the natives of the hills from killing a tiger.^ Suicides arc 
not admitted to heaven, but suspended midway, or con- 
demned to toil with unavailing efforts. Warriors, slain in 
battle, are welcomed into the presence of God, and fare 

Such opinions are salutary, or at least innocent : but, among 
a simple and credulous race, superstition, directed by the ait» 
of the priesthood, has given rise, to practices decidedly pemi««- 
cious to the kiterests of society. The DemaunaKX Dewasiyy 
of whom tjiere arc several in every village, lives by the trade. 
of retailing oracles* The prophet affects superior purity, re- 
tains his long ha\\, drinks the reeking blood of immolated 
victims, and abstains from beef and milk. His eruel noviciate 
is here related with a minute proUx4ty. On the first full-moOa 
of January aftor his inspiration, the Demamio sallies out froot 
his house with all the signs of frenzy, and retires ta unfre- 
quented. rivers or jungles, where he passes^ skven or ninedays>. 
fed (as he pretends) by the Divine bounty. With the return o? 
reason, die impostor emerges from his retreaty. tears up large 
trees by the .roots, and astonishes the populace by his^ powtC' 
in working miracles.. He holds converse with ^ God Ado 


Astatic tttsearehn^ Vd* IP^. 139 

Gosdiif ih th^ visiona of the nighn Ha drWe$ out deyik^ 
Cures inveterate diseases, and premises wealth, prosperity, and 
honors to his humble votaries. The pigeon, the cock, and 
the goat^ are the usual sacrifices which he directs. — As a spe- 
cimen of his prkstly functions, we select the following pas-* 

* The Chitaria-fcithrsl is held but once in three years. The ce« 
lebration of it so seldom is, probably, from its being Tery expensive 
to the Maungyj who bears the charge. It is not every village that 
has a Cbahad^ though he is coi^sidered as the Goo that pre8i£a over 
the welfare of villages ; bat, like Ruxsy Nad, he is not supposed 
to be essential to their happiness, tiH the inhabitants are harassed by 
some plague or pestilence ; when the Dptnauno^ on being consulted^ 
infonns the Mawtgy that this Deity is desirous of having a Nad 
raised ; that, effecting this, and worshfpping him, will put an end. 
to their misfortunes. The Demauno then dreams of the place where 
this shriae is to be found, in the shape of a black stone ^ he pro* 
ceeds in the morning to discover it, observing the s^me forms as are 
described in obtaining Ruxey Nad ; when found, the stone is placed 
under the shade of a muckmunAxtt contiguous to the village, and 
undergoes no alteration in its form from the chissel. 

* Among thtf preparations for the Ci^iVorii-fertival, the Maungy 
must provide a cow» and a piece of red silk, previous to the day fixed 
for prayer. The Saiane^ as usual, is performed, lo find out tvhat 
two of the Maungy's vassals will be most acceptable to the god-head 
to pray. This point being settled, and every thing ready, a day is 
fixed ; on the eve of this holiday, the piece of silk is cut in two, a,nd 
one part given to one of the wives of each of the preachers, with 
whom their husbands have not cohabited for ten or fifteen days pre- 
vious! v. The Demauna^ Maungyt Cutwalf Pbojedar^ Jemmadm-tf 
and JBundareensy having been invited into one of the preachers' houses, 
the Demauno gives water to two Kakvmrsy one Ddihwar^ one Man'- 
gteraf and one ^laum^ to wash their hands ; and these musicians are 
taken into the house : a feast is served, of which all present partake, 
as soon as the chieft iiave thrown a little of each dish away, in the 
name of Chalnad. I miist here digress, to observe, that it is a 
custom through all the hills, to throw a little of their meat away 
at every meal, previous to their eating; and the same rule Is observed 
in drinking, the intention of which is to avert any bad consequence 
from any devil or evil spirit having defiled it. The Bandareens$ whose 
particular province it is, at all festivals, to serve out the todifyy or 
spirits, perform that office ; and the chiefs, li^ving spilled a little 
also in the name of Chalnad for a hbation, the party drink ancj sing 
all night,, in praise of Chitariah Gosaih, invoking his protection, 
the musicians, or rather dnimmers, beating at the same tirrie ; shouid 
any person sing a different song, he is fined a fowl, which is sacri- 
ficed, and the blood sprinkled ' over the whole party; during the 
course of the night, they patrole the viUage five times^ leading 2^ cow 
with them ; in the momingi the , Demauno ^ the two preachers and 
drummersi proce^ to Ghalmd wit^ the cow ; , having finished their ^ 

L 2 . praycrSf 

%^& Ijtsiatic Risiarchis, FoL BT. 

prayers, the 'cow is sacrificed by one of the preacherSy ui stxcH a 
manner that the blood may fall on the shrine ; a feast is immediately 
made of the Eesh, and all the- men who accompanied ^hem from the- 
▼illage, except such as may be disqualified from domestic causes, par- 
take of it. On their return to the village, they send notice of their 
approach, that the two wiv^s of the preachers, between whom the 
pieoe of silk was divided, may take on their clothes and ornaments^ - 
and ^'t the silk, round their middles, covering them from their waists^ 
to their knees ; their hair tS' fastened in a knot on the crown of their 
headsy and eVery part of their body, whfsh is exposed, is spotted* 
with a mixture made of turmeric, powdered, and the heart, or white- 
part, of Indian corn, which is finely ground for that purpose : part 
of this is also sent to the j^reacheTS, that they may be spotted in the- 
same manner, and with it the halves of four mats' thus prepared* 
The two women (the whole village, men, women, and children being 
assembled to see the procession) set out, one following the other^ 
and taking care not to advance tke foot which is up beyond the toe* 
ef that on the ground, tx> meet the preachers, who observe the same 
pace as- their wives ; and the mats, as fihe parties pass over them, are 
always taken up and placed again before ; having passed each othef^ 
t^e women take place behind the men, and follow theip by the same 
step at which they at first set out, to the house of one of the preachers;: 
when arrived, the men takin? one side, and the women the other, 
they wash and change their clothes : Here the ceremotiy ends ; and 
the preachers^ with their wives, are invited to a feast at the Maungy*^.^ ' 

This 19 the only festival at which women are peimitted ta 
assist* They are tat^ht to ask in private the protectioa of the- 
Supreme Being) night and morning* 

Pow GosAiM, the god of the highway, is the first wor- 
shipped by th« young men, and this after they have met witb 
some accident m travelling. The ofFehded divinity is appeased 
by sprinkling the blood of a cock on the muchmun branch, 
and breaking a painted hen*s egg.— The next iii order is 
pEWARY GosirtH who presides over the welfare of families. 
He is treated with a feast, consisting of a hog, rice, distilled 
spirits, red-painty and oiL Kull. Gosajh^ or the Ceres of the 
mountaineers,, is worshipped annually at the time of sowing,, 
and in such manner as the circumstances of the suppliant can 
best afford. The worship of Goomo Gosaih is likewise at* 
' tended wich some pomp : but that of Ghumdah Gosaih is 
so expensive that o»ly Cliiefs are lus votaries, and hot oft'ener 
than once in three years% 

These mountaineers sire said to be in general of a very 
amorous disposition. The attachment between young lovqrs. 
is ardent and ^sincere ^ and, as. in countries in which simpH* 
city prevails, they indulge their passion to a certain extent be- 
fore marriage. That ceremony is attended with heavy ex- 
pence. Having obtained ^be consent ^i tbc damse]> and espe>« 



VaacoavetV Tejage ofDUcoveiy. 14* 

XJially that of her parents, the suitor is obliged to make cosdy 
•presents to them and the relations of the family. — Polygamy, 
is jpermitted/ It is allowed to marry the sister of a deceased 
wife;, er, as under the Mosaic institution, to espouce the widow ^ 
of a^cceased brother.— Adultery is punished by 'fine. 

Witchcraft and sorcery are firmly believed, and a sort «f 
trial by ordeal obtains. The dead are interred with their heads 
to the north ; aiid to bury the bedstead along with the corpse 
iS an honour purchased by the present of a hog to the Maungj^ 
The funeral of a Chief Is perfornacd with every circumstance 
'of pomp and magnificence. Of bis fortune., one half goes t# 
the male heir ; and the other i« apportioned amof^ 4;he rest of 
the family.. 

Justice was feebly administered among these mhabitants of 
the hills, and the injured were often obliged to redress them- 
selves by ibe sword. Theft, nay poisoning, was punished only 
■by fines i and indeed the penalty of every kind of murder waa» 
at the option of the relations of the deceased, conunuted into a 
{^cuniary mulct. 

As these people live mudh by hunting, they sacrifice to the 
god of the chace, and hold a running dog in great estimation. 
Hospitality is esteemed a virtue, and generally practised : bttt 
it is held disrespectful in a peasant to sit in the presence of a 
Chief, till he is repeatedly desired. ' - 

The natives of thq hills near Rajamahall are of very low 
stature^ but are ^tout and well proportioned. They. have flat 
noses and thick lips, though not to the same degree as the 
Africans. Their agriculture and manufactures are in a very 
rude state, and they have 1^0 other domestic animals than hogSt 
goats, and fowls; with a few dogs and cats. Then" language' 
is equally imperfect ; they have no original words to denote 
numbers beyond two, and bor]:ow from the Hindu the terms 
as far as twenty. They have no hieroglyphics, nor alphabetic 
characters. With all this ignorance, however, the authority 
jof their Chiefs is moderate, and no slaves exist among them* 
They are addicted to spirituous liquors, are of a kind and cheerful 
disposition, and utterly abhor falsehood. Instances of longevity 
4eeia to be rare among them. 

[To h continue J."} 
■ ^ " ' ■ ' ■ '■ ■ ■ ■ '■' ■ ■■■ ■ , , ' ^ 

Art. V. Captain Vancouver*!' Voyage ^f Discovery to de Nvrti 

Pacific Ocean^ &c. &c. 

[Art. continued from p» 21.] 

'The year 1792 is concluded by Captain Vanco\;iver with ii 
^ ^latioii of the circumstances attending the death of Lieu- 

X»3 tenant 

I4t Vancouver^r F^age of pisccvefy. 

tenant Hergcst, the late conunaoder of the Da9dalu8.trantpoii« 
and of the discoveries made by that officer* Some particulars 
in this account are well worth notice. 

While among the islands called the Marquesas^ the Oaedalu^ 
was discovered to be on fire in the after-part of the hold» near 
the magazine. The cause of this fire, and the nuancr ia 
which it was extinguished, aflFord matter of curtoua and useful 
information. — ^The powder was immediately taken outy and put . 
into a boat alongside. • 

* At first the fire was supposed to have been oocasloned by tome 
oakum, stowed in the fore p^rt of the gun room, taking fire, by acci- 
dcntJilly getting wet ; since no lights had ever been near it. After s( 
large quantity of provisions had been hoisted up to ^ out the 
powder, the smoke was still- found to ascend from below ; this cir- 
cumstance, with that of the deck 'being so hot as not to allow the 
people keeping their hands upon some lead that was laid upon it, 
convinced them that the fire must be in the lazaretto below, where 
•ome pursers beds were now recollected to have been very Improperly, 
stowed ; and from the seas they had shipped during the tempestuous 
weather which they had experienced in their passage round Cape 
Horn, no doubt was entertained that these beds had gpt wet and had 
taken fire. Every minute confirming Mr. Hergcst in this opinion^ 
care was immediately taken to stop every avenue and crevice about 
the after hatch^way, to prevent any communication of air before they 
ventured to scuttle the deck for the purpose of extihcruishing the fire 
by pouring water over it. Happily they, had day-light for executing 
this ; and were soon convinced, that the fire had originated as they 
had last conjectured, from the appearance of the ascending smoke^ 
on scuttling the deck, as also of the good effect of their judicious 
labours. Other holes were now bored immediately over the beds, 
and after pouring down laiT[e quantities of water, they soon had rea- 
son to be gratefiilly thankful to Divine Providence for so timely and 
critical a preservation. Some of the beds were entirely consumed ; ^ 
case on which they were laid, as also the deck over them, were. burnt 
• some way into the yrood to a black cinder. Little else was stowed 
with these beds but rum and oil ; so that had the fire once broke out 
into a bla^e, the extinguishing it, or preventing its communicatioq 
with these inflammable substances, would have been morally impos- 
siblei and their destruction would have been inevitable.' 

Some islands were discovered north of tiie Marquesas,, or 
rather a continuation of the same groupe \ the southernnlbstof 
the islands last discovered being iii sight of the northernmost 
of those before known. From these islands, the voyagers met 
with no other land, until their arrival at the. Sandwich Islands. 

The death df Licutctiant Hergest, of Mr. Gooch the astrono- 
mer, and of one of the seamen, as here related, exhibits a strik- 
ing instance of Vranton barbarity; it being stated that, they 
were ^utdered while perfectly defenceless on shore among 

II tife 

-Vaacomrtr*/ Fofagtif l>hcovity. 143 

^lAyt tuiiTea of Woaboo, and withoiu pravocation or any viable 
I ^ciixmnistaoce. jof temptation whatsoever.! The generous and 
I intrepid behaviour, of three seamen on this occasion is too • 

I slightly passed over in the narrative. — The -Daedalus had an- 

chored at Woahoo about noon ; and Lieutenant Hergestj ac- 
companied by M-r. Gooch, went on shore in the cutter when 
I it was nearly dark. . . 

< The cutter retiutiedy with only fiv^ persons instead of the eight 
who had gone on shore in her, from whom wds learned the distress- 
ing intelhgcnce, that Mr. Hergest, Mr. Gooch j and two of the 
boat's crew« hsci^ing (anded unarmed with two of the water casks to 
£lly thc4r defenceless situation wa^ perceived by the natives, who im- 
mediately attacked theni, killed one of the people, and carried off 
the commaader and the astronomer. The other being a very stout 
active man made his escape through a great number of these savages, 
. fled to the boat, and with .two others landed again, with two mus- 
kets, with the intention to rescue their officers, and to recover the 
l)ody of their messmate. They soon perceived that both Mr. Hergest 
and Mr. Gooch were yet alive amongst a vast -concourse of the in- 

' habitants, who were stripping them, and forcing them up the hills 

behind the village; they endeayoured to get near the muhitude, but 
were so assailed by stones from, the crowd, who had now gained the 
surrouncfin? hills, that they were under the painful necessity of re- 

; ^i°g 9 and as night was fast apprpachin^, they thought it most ad* 

-visabie to return on boaird.' 

t » . • .-•..■ ' ' 

It is to be hoped that such proofs of attachment, towards 
thcur commander 'did not pass unrewarded,, though no other- 
wise noticed in the narrative j where ^ven the names of the men 
are not meationed. . , . ... * 

We left the Disw^veiy and the Chatham steering from the 
. American coastj^ towards the S.andwich Islands. They arrived 
.off the eastern part of Ovvhyhecy, February X2th« 1793 \ when 
the two vessels separated iw the purpose of surveying each a 
^ide of tlie island, it being settled th;lt they should meet again 
at Karakakooa Bay on \hfi xvestefn side. None of the natives 
came near the Discovery till t2ie next morning, when a canoe 
paddled from the sfiore to them. ITie pieopte in this qaiioe re- 
ported that a general i^hoQ (interdiction) had prevented the ia« 
liabitants from coming to the shij). 

* The taboo had now existed "some days, and in the course of a 
Ay or two inorc would ceases These people further informed us, 
that TMnaabmaab wSs theii r'esidmg at ' Karakakooa, and that faogSj 
and the otjier refreshments of the island,- were prohibited from being 
disposed- of- to European or American visitors, under penalty of 
death, for any other commodities whatever than arms md ammwi^ 
turn. • • 

* This is the baneful consequence arising from the injudicious con- 
duct gf juor^alr^ed consTner^vd adventurers, who h^v^ thought pro- 

J- f per 

144 Vancouver t^oyage ^Due»verf. 

per to fumisK these people, naturally a warlike and darin|c nwie, with 
a lavge aesortment of arms and amoHinttion $ not only rendenng tben^ 
by tnese means^ a formidable nation ; but by thus absurdly and prcK 
fusely out-bidding each other, bringing the generality of other Eu- 
ropean commodities into contempt and low estimation.' 

These visitors, howevefi regardless of the tnboo> sold a hog 
and other refreshments for some iron ; and it afterward ap« 
peared that the Chiefs, when it suited their purposes, scrupled 
not to dispense occasionally with the restrictions of the taboo, 
if it was not of a religious nature. 

In this part of the voyage, some particulars, which are re- 
lated respecting the intercourse carried on by the Europeans 
and Americans with these islands, are of too singular a nature 
to be passed without comment.— ^February i8th, the two ves- 
sels joined on the west side of Owhyhce, and were soon after- 
wsrd visited by Tamaahmaah, the king of the island, attended 
by John Young, an English seaman, who appeared to be « 
great favourite, and to possess considerable influence with the 
Chief. Young had been boatswain of an American snow, called 
the Eleanor, mountuig lo guns and navigated by 5$ men, 
partly Americans and partly Chinese. The commander,Mr.Met- 
calf, also fitted out a schooner to accompany him, which was 
navigated by his son and five men. This vessel, which had 
been originally only a pleasure«>boat, was named the Fair Ame* 
rican. They sailed from China in 1789, and the Fair Americaa 
was detained by the Spaniards at Nootka, but the Eleanor went 
to the Sandwich Islands. 

* Young^stated, that in February 1790, they proceeded to Mowee, 
where a boat belonging to the snow, with one man. in her, was 
stolen by the natives from the stern of the vessel ; and, on a reward 
being offered for the boat and the man, Mr. Metcalf was informed, 
that the former was broken to pieces, and that the latter had been 
killed. The bones of the man were then demanded* which, with 
the stem and stern-post of the boat, were carried on hoard the snow 
in about three days. The natives in the mean time had continued to 
trade with the crew ; and after delivering up the remain^ -of the maoi^ 
and parts of the boat, they supposed the anger of those on board waa 
entirely appeased, and demanded of Mr. Metcalf the reward he had 
offered. This, Me. Metcalf replied, they should soon have, and im- 
mediately ordered all the guns to be losuied with musket balls, and 
nails ; and having tabooed one side of the ship in order to get all tho 
canoes on the starboard side, next the shore, the ports were hauled, 
up, and the gtins fired amongst the canoes* The. guns betwe^ 
decks, being nearly upon a level vrith the canoes, did great execu- 
tion, as did the small arms from the quartqr-deck and oth^ parts of 
the ship. On this occasion, Young represented that upwards of an 
hundred were killed, and a great many were wounded. ^ 

* Having thus taken such revenge as he considered e^uiva^ept to 
the injury received, Mr, Metcalf cjuittcd MowcCt * 


Vancouvci'/ Vejage of Disc$v^^ 145 

From Mowce they sailed to Owhyhce, where they were Ap- 
parently on good terms with the natives. On the eve of their 
departure-y the Eleanor being then under sail. Young had. 
leave to stay on shore till the next day, when the vessel stood 
in and fired a gun as a signal for him to return : but, to his 
surprise, the canoes were all tabooed. The cause of this> he 
learnt, was, that the*schooncr Fair American, commanded by 
the younger Mr. Metcalf, had arrived from the coast of Ame« 
Tica on the west side pf Owhyhee, where she had been sur- 
prised and captured by the natives, and that the crew, otic 
seaman excepted, had been killed by them. The Chief who 
commanded the islanders gave as a reason for this act, that he 
had been beaten and otherways ill-used by the father of the 
unfortunate young man. Thcnatives in this attack were un- 
armed, but threw the crew overboard. The mate, Davis, an 
Englishman, being a good swimmer, got into one of their 
canoes, where they beat him till they were tired, * After a 
short respite he recovered a little, and looking up to the most 
active of the party, said «* mytUj Tiijtie^^ signifying <« good ;*• 
the man instantly replied " arronvhahy* meaning, that he pitied 
him, and instantly saluted hiifi by touching noses, gave him, 
some cloth, and assisted him to wipe and bind up his wounds. 
After this he had no other injury offered to him.* 

The whole of this business appears to have been transacted 
without the knowlege of the King, who afterward took the 
survivor, Davis, under his own protection, but would not per- 
mit Toung to rejoin his vessel \ lest, like the Indians, and as 
Mr. Metcalf himself had formerly done, he should agaia seek 
to revenge himself indiscriminately on the innocent as well as 
the guilty. The Eleanor stood off and on during two days» 
firing guns ; after which she sailed from thd island without 
having learnt the fate of the other vessel. 

Young and Davis had at this time been nearly three years 
in the service of Tamaahmaah. They had endeavoured to 
make their escape on board a trading vessel, and bad been prc-^ 
vented : but such was the opinion which the natives enter- 
tained of their friendship for each other, that, when any ves- 
sels arrived, either was allowed to go singly wherever l^e 
pleased ; the detention of the other being esteemed a sufficient 
security for his return. They now shewed no inclination to 
quit the King of Owhyhee, and were each possessed of estates 
and houses. On the other islands, likewise, were found Ame- 
ricans and Efxropeans, settled in the service of the Chiefs, and 
who acted as their agents with the trading vessels. 

The character of Tamaahmaah appears to great advantage^ 
f ViCa when not contrasted with the savage manndrs of others 


14^ Vaneowret^/ Vtyage of Discovery. 

of his eomtrvmen. Besides the kind treatment and-protectioa 
expetfenced 07 Young and Davis> he had secured the cap* 
tiaxti schooner^ and laid her up» with the declared intention 
cf returning her> if ever demanded by the owner. Our navi- 
gators likewise experienced from him the most hospitable and 
^jendly reception. 

The foregoing is neither the only instance of a trading ves- 
sel being captured by the Sandwich Islanders, nor of unpar- 
donable outrage committed by some of the commander^: a$ 
we shaH have occasipn to observe in the sequeL 

When the ships were nearly ready for sea, a grand enter- 
tainment wa$ given by the King of Owhyhee, at which, be- 
sides many 'other formalities, was represented a battle. In 
«ome particulars of this representation^ we see a striking re- 
semblance £0 the manners of the antient^. The arms used 
were wooden lancc$ or javelins, blunted for the occasion \ 
with long spears, by the natives called pallalooy which were 
never to be quitted but in case of death or defeat ; and the 
performance began by the opposed parties advancing towards 
ieach other with reproachful speeches and gestures, and theit 
throwing the lances. The following instance of de:)^terity will 
idoubtkss excite the admiration of our reader^ : 

^ In this exercise tio one seemed to excel his Owhyh^^m m^sty» 
wrho entered the lists £ior a short time, and defended himself with the 
greatest iiextenty, much to our surprise and admiration ; in one in- 
etanee j)articul9rly,' against six spears that were hurled at him nearly 

* at the lame instant ; three he caught as they were flying, with one_ 
liand, two he broke b^ parrying them with his spear in the other, 
ttid the sixths by a triflmg incliiuktion of his body p. passed barm- 

^. ^ The consequences attendant on the fir«t man befog killed, 
or being so wounded as to fall on the disputed ground between the 
contending Armies, were next exhibited. 

< This event causes the loss of many lives and much blood, in the 
coaflxct that takes place in order to rescue the unfortunate indiyidual, 

' who, if carried off by the adverse party .dead or alive^ becomes an 

* jmmedkte sacrifice at the mbrai.' 

Thus far. the performance was without much regularity, but 
^ The warriors who were armed with the pallaloos^ now advanced 
Wth a considerable degree of order, and a scene of very different ex- 
ploits commenced ; presenting, in comparison to what before had 

* been exhibited^ a -wonderful degree of improved knowledge in mili- 
' tkrj evolutions. This body of men, composing several rait^s, formed 
' in dose and regular order, constituted a firm and compact phalanx, 

which iH actual service, I was informed, was not easily to be broken. 
Having reached the- spot in contest, they sat down on the ground 
about thirty yards asunder, and pointed their pallaloot at each other. 
After a short interval of silence, a convert»tion commenced, and 
7m waa supposed to state his opinion respecting pea^e and war. 

\ h© 

.Vancoiivex'/ Vcpigt ^f Discovtrj. i4f 

Tkt aY^ftimenU seemed to be urged and supported with cqu)] enei^ 
Ott both sides* When peape under cert^n stlpiiUtions was proposed^ 
the paUahos were xocHaed tomdft th^ ground, and when war was 
announced) their points Were raised to ft opiaift degree of elevation^ 
Both parties put oa the appearance of being much upoQ t hck auB Mai^ 
and to watch each oth^ with a jealous eye; whilst this i^egocsttm 
was going forward ; which, however, not terminating anoicably, their 
respective claims remained to be decided by the fate of a battle. 
Nearly at the same instant of time they all arose, and, in^ close <;o« , 
)umns, met each other by slow advances. This movement they 
conducted with much order and regularity, frequently shifting tfatir 
ground, and guarding with great circumspection against the various 
advantages of their opponents ; whikt the infenor bands were suj^r 
posed to be, engaged gn each wing with spears and sHngs,' 

The whole account of this exhibition is very entertaining^ 
^nd, if nothing more were known of these islanders, would 
sufficiently evince that they are a hardy and warlike people* 
Many hurts and slight wounds were received in the course f£ 
these exercises, which were borne with the utmost cheerful^ 
ness and good-humour. 

The following are the most remarkable of the othei* customs 
vhicb we find noticed among them. Captain Vancouver,' 
when he quitted Karakakooa Bay, Intending to anchor for a 
short tinie at another part of Owhyhee, Tamaahmaah^ the 
King) sent Young and Davis to attend him thither; as he 
might not ' absent himself from Karakakooa until ceitain tere-> 
monies had taken place, in consequence of his having cele- 
Ibrated the festival of the new year in this district ; and of his 
having transgressed the iaw by living in such social intercourse 
with us, who had eaten and drank in the company of women** 
•^A prevailing custom^ after having been any time at sea, was, 
to wash themselves in fresh water, immediately on their return ' 
to the shore : but whether for their own personal comfort, or 
in obedience to some religious ordinance, does not appear.*— It 
is a strong proof of the ingenuity of these people, that they 
hold armourer's tools in high estimation, and with them manu- 
facture iron for their several purposes, after their own fashioru 

Captain Vancouver had long meditated on the means of ob- 
taining satisfaction, as far as it could be afforded by the punish* 
mcnt of the offenders, for the murder of the unforilunatc com- 
pander of the Daedalus and his Companions at Woahoo. He 
had heard at Owhyhee, that three of the principal offenders 
had been put to death by the orders of riteeree who was s5vc- 
reign of Mowee, Woahoo, and all the smaller islands to lee- 
ward : but this account had been directly contradicted by the 
Chiefs of Owhyhee, who represented that * Mr.Ingraham, com- 
manding the American brig Hopcj ob some misunderstanding 



vlth Titeeree'^hd' Taio^ had fired several shot at them as thejr 
went from his vessel to the shore^ and that in consequence of 
this treatment^ those; Chleft iiad given directions to the inba- 
bit;ints of all the islands uiider their authority, to kill every.: 
wlihe man they should meet with, whether English, American^ 
<yrof any other nation.*— It must be observed, however, that 
the Chiefs of Owhyhee, when they related the case in this 
snauner, were endeavouring to persuade Captain Vancouver 
to assist them in attemptiog a conquest of the other islands. 

On leaving Owhyhee, the vessels, steered for Mowce; a«d 
ismnediately on their arrival, a Chiefs who was brother to the 
King, visited them. He insisted that, so far from the murders 
having been premeditated and committed for the purpose ©f 
revenging a difference between them and Mr. tngraham, the 
transaction had happened wholly without the knowlege and 
much to the displeasure of the Chiefs. All the circumstances 
being considered by Captain Vancouver, he thought it most 
probable that the principarl people were not in any way con« 
cerned in the perpetration of the nmrders : but, sayis he, ^ I 
BOW came to a deterinination of insisting with Titeeree, that 
the remaining offenders should be brought to justice, not bj 
any measures of force in our ^wer, but by their own means.^ 

At the first interview with Titeeree, after some conversa- 
tion on the subject of a peace between Owhyhee and the otlicr 
Islands, Captain Vancouver relates.: 

« I demanded of Titeeree^ what ofFenoc had been comirtitted by 

liad, to their knowledge, been guilty of any onence whatever. I thes 
requested to know, what ^vas the reason of their having been mur- 
dered without any provocation on their part ;. and who was the Chief 
that gave orders for that purpose, or that was by any other means 
the cause of their losing their lives ? This question wasabo ^aswcrcd 
by the solcnriu declaration of the whole partj, th^t there waa no Chief 
present on that melancholy occasion ; nor was any'Chief in the leaat 
degree concerned; but that the, inwrder was committed by a Jawles» 
0SX. of ill-minded m^n; and that the instant Titeeree had become ac- 
quainted with the transaction, he had ordered all those who had been 
principally concerned to be put to death ; and-in consequence of hi« 
directions, three of the offenders had suffered that punishment. • f 
then desired to know if three people only l^ad been concerned ? The 
king then replied, that many were present at the tiroe, tut that only 
three or four more were concerned an the murder ; who would likewise 
have suffered death, had they not found means to escape to the mount 
tains, where they had secreted -themselves for some time ; but tha,t 
lie understood they had returned, and were now living in or near an 
estate bdonging to *Tomohomcho. These protestations i;orr«sponding 
7 with 

Vahcouvei^J Vopgi pfDiscoviff. t^gt 

vith tte evidence beJFore related^ induced mt to give, credit to die 
asserted innocence of .the Ghiefe, and the guilt of the persona crinu-- 
nated by them. As punishment ought to fail on those alone, I de<- 
xnanded that three or four, . who were known to have b^een principalft> 
in the horrid act^ should be sought, and punished according to thr 
heinoosness of their crinie f not by us, but by themselves, without 
the least interference on our part. And that the (uDishment of the 
murderers might be made a3 public and impressive as possible, I re- 
commended that It shouMtake place along^de of the ship, in the 
preseoce of the natives/ 

These propositions being settled^ the King's brother under- 
took to accompany the ships to Woahoo, to secure the persons 
of the offenders; and ;m Engli'sh seaman, James Coleman^ 
vho had left an American trader and entered into the service 
of Titeeree, was likewise sent to assist. At WoahoOr the af- 
fair was represented by one of the Chiefs of that island iii the 
following manner :— That Lieutenant Hergest and Mr. Gooch^ . 
after having left directions with the people of the boat, went 
from the sea-side up to the habitations of the natives» who be^ 
laved to them in a friendly manner :— that, 

* While the gentlemen were absent,, a dispute arose at tht watenir^ 
place, between the natives and the peo{)Ie of the Dsdalus, froov 
vhich an affiray ensued, and.the Portuguese seaman was killed. That 
no harm or molestation had been offered, or was intended, towards 

. those gehtJeinen, who were treated civilly by the people of the village^ 
until the news of this unfortunate transaction arrived ;. when,, to pre* 
vent revenge taking place, it was thought necessary to put tO'dcatk 
the Chiefis whom they then had in their power ; and that, in pursuance 
•of this horrid resolution, Mr. Gooch was instantly killed by beings 
stabbed through the heart with a pahooa ; that the first blow oidr 
wounded Mr. Hergest, who, in endeavouring to make his way towards 
the Iwat, was knocked down by a large atone hitting him on the side 
of his head, and was then murdered in a most barbarous manner*- 
The man who stabbed Mr. Gooch, the one who first wounded Mr* 

• Hergest, and another who had been principally concerned at the 
watering place, had been, he said> apprehended by Tiueru^s ordct%^ 
and been put to> death.* 

' Coleman likewise affirmed that he had heard the story re« 
kted in the same manner, and .that htif belkved it to be a true 
statement. With respect to tne parties accused^ it appeared 
that the authority of the King^s brother was not sufficient for 
him to venture to apprehend them: but he inveigled three 
men to go oflr with him ia a canoe to the ship, and, when he 
arrived on board, poio^d them out to Captain Vancouver s|9 
the guilty persons ;^«— they' were accordingly taken into the 
ship and confined. After a long examination, in which the 
testimony <if the Chiefs directly ^charged the prisoners with 
bei^ig ^uilty^ and ^bich was consti^tl; denied b]c them.; 


15<k Vancourer*/ l^ofagt of^ Huctmir)^ 

* Neithar myself nor my officers ( says Capt. V. ) discovered any reasdff * 
firom the result of this further .examination^ to retract or alter our . 
Ibrmer opinion of their guilty or of delivenng them oTcr to their own 
people, to be dealt with according to the directions of their Chief. 

* Before they went from the ship, they were placed in irons on the 
quarter-deck ; where> in the presence of all the ship's company, I 
fCGlipitulated the crime" which they had committed, the evidence that . 
kad been adduced against them, and the condemnation of their Chiefs^ 
snd stated the punishment that was now to be inflicted. All thi^. 
was likewise made known to the Indian spectators who were present*. 

* That the ceremony might- be made as solemn and as awful aa 
possible, a guard of seamen and marines were drawn up on that sid« 
of the ship opposite to the shore, where, alongside of the ship, . a 
canoe was stationed for the execution. The rest of the crev/ were in 
leadiness at the great guns, lest any diafurbance or commotion should 
arise- One ceremony however remained yet to be performed. One 
ef these unfortunate men had long hair ; this it was necessary should 
lie cut from his head before he was executed, for the purpose of being 
presented, as a customary tribute on such occasions, tp the king of' 
the island. I was shocked at the want of feeling exhibited by the 
two Chiefs at this awful moment, who in the rudest manner not only 
cut off the hair, but, in the presence of the poor suffering wretch, 

^ without the least compassion ror his situation, disputed and strove for 
the honor of presenting the prize to the king. The odious contest 
being at length settled, the criminals were taken one by one into a 
double canoe, where they were lashed hand and foot, and pot to 
death by 7ennavuy their own Chief, who blew out their brama with* 
a pistol ; and so dexterously was the melancholy offioe performed, 
that life fied with the reportof the piece, and muscular motion seemed 
almost instantly to ceasc.*^ 

It is to be remarked that Tcnnavec was not the Chief of 
Woahoo, though na doubt a man of considerable importance* 
The eldest son of Titccree was the Chief of Woalioo, and. 
during the whole of this business he did not come near the 
tbips^ though much invited, but pleaded illness. 

There appears in the relation of this transaction, and in the 
transaction itself, a degree of embarrassment and con fusion which 
renders the different parts irreconcileable with each other. Cap- 
lain Vancouver declares a determination, in the beginning, that 
• the offenders should be brought to justice, mt by any measure f 
rfforc^ in our power ^ but by their own means :* — * not by uSf but by 
themselves, without the least interference on our part s* and he 
aeems to have be«n satisfied that he delivered them vver to their 
0wn people to be dealt with according to the directions of their Chief. 
Nevertheless, the men were apprehended and kept in confine- 
ment by Captain Vancouver; the trial, or. rather examinadoHt 
vas on board the ship, and not by the natives; and the sen^ 
tence was contrived and the execution directed by himself: 
tbeir own people having, no otherwise assisted than in decoy- 


VancotiTCt'i Toyag^ of ZHseovery. 151 

lug tKem on lioard^ and discharging the office of executioners ; 
whichj though not performed in the sbip^ was accomplished close 
under her guns. The motives by which Captain Vancouver 
was guided were, doubtless, a desire of impressing the islanders 
with an idea that our countrymen were not to be injured with 
impunity, and the belief that the terror of an example would 
have a powerful effect in deterring them in future from the 
commission of such outrages : — but many circumstances seem 
not to have been sufficiently considered. The latter account 
of the murder of lieutenant Hergest and Mr. Goocl( is wholly 
different from the first relation. It appears clearly that their 
death was not premeditated, and tKat no injury to them was in« 
tended, until the affray took place near the boat, by which ^ 
seaman was killed. The examples of revenge which had re« 
ccntly been given by Mr. Metcalf, of the Eleanor, might jus- 
tify the natives in their determination riot to allow the Lieute- 
nant to return to his ship'. It is proper also to notice here, that» 
though Captain Vancouver wished the execution of the three 
condemned men to be as public as possible, yet very few of 
the natives were prp^snt j and'OT-^nquiring the reason from 
one of the Chiefs, he was answered that it was owing to the 
suspicions created byo* the forriier conduct of Europeans, on 
disputes or misunderstandings taking pTace between the Chiefs / 
and the commanders. Some of these, under the pretext of 
re-established friendship, would prevail on^many of the inHa^ 
faitants to come off to their ships, where they would, as usual, 
enter iqto, trade with the natives, until great numbers were 
assembled ; the commanders then ordered them to be fired 
upon, which contintied, without mercy, as long as any of the' 
canoei were within ^hot. Tomohomoho stated, that two or 
three instances of this barbarous nature haid taken 'place, as 
well by the English as the American traders.' . The natural^ 
effect of such detestable coniluct must be, that the killmg a 
white man could scarcely be considered by the natives as a 
criminal act ; and though Mr. Hergest was of a very humane 
disposition,yet the natives could knownothing of him but that he 
was a white man. The three most culpable of the natives had 
been executed, (at least so Captain Vancouver believed,) by 
order of the King ; though, from the foregoing account of the 
behaviour of Europeans, such a measure, was little to be 
expected. In the examination of the three men brought to 
Captain Vancouver^ there appeared strong pfesurnptive proofs 
of their being all concerned,— but these did not amount to cer^^ 
tainty. Captain Vancouver says, in describing the execution j. 
« the whole of TenhaveVs dcportrnent, on this sad occasiori^ 
afforded us additioAal cause to believe^ that the persons exe- 

' cutcd 

152 VancoOTcr'x Vo^gg of Discovery* 

cuted were wholly guilty of the murder, and that the Chicft 
liad not punished the innocent tp screen themsclres/ One of* 
the sufferers had been accused of being the murderer of Mr. 
Hergest : but against the other two, there appear to have been 
only general accusations. If one was judged to have been 
mora guilty than the rest, there would have been a graceful 
propriety in pardoning the other two % and the terror inspired 
by the execution would then have been qualified with a degree 
oi approbation* 

After the execution was over, the Captain was solicited to 
Visit the Chief Trytooboory on shore: but this he judged it 
prudent to decline. By repeated invitations and presents, the 
Chief was at last induced to come on board. * I requested (says 
Captain Vancouver) the favour of his company below ; to this 
with much pleasure he assented, but no sooner were his inten- 
tions known to the natives in the canoes about the ship, than a 
general alarm took place, and he was earnestly recommended 
Hot to quit the deck; from a suspicton, as I imagined, amongst 
the crowd, that the works of death were not yet finally accom- 
plished.' The Chief, however, persisted in going down into 
the cabin \ and Captain V. afterward adds, 'I had the happiness 
of bearing him confirm every part of the evidence that had been 
pven against tlie three unfortunate wretches who had sufiered 
in the morning.* 

Captain Vancouver strenuously endeavoured to make the 
Chiefs bf Owhyhee and the Chiefs of these islands sensible 
df the superior blessings of peace, instead of being perpetually 
at war, and aiming at conquest over each other ; alnd ,he be« 
Ceved himself so far successful, as to have put them in a me* 
diod of adjusting their differences by negociation* 

Tlie extraordinary nature of the transactions at the Sand- 
wich Islands has occasioned us to detain the reader longer on 
this part of the voyage than we otherwise had intended: but wc 
shall now hasten to attend the navigators in the farther prose« 
cutioti of their survey of the American coast. The ships left 
tlie islands on the 30th of March, and on the 26th of April 
were in sight of Cape Mendocino on the, coast of New Albion. 
May ad, they anchored in Porto de la Trinidada, latitude 
41^ 3' N. Here they took in wood and water: but as a har- 
bpuTy or a place affording shelter for shippmg, they found it 
to. be very inferior to what they had expected from the de- 
scription given in the Journal of Don Francisco Maurelli ; a 
translatio|i of which has been presented to the public by die 
Ron. Daines Batrington. The identity of tlie port> Captain 
Vancoi^iVer $ays, could not be doubted i for 




VancoUvct'/ Voyd^e of Discovn^, , I J| 

* til an ezcunion made by Mn Menziee to the hill composing th^, 
^bfDJecting head iand» that forms the north-west side of the hay, ha 
fooody agreeably with Sen% Mautelli's ^description, the cross which 
tlie Spaniards had erected on their taking possession of the port } 

.and though it was in a certain state of decay> it admitted of his copy 
ing the following inset iption : 

At Trinidada, they found an Indian village, and the natives 
visited the ships. They were of a lower stature than any tribe 
of Indians before seen by our vopgers, but stoutly made. 

* Amongst these people, as with the generality of Indians I h^d 
met with, some mutilation, or disfiguring of their persons, is prac« 
tiled, either as being ornamental, or of religious institution, or pos- 
sibly to answer some purpose of which we remain ignorant. At 
Trinidad the custom was parricularly singular, and must be attended 
with much pain in the first instance, and great inconvenience ever 
after. All the teeth of both sexes were, by some prbcess, ground 
uniformly down, horizontally, to the gums ; the women especially* 
carrying the fashion to an extreme, had their teeth reduced even be- 
low this level ; and ornamented their lower lip with three perpendi- 
cular columns of punctuation, one from each comer of the mouthy 
and one in the middle, occupying three-fifths of the lip and chin* 
Had it not been for these frightful customs, I was informed that 
amongst those who visited our party on shore the last day, there were* 
amongst the younger females, some who might have been considered 
as having pretensions to beauty.* 

From Porto de la Trinidada, they proceeded northward^ 
and on the 20th of May anchored in Nootka ; where the? 
stopped only three days. The Spaniards were increasing thc» 
fortifications at this plactj, but tliey gave every assistance in 
their power for the accommodation of the two ships. The most 
remarkable occurrence noticed during their shprt stay here was 
a treaty of marriage, which was in agitation between the son 
and daughter of two Indian Chiefs j and of which the follow- 
ing account is given : 

* When we were last here I had understood, that Maqumtu^$ 
eldest child, being a daughter named Ahpiefdi, had In the course of 
the last summer been proclaimed as the successor to the domim'ons 
and authority of Maquinna after his death ; and had about that time 
been betrothed to the eldest son of IVicananuhf the chief of a very 
considerable district in the neighbourhood of Clayoquot and Nittinat* 

* This chief with his son, attended by a considerable retinue, came 
In form to Maquinna^t residence, now situated without the sound on 
the tea shore, about a league to the westward of this cove ; where, 
after presenting an assortment of certain valuable articles, he had de* 
manded Maqmtina'9 daughter. The considerations on this dower cauKd 
great consultation and many debates. At some of these a few of the 
officers of the Discovery were, present^ wha understood) that the 

Rev. Feb. 1799. M compliment 

Sjfij; ^VancouiretV Vsyage'Sf Disofver^* 

\t6mp\\tt)ttt was deemed ihadequate to the oecaSBon ; but on the fore* 
ft6ori of the ajti, I was informed, that matters between the two fa* 
f^ers were finiSly adjusted to the satisfaction of both parties, and tha(t 
IficatiaMsIj^vfhh his Buite, had returned to Clayoquot ; but that 
yH^tftm ' was filifi ta-rcfiide «ome tiinc iooger at Nootka. Her youths 
most likely, as she did not then exceed taen or twelve years of tigc, waa^- 
the reason Tor postf?oniftg the nuptials.* 

. May the 26th, they arrived in Fitzhugh's Sound, artd re* 
commenced their examination at the part at which it had been 
discontinued in the preceding year* The. survey now hiade,. 
ni most of its circumstances, resepfibkd the former. They 
found the same ki»d of broken coast, with inlets and channels 
ahnost .innumerable v and the same extraordinary depth of 
water close to th^ shores, and m places inclosed all round 
Urith land. O^e instance occursi in which^ in a channel only 
a mile in width, * they traversed repeatedly from shore to 
shore without finding^ bottom with 185 fathoms of line, though 
within half a ship's length of the rocks.' — From the end of 
May to the aist of 'September, the time occupied in this year 
by the northern survey, they advanced but little more than four - 
degrees northward, leavinii: off between the 56th and 57th de- 
gree of north latitude. The greater part of the survey was, as 
'formerly^ performed in boats ; in which, besides the hardships 
^i being- continually exposed to tlxe weather, our people ran 
gre^t rifks from the dispositions of the natives; the behaviftiir 
of soffte of the tribes which they met being extremely feroci- 
ous. In a place named Fisher's Canal, the t^atives offered for 
sale the skin of the animal which produces their woo], and of 
which the following description is given : 

• ■ Tlie skins appeared evidently too large to belong to any animal of 
the canine race, as we had before Supposed*. They wercj exclusively of 
the head or tail, fifty inches long ; and thirty^ix inches broad, ex- 
clusively of the legs. The wool seemed to be afforded but in a small 
proportion to the size of the skin. It is principally produced on the 
Back and towards the shoulders, where a kind of crest is formed by 
Jong bristly hairs, that protrude themselves through the wool, and 
the same sort of hair forms an outer covering to the whole animal, and 
intircly hides the wool, which is short, and of a very fine quality. 
*An "the skins of tliis description that were brought to us were intirely; 
'white, or rather of a cream colour ; the pelt was thick, and appearcd^rf" 
^ strong texture, hut the skin^ were too much mutilated to discover 
the khid of animal to which they had belonged.'' 

In one of the most intricate Jjarts of their uavigatiot^, they- 

.met three English vessels. The intelligence imparted to , Cap— 

. .tain Vancouver by.Mn Bro\)irn, who commanded them> is the- 

most import^int matter relative* to the 4>bject of the vx)yage, thafe 

occurred dudag. the. season:: : 

Vancouver*/ Vop^ cfDiscovef^. 155 

« He very obligingly communicated to mc every information he 
bad been able to obtain. The principal circumstance was that of his 
having sailed up a large opening, whose southern entrance was in la- 
titude 54*' 45'- 

* This is probably the same as that kid down in Sen'. Caam&Hoe'-s 
chart, named Estrecbo dt AlifLiranie Fuentu* Mr. Brown found it ex- 
tend to the north-westward, with several arms branching from it la 
various directions to the latitude of 56° io\ where, in a south- 
westerly direction, it again communicated with the north pacific. He 
had understood, from the natives, that there was in this neighbourhood 
a very extensive inland navigation, communicating with a sea to the 
northward, that employed the inhabitants nearly three months & 
reaching its extent, where they traded for whale oil, sea-otter skini, 
and other marine productions^ This inland navigation Mr. Brown 
supposed to be in an extensive arm, lying from hence towards T the 
N. N. £• about nine leagues distant ; the entrance of which he had 
visited, and found it spacious and large, but had not penetrated anV 
distance into it. At its south-east point of entrance a small branch 
extended to the south-eastward, up which he proceeded with hig 
sloop and schooner about six itiles, where they anchored before a 
vOlage of the natives.' 

Two days after the receipt of this information, they arrived 
at the cntrapce of an opening in the continental shore, which 
they bdicved to be the one described by Mr. Brown. The ac- 
count of the coast and of the survey is here not sufficiently in- 
telligible : but perhaps it was not ppssible to make it wholly 
cleat. Captain Vancouver speaks of a number of openings 
seen, in the following manner : * The branch of the inlet we 
were now navigating was not of greater width, nor did it ap- 
pear likely to become more extensive, than that to the west- 
ward of us just discovered. This made it uncertain which to 
consider as the main branch. Four other openings had been 
passed on the eastern shore, whose extent had not yet been 
ascertained.' It is evident that, on the plan laid down for the 
survey, every branch should (in its turn) be regarded as tlic 
main branch, till experience had proved the ct)ntrary. This 
part of the narrative is defective in method : but the word ^et^ 
in the preceding extract, implies that it was not intended that 
any opening should be passed unexamined. On applying to . 
the cbarts, we see the line of continuation unbroken, except 
by two or three rivers, which are represented as not affording 
any reasonable prospect of a navigable communication ; and no 
cme of the channels, which they explored, carried them far in 
an easterly direction. In this service, Captain Vancouver 
was absent from the ship, examining with the boats, at one 
time 23 days, having traversed from their outset to their re. 
torn above 700 geographical miles. The Captain's boat was 

M % attacked 

1^5* Vancouvet'jf P'oyage cfDtscoverj* 

attacked by a party of Indians^ and- two, of his men were 
woun(]ed. Oh this occasion, an old woman, in one of the In- 
dian canoeS} gave directions, encouraged them to the attack, 
and seemed to be their principal leader. Indeed^ the situation 
of our people was at one time extremely perilous, and princi- 
pally owing to their own neglect. 

* But, rpays Capt. V.) having been so long 'accustomed to a series 
of tranquil intercourse with the several different tribes of Itadians wc 
had met with, our apprehensions of any molestation from them were 
totally done away; and that attentive wariness which had been the first 
object of my concern on coming amongst these rude nations, had latterly 
fceen much neglected. For although we had now more arms than we 
were provided with during the preceding summer, namely, two wall* 
pieces cut short for the purpose of being more handy in the boats, each 
ef which was loaded with a dozen pistol balls, yet these as[weU as some 
of our muskets,^ bad been so neglected by disuse, that they were un^ 
serviceable on this pressing emergency.' 

The hunch, under the direction of Lieutenant Swaine, had 
fortunately been more on its guard against the natives, and came 
up very opportunely to the Captain's assistance. 

A similar instance of female authority had been observed 
among the natives, a few days before, in a party which, io- 
duding one woman with a lip-ornament,, consisted of x6 or 1 8 

* This wbmany as well as the other we had seen on the 27th, 
steered the canoe. She appeared to be a most excessive scold, and 
to possess great authority. She had much to say respecting the 
whole of their transactions, and exacted the most ready obedience to 
her commands, which were given in a very surly manner, particularly 
in one instance to a man in the bow of the canoe ; who, in compHance 
to her directions, immediately made a different disposition of the 
spears. These had all lain on one side of him, just pointed over the 
bow of the canoe, whh several things carelessly lying over them ; but, 
on his receiving her commands, the outer ends were projected fur- 
ther, their inner ends cleared of the lumber that was over them, and 
the whole, amounting to about a dozen > were equally divided, and 
i^egularly laid on each side of him.' 

While Captain Vancouver was absent on this survey, another 
party, with two boats, went to examine some openings to the 
eastward, which had been passed in the ships. As channels 
in this direction are of the most importance to the main object 
of their survey, we think it necessary to take notice of a river 
discovered in 55^ N. latitude, in a shoal bay on the eastern 
side of the entrance of an arm of the sea, by Captain V. named 
Observatory Inlet. The river is described to be a small open«- 
ing in a shallow bank, not exceeding in width a ship^s length : 
but the water had suddenly deepened from five feet to two 
7 and 

^zncoUvtfs Voyage tfHisccvery. ^57 

and Ere fathoms, and. through this narrow entrance the tide, 
both flood and ebb, rushed with great force. At the latter 
.part of the ebb, however, the water was perfectly fresh, though 
>not more than four miles from the main arm of the sea. 

Captain Vancouver observes that this small river, and an- 
other in Port Essington, (an account of which is given vol* ii» 
p. 3159 316.) * are the only two streams that had yet been <lis^ 
covered to the north of the river Columbia.' 

• These (he says.) are too insignificant to be dignified by the name 
*of nvcrs, and in truth scarcely deserve the appellation bf rivulets ; but 

should it hereafter be thought expedient, in support of the late pre- 
vailing conceits, and to establish the pretended discoveries of DcTont, 
Dc Fonta, or De JFuentes, that one of these brooks should be consi- 
jdered as the Rio de los Reys leading into lake Bell, I must beg leave 
to premise, that neither of their entrances will be met with under the 
parallels of 43, 53, or 63 degrees of north latitude; these being the 
. *6cveral difiereut positions assigned to the entrance of this- most famous 
Aio dc los Reys, by speculative closet navigators. 

* Had any river or opening in the coast existed near either the 43d 
4)r53d parallel of .north latitude, the plausible system that has beeo 
icrected, would most likely have been deemed perfect ; but, unfor- 
tunately for the great, ingenuity of its hypothetical projeciorsy gut prac- 
tical labours have thus far made it totter.; the position of the former 
stream, seen by Mr.Whidbey, falling into Port Essington, being in 
latitude 54* 15'; that of the latter, in 'latitude 54'' 59'; neither of 
4rhich will correspond with any 6f the positions above-mentioned.' 

This kind of language provokes comment ; and though we 
<:an safety profess ourselves to be but little sanguine in our ex- 
pecutions of a N. W. passage, wic nevertheless see fair occa- 
sion to remark that, in ;the opening examined by Mr. 'John- 
stone in latitude 54*^ 59' ]N* the' sudden increase of depth 
from Sve feet to two and five fathoms, and the rapidity of the 
tides, bQth .flood and ebb, are circumstances which amoun^to 
a very strongpresumption of a navigable channel into the river. 
"With respect to the J>reten Jed discoveries of.De Font, or any other 
oncertaip accounts of discoveries, many who wish chem verified 
will think .that a belief in .their existence is a very useful qua- 
lification in tho^ Who undertake to ascertain the truth con^ 
cemiog them. 

The extent of Capt. V/s progress northward has been mfn- 
tioned ; and the account sof his labours, in this his second 
season, adds considerably toour.knowlege df the cu$tom^ an4 
dispositions of the natives. 

' Here they met another small party of the natives, consisting of* 
ttrco men omy, who seemed to be prepared to oppose their landing.. 
'Tbtvr canoes were lodged close to them, near a miserable small hut. 
^htr they had j)Ut on their war garments, they advanced to meet the 

M 3 iMOi^ 

1 j8 VancouvcrV Voyage of Discovery. 

boat ; one of tkem was armed with a musket, and another with a 
pistol; these they cocked, whilst the other five, each provided with 
a bow, and plenty of. arrows, had them in readiness for immediate! 
service. Beside these, an elderly person made his appearance at a 
little distance ; he was without any weapon, or his war garinent, and 
whilst he made long speeches, he held in one hand the skin of a bird, 
and with the other plucked oii^ the young feathers and down, which, 
at the conclusion of certain sentences in his speech, he blew into the 
air. These actions being considered by Mr.«Whidbcy and his party 
as overtures of peace, they threw some spoons and other trivial ar- 
ticles to the orator, and gave h'lm to understand that they wanted 
something to eat. This had the desired effect ; for this pacific indi- 
vidual ordered those who wtre anncd to retire, and some salmon was 
coon brought. He now directed the boats to come to the rocks, 
where he delivered them the fish, and he received in return such ar- 
ticles as appeared to be highly acceptable, still continuing to blow 
the down into the air, as he plucked it from the bird's skin.* 

After the aoth of September, they returned to the south- 
\i^ard, keeping at a distance from the continent, and to the 
>vestward of the land named Queen Charlotte's Islands. On 
the 5th of October, they anchored at Nootka ; whence, conti- 
nuing to the southward, they called at Port St. Francisco, an3 
at Monterrey : — but it now appeared to Captain Vancouver that 
the attentions and friendly disposition of the Spaniards had 
been quite exhausted in the" preceding year. His reception 
vras such as convinced him that he was not a welcome visitor; 
and he therefore left these places, and continued to the>south- 
>vard, keeping the American shore in sight. At other Spanish 
settlements near the sea-coast, he experienced more friendly 
treatment, and obtained such supplies as he wanted. 

This part of America is represented as a most fruitful coun« 
try, very thinly inhabited, * The number of t/ie natives, at 
this period, who were said to have embraced the Roman Ca- 
tholic persuasion under the discipline of the Franciscan and 
Dominican orders of missionaries of New Albion, and through- 
out the peninsula of California, amounted to about twenty 
thousand, and they were estimated at an eighth or tenth of 
the whole native population of those countries.* The whole 
of tbc military establishment in this extent of territory 15 said 
not to exceed 400 men. 

J < The natives (says Captain Vancouver) are not, ndr can 
they be rendered tributary, because they possess no tribute to 
offer.* This is making very little account of a country 'which 
is fertile almost beyond example, and of which the coasts 
abound with aea-otters. -All the labour of the natives who ^e 
subject to the Spanish jurisdiction is under the immediaf e tfi- 
rectiob and CQp;rol bf the missionaries, who act' wholly undfer 

VanoouvcrV Fejage of Discovery^ I ji^ 

the authority of the Spanish govcmment, Besides, we ztt 
told by M. dc la Perouse that it was the plan of the Viceroy 
•of Mexico to reserve for government the exclusive trade of sea- 
otter skins; of which, that nnfortAinate navigator says, the 
Spanish settlements furnish io,oao annually, ai)d are capable 
of furnishing, if the Spaniards K^hoose to be at the trouble of 
collecting thera, 50,000 annually. This surely may be esteom* 
ed as tribute. , ^ 

Some of Captain Vancouver's political ideas concerning New 
Albion are rather too profound : 

* Should the ambition of any civilized nation tempt it to seize on 
these unsupported posts, they could not make the least resistance^ 
and must inevitably fall to a force barely suffidcnt for garrisoning 
and securing the cotmtry 4 especially that part which I have compre- 
hended under the denomination of New Albion, whose sonthjnost 
Lmits He under the 30th degree of north bititude. Here the coast,* 
washed by the waters of the pacific, is not more than 30 leagues,' (if 
so much,) from the shores under the same parallel, nearly at the head 
4jf the gulph of California. This pass, being once well secured by 
any power, determined to wrest New Albion from the Spanish mo- 
narcny, would inevitably prevent an army by land from coming to th^ 
support of the present possessory er to the annoyance of an iuvading 

In another place he observes, 

* From their dominions in New Spain they have stocked this 
(inontier country with such an abundance of cattle of all descnption&^ 
that it is no longer in their power, even were they so inclined^ to 
effect their extermination. They have also pointed out many fertile 

rts, some of which are very iextensive, where they have introduced 
most valuable vegetable productions, not only necessary to the 
sustenance, but ministering to many pf the luxuries, of civilized 'so- 
ciety ; and they have, by their previous experiments, fuUy ascertained 
in what degree each is found to succeed. A certain proportion' of 
the natives have, by the indefatieable labour of the missionanes, l^n 
weaned from their former uncivilized savage way of fife, and are be- 
come obedient to social forms, and practised in many domestic occit* 
pations. All these circumstances are valuable considerations tg new 
masters, from whose power, if properly employed, the Spaniards 
would have no alternative but that of submissively yielding/ 

This species of political reasoning is not welt calculated t« 
L make the Spaniard's think that they acted wrongly, id discoa^ 

raging the visits of strangers to their settlements. 

Having finished the examination of the coast ef New Albioo^ 
418 far as to the 7cth degree pf latitude^ the v^/pgers d^p^rted 
from the American coast, aiKl steered towards ^e Stradwiirt^ 
Islands. On the 9th of January 1794, they were agj^m ia 
sight of Owhyhee ; and on the next morning, before l^lie fehipt 
got into harbour^ the friendly Tamaahmaah came off to wel« 

M 4 come 

x6o Pearson'^ Inquiry eoneermngthe Cov;^fM^ 

come them* By the reports of the masters of some trading 
vessels then at Owhyhee, it appears that, in their conduct to<- 
"wards strangers, the islanders had latterly been more orderly 
and civil, and evinced a better disposition towards them than 
had ever before been experienced. This may chiefly be attri- 
buted to. the mild character of their present ruler, Tamaabmaaht 
but that some of the credit ot^ght to be placed to the account 
of the good understanding which Captain V. made it his study 
to cultivate with the Chiefs, an extraordinary transaction which 
shortly afterward took place will sufficiently prove. 

[7d he eonttnusd.'^ 

^RT. VI. jin Inquiry concerning the History of the Cow-pox t prin» 
, cipally with a V icw to supersede and extinguish the SmaJl-pox, 
By George Pearson, M. D. F. R. S. Physician to St. George's 
Hospital, &c. 8vo. pp. ii6. zs. 6d. Johnson. 1798: 

Tm our last volume, p. 447, we reviewed a publication by 
•* Dr. Jenner on the causes and effects of the variola vaccirue^ 
or cow-pox : a subject unknown to the medical world, till it 
was introduced to their notice by that author. We have now 
another work on the same topic, from the pen of Dr. Pearson 5 
whif^h aSbrds us a valuable commentary on the text of Dr. Jenner. 

After a few introductory remarks. Dr. Pearson proceeds to 
examine tlie evidence of the principal facts asserted by Dr. 
Jenner concerning the cow*pox ^ and to relate what farther 
evidence he has derived from his own experience, or collected 
from the communications of others. In this examination we 
shall attend him, that our readers may know the state in which 
this inquiry, or discovery, now stands. 

The first position to be investigated is thus expressed : 

I. * Persons who bav^ undergone /^^ Specific Fever and Local 
DisSASSf occasioned ty the Cow-pox infection^ communicated in the ac- 
Ifidenlal way, (who had not undergone the SnudUpox^) are thereby ref\' 
dered muusceptihU of the Small-pox.* 

In confirmation of the evidence produced by Dr. Jenner, to 
establish this fact, we here find a variety of concurring testi- 
monies : but we shall particularly notice only the experiment^ 
made under the author's immediate inspe<:tiQn^ some of whidi 
are thus related : 

* On Thursday, June 14th last, happeniiiflr, with Mr. Lucas. 
Apothecary, to be on professional business at Mr« WiU^n's farm, ad- 
joininsr to the Mew Road, Marybone ; which farm is appropnated 
satire^ for the support of from 800 to 1000 Milqh Cows ; I availed 
ijiyncll of that opportunity to make inquiry coaceroing theQow-pox. 

I was 

PcarsonV Inqnirj concerning the C^uhpois. l6^ 

I was told it was a pretty frequent disease among the Cows of that 
fjum* especially in winter* That it was supposed to arise from sudden 
change firom poor to rich food. It was also well known to the ser- 
vants, sooie of whom had been affected with that malady^ from milk- 
ing the diseased Cows. Oni inquiry, I found three of the meh ser- 
vants, namely, Thomas Edinburgh, Thomas Grimshaw, and John 
Clarke, had been affected with the Cow-pox, but not with the Small- 
pox. 1 induced them to be inoculated for the Sniall-pox : and, with 
the view of ascertaining the efficacy of the variolous infection em- 
ployed, William Kent and Thomas East, neither of whom had had 
cither the Cow-pox or the Small-pox, were also inoculated. 

< Three of these men, viz. Edinburgh, East, and Kent, were in- 
oculated in each arm with perhaps a larger incision, and more matter, 
than usual, on Sunday, June 17th, by Mr. Lucas; and Dr. Wood* 
villc and myself were present. The matter was taken from a boy 
present, who had been inoculated 14 days before this time^ and wh(» 
was obligingly provided by Dr. Woodvifle. 

* CASE I. 

« Thomas Edinburgh, aged 26 years^ had lived at the farm the 
last seven years. Had never had the Smallpox, nor Chicken -pox, 
nor any eruption resembling that of these diseases, but the Cow-pox, 
which ne was certainly affected with six years ago. He was so lame 
frpm the eruption on the palm of the hands as to leave his employ, 
in order to be for some time in a public hospital ; and he testified 
that his fellow-servant, Grimshaw, was at the same time ill with tlic 
same disorder. A cicatrix was seen on the palm of the iiands, buc 
none on any other part. He said that for three days in the disease* 
he suffered from pain in the axillae, which were swollen and sore to 
the touch. According to the patient's description, the disease was 
uncommonly painful and of long continuance ; whether on account 
of th« unusual thickness of the skin, which was perceived by the 
lancet in inoculation, future observations may determine. 
< Third Day, — Tuejdayy igtb ^ime, 

« A slight elevation appeared on the parts inoculated. No dis- 
prder was perceived of the constitution, nor complaint made. 
* Fifth Day. — Thursday y tisU 

* The appearance on the part inoculated, of the left arm, was like 
that of a gnat bite, and Mr. Wacksel^ Apothecary to th^ Small* 
pox Hospital, observed that the inflammation seemed too rapid for 
that of the variolous infection, when it produces the Small-pox. 
On the other arm there had been a little scab, which was rubbed ofi^ 
Reaving only a just visible red mark. No complaint was made. 

* Eighth Day. — Sunday f 24/i. 

* The inflammation on the left arm had subsided, and there was 
in place pf it, a little scab. The right arm as before. Has remained 
quite well. 

' Sent the patient with Mr. Wacksel to the Small-pox Hospital, 
1^'here he was inoculated a second time^ with matter from a persoxi 
prt:>ent^ who then Jabottrcd under the Small-pox. 

< FouaTH 

1 6a Pearson V Ltquhy amceming the Cow-pox. 

^TouRTB Day after Secfmd Inoculation, Widtteeday, l^th, 

* A litdc inflammation appeared on the part inoculated of one 
arm, but none of that of the other. Except some alight pains and 
head-ach on Monday last, had remained quite well. 

* Eighth Day after Second Jjioculationy Sunday y July isU 

* A little dry scab was upon each part inoculated. No symptoms 
of disorder had appeared. 


* Thomas Grimshaw, aged about 30 years. Had lived in town at the 
farm only 7 weeks, but six years ago also lived at this place, when be 
was affected with the Cow-pox 5 and he testified that his fellow-s^rv. 
vant, Edinburgh, was at the same time ill of the &me disease. 
Grimshaw said he had pains and soreness on touchinir the axillae du- 
ring that illness, but he got much sooner wcU'than Edinburgh. 

* On Tuesday, the 19th June, Grirajihaw was inoculated in both 
%rms, at the Small- pox Hospitsd, from a patient then ill of the Small- 


* Third Day. — Thursday, 21st. 

* A little inflammation and fluid appeared under a lens in the parts 
inoculated, as if the infection had taken eflect. Remained quite well. 

. < Sixth Day. — Sunday, 2/^h. 
< Inflammation which had spread near the parts inoculated has 
disappeared ; and now nothing was seen but a dry scab on them. 
Had not been at all disordered. He was inoculated this day a second 
time, as before, at the Small-pox Hospital. 

<FouiiTH Day. — Second Inoculation, Wednesday, June 2*] tL 

* Not the least inflammation from the last inoculation^ nor any 

* Eighth Day. — Second Inoculation, Sunday, 7uly ix/. 

* Not the smallest inflammation from the inoculation. Had re- 
mained quite well. 


« John Clarke, 26 years of age, had the Cow-pox ten years ago 
at Abingdon, where he was under the care of a medical practi- 
'tionerof that place. He was inoculated by Mr.Wacksel, at the 
Small-pox Hospital, on Tuesday, June 19th, from a patient affected 
with the Small-pox. 

* Third Day. — Thursday, June list. 

' There was infiammation> and a fluid in the parts inoculated ; 
but tia'sc appearances' were judged to be premautre, with respect to 
the Small pox. 

< SrxTH Day. — Strnday, June 2\th. 

* The appearances of inflammation and fluid in the right arm 
were such as to makr^ it doubtful, whether or not the variolous in- 
fection had taken effect ; but there were no auch aj>pearances on the 
left arm, the inflammation bcinfj gone. 

* He was this day inoculated a second time «at the Small-pox Hos- 
pital, from a patient. 


Pearson'/ Inquiry concerning the Cov^^pok, 163 

* Eighth Day afia^ Second Inoculation^ Sunday^ July ui, 

* No effect but inflammatiooy and afterwaitli ftstcring, from tlie 
iecond inoculation. 

* The inflammation on the right arm, from the first inoculation^ 
went off in a day or two after the last report. He had remained 
^uite weU in all respects.' 

The other two men, Wm. Kent, and Thomas East, who 
bad not had the cow-pox, underwent the* variolous disease lA 
consequence of inoculation. 

From these, and a variety 6f other instances, related in the 
most positive terms, it is difBcult torefuse our assent tothepropo* 
isition that * the specific fever and local disease, named cow -poxaT 
incapacitates the patient from afterward undergoing the smalls 
pox. — We say this on the faith of 'the experiments which have 
hitherto been tried : — but let it be remembered that numerous ' 
indeed should be the instances of success in order to establishi 
beyond doubt, a doctrine like this, so uncommon, so unsup- 
ported by analogy, and which must immediately fall if Apposed 
by one real instance of failure. 

The next position is that 

II. * Persons who have been affected *unih the Specific Fever f aid fe* 
€idiar Local Diseeucf by Inoculation of theCow-i!OX Inflctios, 
who had not previously undergone the Sma/I-pox ; are thereby retidered 
unsusceptihk of the Smcdl-poxJ , s 

Dr. Pearson's additional testimonies in favour of this doc« 
trine are as follow :— the first is from Dr. Pultene'y, of Bland- 

** A- farmer in this country inoculated his wife and children 
with .matter taken from the teat of a cow. At the end of a week 
the arms ^inflamed, and the patients were so far affected, as to 
alarm the farmer, although unnecessarily, and incline him to call in 
medical assistance. They all soon got well, and were afterwards in- 
oculated for the Small-pox, but no disease followed. I was not ap- 
plied to in this case, but the fact is sufHciently ascertained."—- 

2dly. * Mr. Downe of Bridport furnishes me with important in- 
formation on the present fact. ** R. F. near Bridport, )vhen about 
"to years of age, was at a farm house when the dairy was infected 
with the Cow-pox« It being suggested to him that it would be the 
means of preserving him from the Small-pqx, which he had never 
Jtakcn, if he would submit to be inoculated with the Cow-pox ; he 
gave his consent : he was infected in two or three places in his hand 
with a needle. He felt no inconvenience till about a week, when 
the parts began to inflame, and his hand to swell, his head to ach, 
«lnd many other symptoms of fever came on. He was recommended 
to k^ep ^Qch in the open air, which he did, and in 4 or c days the 

?iii]M:«ilns of iever went off, as the maturation of the hand advanced. 
lie tNuts soon healed, leaving permanent scars. He was afterwards 
inoculated twice by my grandfather, aad a considerable time, after 


t64 Pearson V Inqmry cMcerniftg the Cow-pox. 

twice by my father, but without any other effect than a sUght ini- 
lation of the part, such as is occasioned in the arms of persons who 
hare already oad the Small-pox. It was not expected at the time^ 
;diat the Small-pox poison would be effectual, but it was inserted, partly 
hj way of expenment, and partly by wav of precaution, the Small- 
pox bein? then in the family. The SmaU-|)ox ^ been repeatedly 
^ce in his own family, and he never avoided it, being confident 
that it was not possible to infect him with this disease. — The next 
4case, by Mr. Downe, although it affords defective evidence, is not use- 
Jess. " I have lately conversed with a person who was, in play, in- 
ioculated in the hand^withi the Cow-pox matter. The wounds ap- 
•parently healed for a time, and then inflamed. He had a swelling 
in the axilla, pain in the head, sickness, and slight fever. No erup- 
tion took place, but there was much maturation at the place of inser- 
tion, and con£iderable scars remain.''— 

3dly. * Mr. Dolling, of Blandford, communicates the following ia- 
ctances :- *' Mr. Justiixgs of Axminster inoculated his wife and chiUlrea 
svith matter taken from the teats of a Cow that had the Cow-pox.: in 
about a week after inoculation, their arms were very much inflamed* 
znd the patients were so ill, that the medical assistance of Mr« 
Meach, of Cemc, was called for. The patients did WelL * They 
were aftervards inoculated for the Small-pox by Mr. Trotbidgc, with- 

These arethe testimonies produced in addition to those urged 
by Dr. Jenner : bat when it is considered that the cow-pox is as- 
iserted always to be communicated by inoculation, whether ca- 
sual or designed, — then every case of cow-pox, not allowing 
the future action of smaU-pox, becomes a testimony in 

Position III. * The disease produced hy imeulating 'with the matter of 
Ae CotU'poxy does , not differ from the dheasi produced hy inoculation 
m/ith the matter from the Euman animal ; nor is any difference observed 
In the effects of the matter from the first human subject infected from 
the brute animal^ or from the matter generatedf successively^ in the 
jecondj thirds fourth^ or fifth human creature^ from its origin in the 

On this head, no corrobprating testimony is produced. 

- « IV. A person having heen effected ninth the Bpe^fic Fever ^ and Loccd 
Disease^ produced by the Cow-pox poison^ is liable 4o be again effected aw 
before by the same poison ; , and yet such penon is not suscepttole of the 

Dr. Pearson remarks that professional men are extremely 
reluctant in yielding their assent to this . position ; and the 
only additional testimony which he brings, in support of it, is 
that of Mr. Woodman, of Aylesbury ; who says that " the 
cow-pox does not supersede itself on future occasions, for the 
cow boys have it repeatedly." . Dr. Pearson's obscnration oa 
this 'head requires to be quoted : 



Pearson*/ Inquiry concerning the CcW'fiK* i^g 

♦ The evidence for this fact, to my apprehension^ onljr proYcs, 
tatisfactorilyy that the local affection of the Cow-pox may occqr in the 
same person more than once ; but whether the fecu&ir fever also oc- ' 
curs more than once in the same person, from the Cow-pox poison^ 
does not appear certain ; and must be determined by future observa- 
tions, to be made with a particular view to this point. Future ob- 
aervationa must likewise determine, whether,: in those cases, (if such 
occur,) in which a person, after having gone through the Cow-pox^ 
takes the Small-pox, the Cow-pox was attended with a fever, or was 
merely a local affection. It seems pretty well ascertained, that the 
variolous poison may produce the Small-pox only locally, or without 
any affection of the whole constitution ; and in such a case, the con* 
stitution is still susceptible of the Small-pox, and yet, in both cases, 
viz. of the local qfection only, and of the whole constitution, the 
matter of the eruptions k capable of infecting others, so as to pro- 
duce the Small-pox $ either locidly only, or also in the whole conr- 
stitution. Hence it seems probable, that similar local and general 
effects may be produced by the Cow-pox poison, and not only id the 
human kind, but in Cows. I acknowledge, however, that the Case» 
p. 51. in Jenncr*% book, militates against this suppositfon.'' — 

V. * Ji person is susceptible of the Cotu-pox^ who has qntecedenflj Been 
affected with the Small- pox ^* 

Little additional information is given on this subject : yet the 
positive proof of this fact by Dr. Jenner • occasions a very cu- 
rious distinction in this question ; — namely, that, while the ' 
cow-pox renders the patients incapable of undergoing the fu- 
ture slctioD of the small-pox, the converse of the proposition 
does^ not hold, and the small- pox does not render the patient 
unsusceptible of cow-pox. 

VI. * The Cow-pox is not commumcated in the state ofefltvia^ orgcs^ 
nor by adhering to the skin^ in an impercept'd>h small quantity ; nor scarcely 
wdess it be applied to Svisions of tbi skin^ by abrasions^ puncturet% 
wounds^ Gftf.*— 

VII. ' The local affection in the Cow^pox^ produced in the casual way , 
is generally more severcy and of longer duration^ than usually happens m 
the local affection in the inoculated Smallpox ; but in the Cow-pox tie fever 
is in no case attended with symptoms which denote danger f nor has it ^ in 
any instance^ been known to f rove mortal.*-^^ 

VIII. * No consequential disease^ which should be attributed to the 
Cow-pox y has been observed; nor has anv disease been\ excited^ Jto <9fhicp 
there previously existed a disposition f nor w it been ^scovered to product 
a pre-disposition to particular diseases.* — 

On this subject. Dr. Pearson properly remarks that, 

* Although a considerable body of evidence might be stated m 
' confirmation of these 9)omentou8 facts, from the experience of Dr. 

Jenner, and the uniform testimony of my correspondents i and al. 

* See Cajic VII. of Dr. Jenner^ publication. 


t66 f*€arson*/ Iftquiry concerning ihe Cow-pox. 

tUougfc wc should be inclined to conclude in favour of these fact9^ 
from the consideration of the nature of the Cow^ox, as far as yet 
"known : yet it does not appear to my judgment that the obserfatlons 
and arpruments warrant more than conclusions on the side of great 
probability. A number of persons, many hundreds, have gone 
through the inoculated Small-pox under the observation of many prac- 
titioners, without any disease, or disposition to disease, being pro- 
duced by the Small-pox ; yet no one doubts, that in a certain pro- 
portion of instances, disease has been excited, and disposition to dis- 
ease been produced. 

* We are led then to think, that a greater number, and more ac- 
curate obsei-vations are wanting, to authorise positive conclusions 
relating to the facts stated under this VIII head.' — 

IX. * The Cow-pox tnfeciion may produce the peculiar local disease 
keionging to it, but without the Ssorder of the constitution ; in which 
case^ the constitution is liable to be infected by the Smallpox infection** 

Such are the aphorisms (or ^^facts^) on which Dr. Pearson 
has vgry ably commented ; and in elucidation of which he has 
exerted great industry, and procured much valuable inform- 

In the subsequent part of this loqulry, Dr. Pearson enlarges 
on the probable improvement of our medical practice in con- 
sequence of substituting the cow-pox for the small-pox. He 
truly remarks that its utility * must depend upon the effects of 
the cow-pox, in compiarison with the small- pox, especially in 
the particulars of the degree of danget to life s the kind of symp-' 
iomSf and their^duration ; aud the subsequent effects on ihe consii'- 

• On this subject, however, much experience, and on a very 
enlarged scale, is wanting : a long list of facts must be adduced, 
>xn order to persuade us to disnaiss the practice of inoculating 
for the small-pox ; and we may safely conjecture that much 
jrime will elapse before a- testimony can be given in favour of 
.cow-pox inoculation, that shall outweigh 3ie fpUowing fact 
jrelajtcd by Dr. Wopdville : «' From January to August inclu- 
sive, out of upwards of 1 700 patients inoculated at the Ino- 
culation Holspital, including the in and out patients, only invo 
died: both of Whom Vere of the latter description.** 

Let us not be understood as wishing to decry the value 
and use of this important investigation : far diiFerent is 
our intQntion. — ^We cannot indeed flatter ourselves that, by 
.means of k, the variolous infection will be extifiguished ; and 
/ that loathsome and destructive disease, the small-pox, be 
known only by name :' yet we trust that an increase of oiir 
-knowlcge will accrue from this inquiry, and that some improrc- 
ments may be added to our practice. At all events, whatever 

9 may 


Sirrimoris en the Casareah Operatson, C(nu*pOKy isf€. x &j 

may be tlie fate of the fact in question, they who have assisted 
its inTestigatioh are certainly deserving of praise. 

Art. VII. ReflecUons on ibe Propriety of perform'mg the Cesarean 
Operatkn : to whicti are added Observations on Cancer ; and Ex- 
periments on the ^supposed Origin of Cow-pox. By W. Simmons, 
, Member of the Corporation of Surgeons, and Senior Surgeon to 
the Manchester Infirmary. 8vo. pp. 97. 2s. 6d- Venior and 
Hood. 1798. 

observes, * it can never be justifiable during the parentis lifc^ 
iml stands recorded only to disgrace the art.' As this is ^ 
point which we do nc?t choose to discuss here, we shall leave the 
surgical reader to judge of this opinion, and to consalf c-he 
work *, two thirds of which are occupied by this subject. 
Tiie observations on Cancer are very short. The author te- 

I jects the external application of arsenical rentedies, but relates 

a svDglc ca«e in which arsenic, taken internally in very stnall 

i 'quantities^ was productive of material benefit. The dose JConl 

j tjisted' of twelve drops of the mineral solution of l)x. Fowler^ 

three tkncs m a day. 

The experiments on the supposed origin oiCafw-pox will best 
speak for thcniselves.^-Doubting that this poison arises from 
the horse-disease called the Grease^ as conjectured by Dr. Jeaner, 

I Mr. S. determined to ascertain the fact ; and he thus relates- 

[ the result : 

t * With the assistance of a veterinary sufgcon to enable me to pro- 

^ eure the try^ifelaions fluid in its proper state, I instituted a course of 

. esperimcnts. 

* * Tiie fluid used in the three following experiments, which was- 

thi^ and of a yellowish colour, was taken from the inflamed heel of a- 
iione^ a few hours after the disease had taken place, and before any 
liresstng had been applied. 

* Oct. zg — xt. t years ^ — «t. 6 months ; andj 

— act. 3 months, all fine healthy looking children, were ino- 

xrdated with tKe above fluid, by making four punctures in the left 
arm of each, at a little distance from each other. 

I* Nov. I. There appeared just as much in'flatnmation on the edge^ 
of the punctures, as nright be expected from the scratch of a clean 
I * Ttft cooling regimen was enjoined, but no medicine was given. 

* 5. All the punctures were quite well : and the skin had rcco- 
^90rtA its'ibrmer complexion- 

* Varioleius -matter- w<i8 inserted to-day, very much diluted with 
warm water, by making one single puncture in the arm of each, and 
ia iitic centre ot the former* 

* 8. They 

l68 Simmoni w the Cesarean Operation^ Caw^poK, i^c. 

* 8. They all had evidently taken the infection. 

* The disease went throu^n its usual course, in its mildest form* 

« The fluid used in the following experiments was taken from the 
heel of a horse, in' a high state of inflammation, and discharging 
copiously a hrownuh coloured ichorout Jluid. The first symptom of 
the disease had shewn itself scarcely six-and-thirty hours, and the 
discharge not more than twenty-four hours, and, as he was reserved 
for my use, no dressing had been applied. 

* Nov. 1 6. With this fluid I inoculated three cows, by making a 
puncture in each teat ; and, the cuticle covering them bein? thicker 
than in the warmer months, I took particular pains in insertmc; it. 

< For several days, traces of the punctures were discemn)^ ; and 
then they disappeared, without having excited the least sign of 
disease. < 

' At the same time, I inoculated two covers of the same herd with , 
vuiolous matter, by making a puncture in each teat ; but there oc- 
curred nq perceptible change. 

* With a part of the same ichorous fluid three children were inocu- 
lated, by making four punctures in the left arm of each ; but neither 
inflanunation, nor disease of any kind, ensued. 

< If the disease called cow-pox will free the constitution of those 
who undergo it, from receiving, ever after, the infection of the 
apiall-pox ; it is reasonable to inter, that the poison of both is iden- 
tical. It is a fact well ascertained, that the small-pox may be com- 
municated, either by the erysipelatous fluid, obtained from the inocu- 
lated part, before the eruptive fever comes on ; or in the. form of 
pus, taken at the period of complete maturation : or even by the scab 
qi the dried pustule, in the last stage of the complaint. 

^ The limitation of the contagious power of the fluid supposed to 
occasion the cow-pox, and obtained from the horse's heel, to the 
first or erysipelatous stage of the grease, disproves the identity ; and 
also destroys any analogy, that might haVe been conceived to subsist 
between it and variolous matter. « » 

* Twelve punctures were made in the teats of the three cows ino- 
culated with the ichorous fluid, and it did not produce the smallest 
effect in either of them : six children were inoculated with the same 
sort of fluid, by making four punctures in the left arm of each ; and 
no disease whatever ensued ; eight punctures were made in the teats 
of two cows, and variolous matter was inserted ; but not the smallest 
change took place : one single puncture, with diluted variolous mat- 
ter,* Mve the small-pox to a chad. 

* The evidence, 'therefore, is as om to tnoenty-four^ in the hiunaa 
subject, between variolous nlatter, and the discharge from the korsc's 
heel ; as 017^ to twelve in cows ; and, between the msertion of vario- 
lous matter in man and in cows, as one to eight. 

* I had engaged a herd, consisting of thirty cows, for my expert' 
ments ; but it appeared useless to prosecute them farther^ unless I 
could have procured some genuine cow-pox matter. 

* These experiments prove, first, that the cow-pox poison does not 
originate in the horse's heel ; secondly, that gow9 will not take the 


Johnstone dft EHcingfonV McJe of DrMnini Loftir l6^ 

. * The cow.pox ii a disease wholly unknown to farmers^ both iu 
Cheshire, and in Lancashire ; so that disappointment could not ari^e 
from the animals having undergone that disease : and in Cheshire, il 
l#ge dairy-county^ the men are employed indiscriminately incleani0g 
the horses, and in milking the cows.' 

Thd event of these experiments is certainly iuafavourable to 
Dr. Jennet's hypothesis. 

Art, Vill. jin jiccount ofthe^nost approved Mode of Drcumng LanJf 
according to the System practised by Mr. Joseph Elkington, late 
of Piinccthorp in the County of Warwick : with an Appendix^ 
containing Hints for the farther Improvement of Bogs and other 
Marshy Gfround, after draining ; tocrether with Observations on 
hollow and surface Draining in general. The whole illustrated by 
explanatory Engravingd. Drawn up for Consideration of the^. 
Board of Agriculture and internal Improvement. By John John« ^ 
stone, Land-Survey or. 4to. pp. 183. il. is. Boards. Edin-" 
burgh printed : sold by Nicol in London. 1797. 

THE subject of this pablication is of great importance : it 
has excited, and will continue to excite, the attention of 
intcnigcnt countty-genflemen ; who, by their Spirited and well- 
directed exertions to drain those parts of their estates which 
urcre wet and boggy, will Improve their rentals, and increase 
the productiveness and salubrity of the country. Till of late^ 
the art of land-draining, in order to discharge cultivated. 
Or cultivatahle land of its superfluous water^ bad not been well 
understood : but two gentlemen, dearly about the same time, and 
nearly in the same way, made a diecovery which threw consi<^ 
clerable light on the subjisct, and has since served to point out 
the proper practice. Dr. Anderson, in a late work intitlcd 
. ** A Practical Treatise on Draining Bogs and Swampy Grounds^* 
(of which we gave an account in our Review for September 
last, vol. XXVII. p. 46.) deems himself the first discoverer: 
but it appears that the idea which is the basis of the improved 
mode of draining land suggested itself to Dr. Anderson, a^ 
be himself tells us, in the year 1764 \ and by the treatisQ un^s 
der review, it is shewn th^t Mr. Elkington* was led to the prac* 
tical adoption of it, by an accidental discovery in the year 

Having, in the article above cited, extracted virhat Dt. An- 
derson advanced in asserting his claim to priority of discovery, 
we consider ourselves impelled by justice to exhibit what 19 
here stated as to the origin of the discovery made by Mr. Elking^* 
ton, and the means that first led him to the hnowlege of the art, 

* Originally a farmer in the county of Warwick. 
R^v«F£B. 1799. N cspecMy 

17^' Jolillitoiie &n ElkingtonV Mode of Draining Land. 

e^ecially as Mr Johnstone assures us that < its veracity may be 
depended on* : - 

' * In the year 17659 Mr. Elkmgton was left by his father the pof^ 
session of a farm called Princethorpy in the parish of Stretton upon 
Dunsmore, and county of Warwick. The soil of this farm was very- 
poor, and in many places so extremely wet, that it had been the 
cause of rotting several hundred sheep, which was the first means 
that determined him, if possible, to drain it, which he began to do 
in 1764. The field in which he began was of a wet clay soil, ren- 
dered almost a swamp, (and, indeed, in some places, a shaking hag,) 
by the springs issuing from a bank of gravel and sand adjoining it, 
and oveiflowmg the surface of the clay in the manner described in 
the annexed plan, which is a true representation of it. In order to 
drain this field, he cut a trench about four or five feet deep, a little 
below the upper side of the bog, or where the wetness began to 
make its appearance ; and after proceeding with it so far in this di- 
rection, and at this depth, he found it did not reach the mean body 
ofsii^acent tvater, from whence the evil proceeded. On discovcnng 
this, Mr. ElkingtoR was at a loss how to proceed. At this tim? , 
iichile be was considering what was next to be done, one of his senr* 
ants accidentally came to tlie field where the drain was making, with 
an iron crow or bar, which the farmers in that country use lu mak- 
ing holes for fixing their sheep hurdles; Mr. Elkington having a 
suspicion that his drain was not deep enough, and a desire to know 
what kind of strata lay under the bottom of it, took the iron bar 
from the servant, and after having forced it down about four feet 
below the bottom of the trench, ou pulling it out, to his astonish* 
ment, a great quantity of water burst up through the hole he had 
tliu§ made, and raa down the drain. This, at once, led him to the 
kaowiegrc of wetness being often produced by water confined farther 
below tibe surfeee of the ground, than it was possible for the usual 
depth of drains to reachj and induced him to think of applying an 
auger, as a proper instrument in such cases^ Thus did the discovery 
originate from chance* the parent of many other useful arts! In thit 
manner, he not only accomplished the drainage of this field which 
soon rendered it completely sound, but likewise all the other wet 
ground on his farm. 

* The success of this experiment soon extended Mr. Elkington'* 
feme, in the kno^v]ledge of draining, from one part of the country to 
another ; and after having drained seirersd farms in his neighbourhood 
with equal success* he at last came to be terj generally employed* 
has been since, and is now,- in various parts of^ the kingdom, which 
shaU be more pastieularlyvtaken notice of in tlie sequeL It is, in- 
deed, now impossible for him to execute half the employment he has 
in hand, or to accept the numerous o£Eers that are every day made to 
him- From his long practice and experience, he is now so success- 
ful in tlic .works which he undertake, and also in judging of the 
intemal strata of the earth and nature. of springs, that he can, vntk 
remarkable precision^ judge where to find water, and where to traCc 
the tourse of springs that xnal^c no appearance on the surface of the 


(tolihd. 'tht ridei (m Whfeh he factd, with regard to theee discoJ^ 
^rtxiH, i*rill be ifterWdtrds e^tplaincd k treating or the nature of wet 
(roQtixl caused by springs. 

' La^y» Within these kw years past^ since his practice has been 
io tHdely ettended, and so generally si^ccessful, he has drained in 
taHous parts of England, particularly in the midland counties, many 
thottsanl acttfs of land, which, from being originally of little or no 
t^lut*, is now as productive as any in the kingdom, capable of producing 
<he ttojBt valuable kinds of grain, or of feeding the best and healthiest 
Species of stock. 

* Sortie have erroneously entertained an idea that Mr. Elkington's 
aole skill Kes in applying the auger for the taping of springs^ without 
attadnng any merit to his me^od of conducting the drains. The 
accident circumstance above stated gave him the nrst notion of using, 
an auger, and directed his attention to the practice of draining, in 
the course of which he hafi made various useful discoveries, which are 
herein afterwards more fully explained. It will be sufficient here to 
remark, that draining, according to his principles, depends upoa 
three points : — T^, Upon finding out the main springy or cause of the 
mischief, without which nothing effectual can be done. 2^, XJpoa 
taking the level of that spring, and ascertaining /// subterraneous bear^ 
tMgSf a meagre never practised by any till Mr. Elkington discoveVed 
the advantage to be derived from it ; for, if the drain is cut a yard 
beyond the tine of the springs you can never reach the water that issues 
from it, and, by ascertaining that line by means of levelling, you caa 
cat off the spring effectually, and consequently drain the land in the 
cheapest and most eligible manner. The manner in which this ift 
dene wfll be afterwards described. And, ^diyt'&y making lise of the 
auger to reach or tap the spring, when the depth ai the drain is not 
iiiwiu lit lor that purpose. 

* In regard to the use of the auger, though there is every reasoiK 
to believe Mr. Elkingtoa was led to employ that instrument from the 
accidental circumstance stated above, and did not derive it fronr any 
Other channel ; yet there is no doubt that others have hit upon the 
4ame idea, without being indebted for it to him. It is said, that itk 
attempting to discover mines by means of an auger, springs have 
been tapped, and the adjacent wet ground thereby drain^, either by 
letting the water down, or giving it vent to the surface. The auger 
hat abo been made use of in bringing water into wells, by boring ia 
the bottom of them, to save the expence of digging,, especially ia 
Italy, where k is probable that the practice is very ancient. But» 
that It has been used In draining land before Mr* EUfngtan made that e&i* 
^9vervt no one has .ventured to assert. 

< in Dr« Nugent's Travds throujjh Cermany, printed anno 176S 
(6f wluch an extract will be found in chapter v.), there is an account 
ot a inqin of draining land# on principles in some respects of a simi- 
m nature, not iirdeea by the use of the auger, but by making pits. 
Aadt IP a pvbBciitioQ by Dr. Janoies Anderson, entitled *< Essays on 
A(piculture aod llaral AfFairs," printed anno I775» after dcwribiag 

tliMkU •f toppiQ|; the Poctor had adopted, by sinking small pits, 
I iiiM^ ** i bate 9hm imagined that tAc expence of digging these 
"^ ' ' if t pita 

%f% Johnstone on Elkington'/ ')Mode of JDraining Lfl'nd^ 

pits might be saved, by bpring. a hole-through tbi&.solidhstratum ^ 
clay, with a wimble' made on purpose 5 but as 1 have neYcr'expcr^ 
enced this, I cannot say whether it would answer the desired end es^ 
actly." - • ' .^ 

« Mr. Elkingfon, however, made use of the auger prior to the daU 
of these pubKcatfons, or to any hint he could possibly derive from 
any publication in the English language, though it is probable that^ 
in so far as regarded tapping of springs for welU^ the use of the augec 
was well known in some parts of Italy. Buffbn' states, *^ That, UL 
the city of Modena, and four milts found*, whatever part is dug, 
when we reach the depth of sisty-thrce feetr and bore five feet deeper 
with an auger, the water springs out with such force,, that the well 
is filled* in a very short space oT time. This water flows continually, 
and neither diminishes nor increases By the rain or drought.** Men- 
tioning the different strata ^hat are met with to thi& depth, he adds^ 
•* These successive beds of fenny or marshy earth and chalk, are al- 
ways found in the same order wherever we dig ; and very often the 
auger meets with large trunks of trees, which it bores through, but 
which give great trouble to the workmen ; bones, poals, flint, and 
pieces of iron, are also found. Ramazzini^ who relates these fact8» 
4cc.'' Bufon's Nat. Hist.' 

This new priiw:rple of draining, by tapping springs, or by 
perforating with^an auger through a retentive into an absorb* 
cnt or porous stratum, being ascertained, its application iii 
theory is obvious : but it will require some judgment to direct 
its pifacticc. Mr. Johnstone represents Mr. Elkington, to 
whom Parliament has awarded 1000 /.^ as having been pecu* 
liarly fortunate^ not only in the original. discovery, but in the 
various and extensive use which he has made of it. This work 
j% an- exhibition of his system drawn out into actual practice | 
aiid there arc many to whom it will be very acceptable. The 
letter- press, assisted by the plates, will explain the dralning- 
process requisite for wet soils of every description and in every 
situation : but, without the plates, the detail would not always 
be very' intelligible. We shall not, therefore, notice the vari- 
ous insunces in which Mr. Elkington*s principle has been ap- 
plied with effect, but content ourselves with an extract ex- 
planatory of the principle itself. 

< Wetness fn land proceeds from two causes, as different in them^ 
selves as the effects 'w^hich they produce. 

* It proceeds either from rajn water stagnant on the surface, or 
from the- water of sprnigs fssiung over, or confined. under it. Oo 
-clay soils, that have no natural descent, wetness is commonly pi*o- 
diiced by the first of these causes ; but, m a variety of bituatignfi, it 
may proceed from the latter.— f—^ But, 

* The principles^ of Mr. Elkington's art are so. dosely connecteS 
with the nature of springs, that, without a knowledge of these, and 
the causes producing them, it is impossible yo praciiBc it with eithej- 


Johnstone on ElkingtonV Mode of Draining Land. 173 

'Str^CRs Sr advantage-; Tor surface draining^ where fhc -wetness pjio- 
iCccd^'from eubja cent water, 'is.onhr alleviating the effect, in place of 
, removing the cause. It will therefore be necessary, in thcjfr// place> 
•o far to ascertain the nature of springs, and their connection with 
the formation of bogs, as to enable the practical drainer more easily 
to comprehend the theoretical part of Mr. Elkington's system. 

* From its general external appearance, and by the perforations 
that have been made in it by quarries, wells, and other subterraneous 
J^ts, the earth is known to be composed of various strata, which^ 
being in their natufc af opposite consistence, arc distinguished by 
the namesof ^orwiy and tjnpervfous* Those strata, which, from their 
more dpcn composition, are porous, and capable &£ receiving the rain 
watet that falls on them, include fock, gravel, sand; and such marles 
as are of an absorbent qujJity. Clay, and a certain kind of gravel 
having a proportion of clay in its composition, which, by binding and 
cementing the small stones together, renders it .equally close and te- 
nacious as clay itself ; with such rock as is of a close and compact 
nature, without any fissures in it;, are the principal sti-ata that most 
resist the reception of water, and ^hat.are capable of retaining k on 
their surface till exhaled by the sub^ or carried off by suitajlile drains, 
and are termed impervious. * 

* Springs therefore originate from rain water falling upon stich 
porous and absorbent surfaces, and subsiding downwards through 
such, till, in its passage, it meets a body of clay or -other impene* 
trable substance, which obstructs <ts farther descent, and here, form-^ 
ing a reservoir or -considerable collection of wafter, it is forced either 
:to filtrate along such body, or rise to some part of the surfacwj 
where it 00/ es out in all those different appearances that are so fre- 
quently met with. This is evident from the immediate disappearance 
of the rain water, as it falls, on some parts of the ground, while it 
remains stagnant on others, till carried off by ev^oration ; &nd hosA 
the strength of springs being greater in wet than in dry sea'soM« 
Hence, after incessant rains, they are observed to break out in higher 
situations, and, as the weather beconaes drier^ give over running .out» 

' unless at their lowest outlets. Tbe strength orsprings also, or quan- 
tity of water which they issue, depends chiefly on the extent of high 
ground that receives and retains the rain, forming large reservoirs, 
which affords them a more regular supply. Thus bog-springs, or 
those that rise in valleys and low situations, are much stronger, and 
iiave a more regular discharge, than those which ^reak out on higher 
ground, or on the side^ of hills. 

* f Independent of these causes, tl^ere are oertatnly great sprin^B 
/contained in the bowels of «the eajith ; otherwise, how could ithe 
jn^ny rivers that inten^ot it Ji)e supplied with such vast quantities of 
water as they discharge, the rams falling on its surface, or the dew* 
Jthat descend, not being adequate for that purpose ? But^ as this may 
be considered among those arcana of nature which have not yet been 
sufficiently explored, "and lying at too great a dcpt^li to affect tlie sur- 
."face, it comes not within the limits of the present inquiry. 
' * With the nature and causea of springs, that of bogs is intimately 
connected; for, whexe springs breaking out in the matiuer ahbve de- 
', * iN 3 • scribed, 

114 Johnstone $n ^Vtlngitr^t M0i§ ^ t^rtdmng I^ani* 

scribed, run over a flat surface of clay, an^ eannot g%t off witli ml» 
ficif nt rapidjty, or are, npt confined to a ^arroiv ckannel ; the sup^<« 
abundance or water must cause the dissolution of all the ^oaraf 
vegetables it produces^ /whicby together with part of the natural soil 
Itself, is formed into^ peat earthy- every year increasing in 4epth.l 
and the extent of such bog or morass is according to the qu^tjty H 
watery and to that of the flat ground on which it is fonhed. The 
great object of Mr. Elkington's system is, that of diajmng such bogtt 
by cutting off entirely the source of the springs or subterraneous wa^ 
ter that cause the wetness, either by ilowmg over the surface, or by 
Its being long confined under it. If the spn'ngs have a natural out- 
let, the object of the drain is, to lower and enlarge it, which, by 
. giving the water a more free and easy channel, will sooner discharge 
9nd draw it off, or will reduce it to a level so far below the surface* 
9a to prevent its overflowing it. 

* Where the springs have no apparei^t outlet, but are either con«» 
fined so far below the surface, as to injure it by constant moisturCi or 
by oozing out fmperceptibly through any small pores of the upper 
eoil ; the object of the drain is, to give a proper vent to that vtratert 
^nd to extract more quickly and more effectually what has before been 
pent up in the bosom of the soil. The object of the auger, which in 
many instances is the time qua nm of the business, is simply to reach 
er M the spring, and to give vent tp the water thus pent up» when 
the aepth of the drain does not reach it, where the level of the out- 
let will hot admit its being cut to that depth, and where the ex* 
pence of cutting sp deep would be very great, and the execution of 
it very difficult. 

* As the whol^ depends upon the situation of the ground to be 
dnuned, and* the nature and inclination of the 6trata of \^hich the 
adjacent country is composed ; as much knowledge as po&sible must 
be obtained of these before the proper course of a drain ^n be asccr* 
taiaed, or any specific rules given lor its directioa or exeeution^' 

• By Mr. Johnstone's account, Mr. Elkingtcm does not merely 
content himself with discharging water from soils in vi'hich it is 
injurious, but endeavours to convert what has hitherto operated 
as an evil into 9 real good, by making it serve the purposes of 
irrigation, of supplying ponda, or rcservoirSj, or^ouses^ oy fof 
turning mills. 

A d^^crfption is given, with pUtes, of the level, augers, an4 
Other instruments, employed in Mr. £.'9 mode of draining | 
by which mai^y large tracts of wet and boggy land in the kiBg* 
dom have been effect\}:illy laid dry and brought under tillage | 
as js evident from subjoined egttrsicta taken from the Agricul- 
tural Reports* 

This useful work is enriched by its Appendix, containing, in 
19 sections, many hints, remarks, rules, and directions, rela* 
live to the practice of hollow graining $ which will be of great 
V$e to the young lan4-surveyor, or to the gentlemaii who 
^l%h^% to superinlcnd Im gwn imprpvcQ^ts. 

( tis ) 

AfiT. IX. Dialogues of Lvclan^ from the Greek. Vols. IV. andV.* 
8vo. 109. Boarids. Longman. 1798. * 

A FTER a long interval, Mr. Carr bag |produced the remaining 

i *^^ Yolumes of his traxlslatiott of this lirdf and eccentric^ but 

too licentious writer. He has judiciously omitted many parts 

which merit the latter epithet, and ha$ confined hit labourt 

to those passages which exhibit the fine sense of the satirist, 

I without his follies and his ribaldry.»-Perhaps the learned 

i reader may in some instances charge Mr, Carr with too great 

familiarity of diction, and with taking undue liberties in his 

attempts to imitate rather than to translate the original with ^ 

^delity ; yet we think that he may plead, in his dmace, the 

acknowleged rules of liberal interpretation, in regard to an 

author whose graces are sonietimes beyond the reach of art. 

I Although Lucian is frequently sarcastic and ludicrous, and 

approaches too often to the character of a buffoon, yet bir 

, works furnish many instances of dignified satire, philosophical 

acuteness, and a noble spirit of moral disquisition. We think 

' that our readers will be pleased with the following quotation 

ifrom the life of Demonax (voL v.), in w^ich the character 0^ 
a true philosopher is drawn with that skill, accuracy, and 
gravity, which would confer honour on the disciples vi the 

* * • Demonax was a Cypnan by birth, of a family for from being 

obscure ; being distinguished by ab.undant possessions, as well as 
I consequence in the state. Superior to such considerations, and as- 

I piring to all that was great and good, he applied hi^nself to the study 

I of philosophy, not from any recommendtation of Agathobolus, or 

. his predecessor Defhetrius, or Epictetus, though very well acouainted 

I with all the three, as he was with Timocrates, the wise and eloquent 

\ . Heraclian ; it was not, I say, owing to any o^her philosopher, that 

' he became one ; but from the native impulse of his own mind, which 

from his early youth had directed him to the most honourable pur- 
I suits, looking down, as from an eminence, on the follies of mankind, 

I and devoting his life to liberty and truth. Sober and irreproachable 

in his manners, he set before those who saw him and hear^ him an 
\ example to be followed by all. Not that he came, as the proverb 

! expresses it, with feet unwashed ; for there was hardly a poet, Vho^se 

verses he could not repeat. He had practised the art of speaking, 
and had studied the distinguishing tenets of the several philosophical 
sects, not merely to touch them,, as the saying is, with the tip iof 
his finger, but that he might perfectly understand them, f His lx)dy, 
at the same time, had not been neglected^ but trained by exereffe, 
and inured to labour. The point with him was, never to be beholden . 
to any one : which when he became sensible was not In his power to 

* See Reviews of the former,. in volsrXlii^.UL and^Uxvi. 

N4 ' .attaiDi 

jiytf Carr*/ TranstaiioH ofj^udan^ Vols. W. and V. 

attaint he quitted life of his own accord, leaving all the great mtn 
of Greece a great deaj to talk about. 

« It was not that he had cut his philosophical coat from any par* 
ticokr cloth; for it was a composition of shreds and patches, 
•picked up here an^ there *^, and Mbody knew which piece he hkcci 
• best. lElowcvcr, it was observed, that he seemed p:iost at home 
;with Soprates, following, at the same time, the Philosopher f of 
^^inope in his habit and simplicity. of life, yet without rcstrictinff 
himself to a mean diet for the purpose of being stared at. He ar- 
,fected not singularity in his appearance or manners, eating, drinking, 
and conversing, in public and private, just like other people, without 
'pride or ostentation. His conversation was the graceful Attic, pure , 
and unmixed with Socratie irony. No one thought meanly of it, 
nor did any one ever leave him as dreading the severity of his censure, 
His companions were {^eased and improved, went away better, men, 
with better hopes of an hereafter. He was not afidi^rted to the 
lioise of contention, nor put himself out of humour, because he saw 
;the necessity of reproof; he could forgive the offender, and yet be 
severe on the offence ; well knowing, that a wi^e physician never 
thinks gf curing the disease by railing at the patient. ' To err, he 
said, was l^uman ; godlike, to reclaim. Pursuing this course pf life, 
and in want of nothing for himself, he was always ready to supply 
the wants of others ; whom he never failed to admonish, \4'henever 
he saw them exulting in prosperity, how frail and transitory it was. 
Such as complained of poverty, exile, old age, or ill health, were 
sure to be rebuked with a smile, for not considering how v^ry soqn 
their sufferings would have an end, when both good and evil wpuld 
be lost in oblivion, and they all would find a lasting deUverance. If 
brothers were at variance, it was his business to make them friends ; 
^f husbands ^nd wives disagreed, he was the mediator % between 
' them ;. and there have been instances, in turbulent times, when a ' 
jseasonable speech, in his pleasant way, has subdued the spirit of party, 
brought over sedition to the service of the state, and made even 
taxes popular : such was our philosopher, mild, smiling, unassuming.' 

Tljc notes at ^hc bottom of thp pagc5 arc chiefly composed 
. of allusions to modern facts or customs ; and though they carry 
with tiiem no- marks of extraordinary erudition or .sagacity, 
they may afford assistance to the English reader, by enabling 
him to relish the text. — Mr. Carr takes no notice of Dr. Frank- 
lyn's more classical translation of this authqr, though it wa^ 
subsequent Xo his first publication of the three vqIs. 

This fifth vol. completes Mr. Carr's design. A\ the end of 
it, he informs us that, 

<' As a preface to this last volume, \ had set about preparing a 
dissertation on the works of my author. I had found in my drawer 

.1 " •' ' ■ ■■ ■■ ; r ' — -^ 

* ♦ A cunous receipt to make a new sect.' 

♦ f I^iogencs.' 

» ^ A service of danger.' 

* ' abun#e 

McCartney'/ Tramiaiion of Cicero A O^ciif. 177 

a tendle of Remarks ready made ; and it could not be a painful task, 
when there was little more left to be ,done, than to collect the ^cat. 
tered opinions of the learned, which, with the unlearned^ liiight hare 
passed for my own. Nevertheless, after s.ome sober reflections on the 
use and abuse of wit, I have changed piy mind ; and give up Luclaiij 
With all his faults, to judges duly commissioned, 

<* ■ who read each work of wit 
With th.e same spirit that its author writ," 
only begging them not to forgjct,. that he lived and wrote many ages 
ago ; that his ^education was none of the best j that chastity of style 
and manners did not then universally prevaij, as in the«e nappy times ; 
and that, though he t:ould run away from his' apprenticeship, hu 
Dialogues could hardlv escape "some small tincture of those ^ in hit 
uncle's shop. Just as the conversation of Lord Bolingbrokc, after 
all his greatness, and with all his elegance, might still be traced to 
I the inns of court : 

I < Quo semel est imbuU recens, servabit odoresa 

f Testa diu* ^ 

. * Monsieur Balzac, who deserved so well of the first person sta- 

I gular, when he spoke of himself and his letters, used to take off his 

I beaver ; but a Translator, the pinth part of an auth«r, when he i» 

!. contented with bis proportionate share of vanity, and in possession of 
a hat, will be more chary of it. I pull off mine, this cojd day, 
not to myself, but my S.eader, with whom I wish to exchange for- 
giveness, apd p^rt in pface^ while he looks so pleased to see the end 
pf the book.* 
y * Jan.2g, 1798. J.C 

None of Mr. Cart's readers, probably, will refuse to return 
! this courteous salute, nor fail to accompany it with thanks for 

i the entertainment with which he has supplied them. 

jArt. X. *r/je Treatise of Cicero y de OfficHs ; or, hi^ Essay on Mq- 
ral Duty. Ti-anslated» and accompanied with Notes and Observa- 
tions, by William M'Cartncy, Minister of Old Kilpatrick. 8vo. 
pp. 365. 5s. Boards. Printed at Edinburgh ; Robinsons, Lbn- 
don. 1798. 

THE writings pf Hume, A (Jam Smith, and Paley^ have dis- 
covered such comprehension and accuracy on the nature 
ahd extent of the Moral Duties, that to an English reader this 
treatise of the great Roman orator wiH appear comparatively 
dry and uninstructive. The subject, ipdeed, through the 
three divisions adopted by the author, is too often violated (If 
we may so express it) by frivolous questions, fabulous iHus- 
trations, and a too frequent neglect of lun^inous arrangement. 
With these disadvantages the translator of the three books De 
OfficHs had to contend; besides the difficulty of rendering 
^ith ^as^ the ^^ ^qi4abiU &,compositum genus oraiionis** of the 

S " original 

17? McCartney V Translation of Ciccro de Offictiu 

orif^inal. The learned reac^cr will grant him indulgence^ should 
he scmetimes appear difiiise and at other times abrupt ; as Ci- 
cero in this essay frequently uses the petulant mode of dialect - 
tics which distinguished the school of Socrates, and sometimes 
the declamatory style of reasoning which marked the writings 
of his disciple i?lato. The notes annexed to the volume are 
well suited to persons who are unacquainted with the nature 
of classical writings, as they are occasionally illustrative of 
the persons ^nd historical events to which the text alludes ; 
and sometimes contain observations on the text itself, where 
a doubtful, vague, or improper sentiment is delivered. The 
original work was written by Cicero to his son, then a student 
at Athens ; and this circumstance may account for the style 
being nearer allied to the epistolary than to the argumentative 
form ol: writing. 

That our readers may judge of the manner in which this 
work is rendered into English, we transcribe the following pas- 
sage from the Third Book. 

* Let us pass over fabulous and foreign details, atid come to the 
authentic history of our own count r}'. M. Atillius Jlegulus, during 
hi» second consulship, was surprised, and taken prisoner, by Xan- 
thippus, the Lacedemonian general in Africa, when Hamilcar, the 
father of Hannibal, 'was commander in chief. He was sctit to Rome 
to the senate, after having taken an oath, that, unless certain noble 
captives were restored to the Carthaginians, he should bimself return 
to Carthage When he came to Rome, he observed the appearance 
•of utility in his mission ; but, as the event declares^ he conceived it 
no more than an appearance. Such was his situation ; and who 
would deny that it was profitable to remain in his native country ; to 
beat home with his wife and children ; and, judging the calamity he 
hfid sustained the common fate of war, to retain the rank of consular 
dignity ? What is your opinion ?— Greatness of mind and fortitude 
deny that it was profitable. 

* Could you "ask more ample authorities than these ? — It is the 
property of such virtues, to fear nothing; to despise all human 
things ; to think nolhinff intolerable that cap happen to man. What 
then did Rcgulus do ? He came into the senate, and laid before 
them his commission : he refused to give his opinion ; for he was 
pot a senator as long as he was bound by an oath to an enemy. And 
in that celebrated speech, which some will declare foolish, and repug- 
rant to his own interest, he denied that it would be an advantage to 
restore the captives ; for they were youtig men and able generals, but 
he was uqw wasted with age. When his influence prevailed, the 
captives were retained, and he returned to Cartlwgc ; and neither 
the love of his countiy, nor affection for his family and friends, de- 
tained him. xNor was he then ignorant that he was returning to a 
most cruel enemy, and to exquisite punishment : but he thought his 
oath was to be kept. His condition, therefore, was better, even 
when put to death by watching, than if he had remained at home an 

9 old 

Barry V Letter to the Dilettanti Smety. x 7^ 

«|d captive and a ferjarcd nobleman. ^ But it was folly, it may be 
laidt not only 'to give his opinion against Kstoring the captives, bnt 
even to dissuade the measure. How, fbUy ? Was it folly, if the 
advice was gonducive to the pubKc welfare ? Can that be profitable 
tor Mnj citizen, which is detrimental to the state P 

Wc have seen two or three former translations of Cicero JSr 
Cfficiis Into English \ one by Cockman, another by Guthrict 
and (we think) a thijrd ; but we do not recollect the name of 
the translator. 

Aar. ^I. A Letter to the Dilettanti Society^ respecting the Obten-i 
tion of certain Matters essentially, necessary for the Improvement 
of Public Taste, and for accomplishing the original Views of the 
Royal Academy of Great Britam. By James Barry, Esq. R. A* 
Professor of Painting to the Royal Academy. 410. pp. 76* 
y. 6d Walker. 1798. 

1i>ff R. Barry stands very high in the scale of European art. 
•^ * Wc recollect few pictures of any living painter equal to 
!us Olympic Triumph, in the Adelphi Buildings \ and scarcely 
SAy single figure so divinely yet harrowingly expressive, as the 
Angel of Retribution in his Elysium. His Groupes have in- 
deed been reproached with flatness of colouring, and a too 
anxious and habitual imitation of classical prototypes : but by 
beauties how great ! are these alleged blemishes counter- 
balanced ! — From such an artist, every word concerning his 
art ought to be received with great impression. Yet his 
Inquiry into the real and imaginary Obstructions to the Acqui- 
sition of the Arts in England, published so long ago as 17759 
has caused no reformations (see especially c. xi.) -, and his 
Letter addressed in 1793 to the Society of Arts, (an account 
of which occurs in our 12th vol. N. S. p. 23.) though better 
known, ha$ produced as little eiFect. 

Tbe letter now before us begins, as we observed when wc 
Ibrmcrly noticed a part of it, annexed to the last edition of PiU 
kington'$ Dictionary, (see M. Rev. N.S. vol. xxv. p. 43S') 
with ridiculing a costly subscription formed by some indivi- 
duaU, to learn the Venetian colouring ; as if it consisted 
merely in some mechanical secret ; in covering the canvass first 
with body-colour ; in the proportion of ceruse or vermilion to 
be mingled with linseed oil or soap of waic j or in the che-^ 
mical purity of the muriate of lead employed to give the bulF 
hue to the flesh. The peculiarity of Titian's colouring con* 
data in his usually imitating nature when irradiated on all sides, 
or objects fully illuminated. Consequently, his boldest relief is 
always produced v^itb the amaU^st po^ible discrepancy of tint. 


iSo BarryV Letter to the Dilettanti Society. 

No doubt^ he usually exposed his models in broad and c^ets 
daylight. All the colouring of the Chinese is executed on this 
principle. When they first saw tHe portrait of oiir King^ they . 
mistook the dark shade intended to give relief to the nose, for 
some injury which the picture had sustained during the voyage, 
and were preparing to efface it. Their painters not being ia 
the habit of imitating objects partially illuminated, which the 
ligbt reaches from one point only, had no conception that 
such contrasts of colour were ever to be found in nature. Some 
painters of the first rank affect catching lights : Gucrcino, if 
wc rightly recollect, and Opie, are of the number. They 
purposely introduce their Iighx through a single orifice, and 
from abovc> Idungeon-paititersy the Italiai>s call ^uch,) and thus 
imitate a partially illuminated scene of nature. They conse- 
quently employ the greatest possible intervals of hue which 
nature can exhibit in the same figure. This mode of colour- 
ing • is precisely the reverse of that of Titian, but in its way 
is equaljy meritorious, and can be accomplished with the same 
pallet ^nd canvass ; it^eem^ to result from a habit of practis*> 
ing in a room with a single sky-light. Indeed, the method of 
study p^irsued by the great artists will account for nearly all 
their peculiarities. Rubens, at one period, had probably crim- 
son hangings to his painting- room ; for at one time he con- 
stantly gave a redness to the dark shades of his flesh, which 
has all the appearance of reflected light.-— Many English artists 
inhabit rooms with windows to the north. What is. the con- 
sequence ? They see all their models illuminated with z bluer 
light than that of day; and, if they faithfully imitajte the na- 
ture before them, they steep their objects in a le.adyn twilight^ 
and acquire that clay-cold colouring which is opposed ^P the 

Mr. Barry next proceeds to enforce the importance of a pub- 
lic collection of antient art. In all lines of pursuit, it is so 
obviously necessary to consult the master- pieces of our prede- 
cessors, in order to attain excellence, that it seeqis strange to 
have instituted an Academy of Painting without first providing" 
such a collection. His proposal was made to the Academicians 
in these terms : 

** I also move, that some part of our property be laid .out in the 
purchase of some one or more exemplars of ajicient art* and a rogm or 
rooitip to put them in. This beginning (which would come so grace- 
I'lilly and with such peculiar propriety from the Academy) would, 

* Intensity of light and shade gives artificial prominence, and fs 
therefore fiivourablc to effect : but it can seldom be employed with 
probability^ and is scarcely compatible with keeping. 


^nfsJjettetfoibeBiUitaritiSocietf. i^i 

vitb.x generous pubUc that qnlytwants such an occasion of diitcttag.- 
its Qierj^y BOOH fructify and extend to a National Gallery *, which, 
whilst Mt w<^uld coropieat the views of the Academy with respect ta 
tbe«4ocatk)n of its pupils^ would aho no leas beneficially extend to 
the impTovement and entertainment of the nation at large. There 
arc many old famous pictures in this kingdom : whether any of these 
should, be bestowed on this public gallery^ or only len^ to it for any 
given number of years, to be replaced by others, the end would be 
equally ans>)«reTed ; and, by proper inscriptions on the frames^ the 
{Public would'know hs? bcnefectors, who would be paid in a glorioaa 
cclebrky> proportioned to the utility and satie&ction they difrased» 

** A proper attention to the obtaining these desiderata, would not 
only appear more becoming the reputation of the age and nation^ and 
more consistent with the nobk disinterested conduct hitherto adopted 
by the Academy, but would eventually and finally be more profitable* 
and advantageous to the interests of superior artists, and the widows 
and relatives they may happen to leave beliind them, than what has 
be^D proposed by dissipating this property of the Academy, in pien* 
sions annexed to the mere frequency of exhibition,- without any r^rard* 
to the degree of importance or contemptibility of the matter cxhis 
bited. Such a procedure would inevitably reverse all right, and pto« 
duce mischief and dishonour instead of benefit. The nobler occaiiont- 
of exertion do not so freouently occur as those that are paltry ^d 
worthless, not to say mischievous) and the answer of ^sop's Lioness 
in the fable, would admirably apply in this case. ** Tdu produce a. 
mat many at a litter ^ and often ; but what are they ? Foxes* , I indeed 
Dave hut one at a time, hut you should rememSer this one it a Lion J* It is 
full time. Gentlemen, that we should recollect, in this Academy, that 
owr art has the glory of being a moral arty with extensive means, pc^- 
cttliarly universal, and applicable to all ages and natfions, to the im- 
proteExent and deepest interests of soeiety ; and although, from Ac 
unfortunate combinations that sometimes occur, we have had more, 
frequent occasion to decorate the exhibition walls with pictures of, 
live or dead partridges, mackerel on deal boards, or such like hmnaa^ 
or other trifling matters, every whit as unmeaning and inapplicatJe 
to aj^y great or ethical purpose, yet surely, surely, if the Academy 
cannot every year gratify the public with a Gymnatium at Athens, or 
the Stadium at Olympia, it will ill become them to encourage, by their' 
countenance and their pensions, so horrid and scandalous a reverse 
and degradation. These opinions, which I hope will meet the wishes 
of a majority of the Academicians, I am hapi^y to deliver on such an 
occasion as the present, where they are so fairly, so necessarily called 
ibr ! and that, whatever deternunation the Academy may choose to 

* * The famous Cartoons of Rafaellc, which were^ purchased with 
thcpublic money, might stand eloriously at the head ot such an acade** 
mical or nation ad gallerv ; or if they should be thought to occupy tp# 
flEmch space, and that finely coloured oil pictures would be more im* 
mediately useful,— -some of the Royal Palaces abound with works of 
Vandyck, of that description, which mifht be Well spared. With 
aucb a »ett-<2g, and spa«ej the /est wo^Jd |»qo& follow.^ 


r8i Barry^ Lattr to ihi DilettMU ^etf. 

suk^ iti this busm«f«6y these Mfttimenti, dther In the tvaf of adrioe 
or protest, must now, in the order of things, remain upon their booki^ 
for the inspection of those who may come aifter us, and who, it is t* 
be hoped, will have other and higher vie\(^ of the concerns of art, than 
those arising from the undue, political artifices of €omkmailm aaA 

. Many particulars relative to the fate of this motion^ to tKe 
election of new associates, to the selection of artists for executing 
the Statues of Johnson, Howard^ and Jones, and to otbec acaidc<» 
mic transactions^ are given ; wluch seem to indicate that the in*- 
rtfoai state of ihe Academy would admit of some improve- 

Occasionally, our author pays high compliments to David, i^ 
leading artist among the French. This is liberal, but is it alsa 
just? Have not the figures of David mostly that affected theatric 
grace, or turn, which is wholly occupied with the effect of its 
cotptession on the spectator, rather than with the passion ex«> 
pl0s%e4 ? His Horatii seem |)ractised to swear. In grace, 
eacvgy^ and expression, do not his figures bear that relation to 
natiitv which a select actor does to an agent : as if the artist 
ImhI studied the picturesque at the opera, and not in life? 

• Mf. Biirrv's general tinge of opinion well deserves to become 
an object of meditation. He considers Atheism as a destroy- 
ilig angel, let loose for a time only by the order of Providence^ 
in moments of political corruption and convukion, while crinui 
an n$€€Siary to effect the overthrow of mischievous institutions. 
H« veCoaxuends the preservation of the Papal government, as 
a pcvcnnial fountain of the arts which humanize society, and 
of the religion which must again be invoked to heal the moral 
disorders of a revolutionary period. The speculation is worthy 
df Mr. Burke for the reverential piety which it displays,, and for 
the luminous trains of idea which kindle and phosphoresce 
along its track. We cannot resist the pleasure of pre8entin|^ 
our readers with a considerable extract. 

f ^ Would to Heaven that some gteat and good man, possessed of 
liic eloquence of a Burke, a Rousseau, a Bossuet, of a FeneloUf 
should in this momentous crisis of Revolutions (wktia th^ happiness 
or misery of ages is pending upon the issue), come nobly forward, at 
any risk, as the blessed advocate for that constitutiofi of things whicb 
is likely to be most productive of that l iappine ss which results from in- 
leUettual, virtuous culture, and from thote ingenious arts tchich con- 
stitute the very pabulum and nutriment of this vinite aAd 6ukui« of 
Ibe kitellect ! The vindictive, tempestuous passions of our nature wffl 
be always sure to make ample provision for occasions of strife, fet 
isfllitaiy establishmeiits, and consequently for those modes of roveMU 
laent whicli are best adapted to such views : akhOu|^h fhis fsf pef- 
haps, inevitable Hx the tiiost part \ yet one might hope tho^ tPOoUl 


BarryV Letter to the Dilettanti Society. 183 

l< always found znagnanimity enough iohumaa natui^ to penMv 
as the Greeks had so glorioMsIy» and for such a long timet p^* 
mittedy a sacred territory apart governed by iu own pacific lawst 
which were respected by all contending parlies. There 19 nothii^ m 
all the Grecian story which can exhibit that very belHgercat people 
in a more graceful^ amiable^ and becoming point of view^ than their 
admirable, salutary, exemplary conduct in this particudar ; and yet* 
what could any man say of the sacred tcnitory of Elisi that might 
not be affirmed (with many additional argumeaits of inexpressible ad- 
vantage) of the Papal government at Rome? How easy would it 
be, wichout rashly destroying it, to weed out discreetly and prudently 
aoy of those defects and abuses which might attach from length <n 
tiine> and from the very excusable infirmity ever inseparable from 
human. nature in all conceivable situations and concerns I How eaay^ 
without loss of its dignity, to accommodate it to any existing circum- 
stance ! But there will be no need to wish for the eloquence of a 
great man, on an occasion so deeply interesting to humanity : the 
Freiach are a wise send a great people, who have been long distia- 
guishcd by their- predilection for chose arts which humanize, and are 
i|ot likely to forego any occasions of practising their usual magaaiMP ' 
mity. The Papal government cannot want persuasive advocilttt 
among a people so happily enlightened ; and as tor any republics thi| 
might grow up in Italy, they will be so well acquainted with the 
value of the Papal government, as to make every effort for preserving 
it in a flourishing stat& The infinite importanoc of such a goveni- 
meot as the Papal to the arts which humanize society, has been loag 
^ an object of my deepest meditation ; and I have before had occasion* 
y in my printed letter to the Society for the ^Encouragement of Arts* 
from thjT 7ith.tiM&e 3 2d page, to touch a little upon the great and 
I essential advantages derived to Europe from its connexion with the 
' Papal government ; and as it is impossible to reflect upon the growth 
\ and advancement of those arts which tend to meliorate and humanize 
society, without recurring to the same venerable source, I have, ie 
the introductory Lecture to my Course in the Academy, been als(» 
y led to take notice of a few particulars which, as they will come iii 
very well here, I shall transcribe, without caring much whether it be 
I digressing or iK>t. 

i ' It is curious to reflect, that the exertions of art seem to arise 

I karpi the disappointment of the human mind, sated, disgusted, and 
tired with the monotony of the real persons and things which thn 
world affords, so full of imperfection, and accomjpanied with so much 
misery, strife, and injustice. In proportion to the serenity and good- 
ness of the mind, it naturally turns away from such a state of tmngsy 
* in search of some other, more grateful and consoling ) and it has a 
natural horror of those atheistical cavils which would malignantly de« 
prive it of all other resource, by mercilessly chaining it down to the 
scene before it. Hence it arises that the minds of roeo, in all ages 
mad plaoes, where they were at leisure, and happily relieved from the 
oppressions of war, tyrannies, and all their horrid train of eonisequent 
flsxseries, have naturally Vlilated and found consolation in the objects 
•f rdigioBiK which they would anticipate and realize by their endea* 


ii4 '^rty^S Lttt& to the Dilettanti Society, 

^om^' ta cut or carve them in blocks of wood or stone, wh^ 
thef detached (rota thdr 'pkr^M. r0'eks>' aiad set up in high and hof 
»oured placed of frequent reSort, or^ as w^s probably the more an-i 
, eieat way, cut into a^d making part of immense excavations^ as 13- 
Scen in tfee motnitaifils of India. Whether the subject-matter of relf- 
j^ioii be well or ill reasoned upon in these detailed efforts ; whether 
H be taken from the variousf incarnations of the Indian Vistnou, front 
the more elegant ideas and f6rms of the Greek Mythology, or froov 
the more consoling, Just, a&d happily adapted matter resulting fromr 
tile more equitable rational hope's and foafrs rnculcscted by the Christian 
rtfa'gion ; yet the whole taken together forms an astonishing chain of 
tlie most indubitable prbof of the extreme thirst of the mind for a 
more satisfactory state of things, and of its natural recurrence to the* 
arts of design, as the first, the universal and most natural written 
language, which,^ in furnishing the means of expressing this universal 
testimony, affords « happy and the only opportmiity of tracing humaft 
dature through an immense tract of ages ; through I ndiay£gypt,Oreecey 
and Italy. And although whatever was not connected with the reHgion 
of those people, was not thought of as worthy the commefnorating, yet 
many other matters and usages are luckily preserved by their incidental 
eotmexion with this superior matter, which otherwise would now be vjlU 
terly lost to us; and, every thing fairly and fully considered, what should 
we have known of the aucieitt nations^ their arts and knowledge, were 
ll not for the stimulus which religion afforded to the human cxeitions^ 
What other motives ever did or could supply its place V — 
-. • Notwithstanding the inevitable jarring from the varieties of men's 
JispositionB, interests, and circumstances^ yet it is a well known and s 
true maxim, That in all Republics or constitutions of society, accord- 
'itig to whatever way the citizens are reared up, so they shall be found 
to be^-^But, without entenng upon abstract reasonings, on all the 
possible advantages that science and art might fairly derive from the 
doctrines of Christianity, from the suppression of barren selfishness, 
and fratenial equality, and the intellectual culture which, upon a just 
statement, will be found to form the tissue and the very essence of 
Christianity, we may even content ourselves with the mere' matter of 
feet, as exhibited in the Papal Government at Rome ; and there it 
lias been abundantly apparent, that the time, the attention, and tho 
wealth employed for the public in the culture « those arts and intellect 
tual accomplishments which elevate human nature to its real dignity^ 
above mere sensual and brutal existence, forms an a:ra in the history 
cf mankind, not less new than admirable and amiable, more especially 
if we compare this pacific scene of intellectual exertion with the hor- 
S|>t8 and carnage of precedintr military Governments of brutal force i* 
voder (he pompous titles of Roman Commonwealth or Roman Em^ 
.plre, which for so many ages had deluged or disgraced tlic world. 
The name of Civil Society was, is, and ever will be, ill bestowed 
upon such hordes and combinations of robbers or assassins. 

* Neither our time nor the subject we have in hand will allow us to 
go ^r in our remarks on this Pontifical Republic at Rome, this uni- 
versal treasury and theatre for the culture and support of the educa^' 
tk>ft of Europe } wh«re, throxving aside all pri^cgc,.rankj, and claima 
• ' *' of 

liTCtvfs LettefrtotheDiieitantiSocUiy. 185 

of ^^mHj and primogeuiturc, evjery' thing was devote4 to the 'general 
']pf\>motion of intellect. All its honours and rewards, its mitres, 
pufple hats, and tiara, accessible to all, to every condition, wh^c 
I sup^ior worth and ability could be found, diffused s^ch a spirit 

I throughout Europe, as was best calculated to wrestle with the brutal 

I ferocity of the dark Gothic ages, and, sooner or later, could not fail 

of being attended with the most extensive salutary effects. Their 
ascendancy and power derived from intellect: whatever could be 
gained in this way, was from the state of celibacy to which they had 
I reduced themselves, necessarily dispensed in the way best calculated 

' to furnish the means and increase to this ascendancy, and consequently 

i ID a manner most profitable to the world. It is to no purpose to 

' cavil at those tibuses which, from the frailty of man, will sometimes 

'accompany the uses of the best things. We all know that the worst 
coaceivable things are the abuses of the best ; and we may therefore 
£udy and justly give them full a-edit for the early nurture, cultiva- 
tiouf and, I had almost said, mature and vigorous perfection of 
whatever we have most reason to. value ourselves for, either as conw 
pared tp the animals beneath us, or to the rest of our own species^ 
scattered over the •ther parts of the globe. With respect to those 
arts which principally form the object of attention in this Academy, 
however pleasing it may be to reflect on the different monuments of 
their culture, in the churches and convents of the several countries of 
£un>pe ; yet it was at Rome where all this intellectual influence con- 
centrated; it was there that the mind was astonished, deUghted, 
and enabled to contemplate with rapture, the sublimities to which 
art had arrived : and it will not be from our purpose to close these 
observations with remarking, that, even in the hereditary aristocracy 
y at Venice, where the professions of arts and letters were foolishly con« 
Sidered as beneath the nobles, the commonalty intimidated at an awful 
j distance, and consequently destitute of the necessary ambition of ex/. 

I celling, and there being no third estate, its effects in the arts may be 

I - teen accordingly ; for whilst the human mind made the noblest ex- 
\ cursions in the Vatican and Capella Sistina, under the ^spices of the 

I Roman Pontiffs, the genius of the Venetians was cultivating the 

s mechanical 'branches of art^ the colouring and chiaro-scuro, which 
Giot^ione had imported from L, da Vinci, the Florentine.' . > 

Some interesting anecdotes occur (p. 389 &c.) concerning 
\ Mr. Burke, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mortimer, Hussey, and 
others. Good observations on patronage, also, are interwoven. 
Surely it is worth while to make some national provision for 
lh6 growth of art* I Surely it is well worthwhile to uphold 
and strengthen the fastnesses of religion, by the powerful and 
lasting aid of painting and of sculpture ! Surely our cathedrals 
might set the example of cherishing those labours of the 
Sirtist, which are employed to promulgate the praiseworthy ac« 
• tioQS of the truly venerable founders of Christianity ! 

. * Notwithstanding the pretended encouragement of the govern- 
incnt, and tjie trumpeted praises of philosophers, art i^perisning in 
JFrance for want of demand. * a 

Ret. Feb. 1799, O ^"' 

( r8t) ). 

Art. XI r. A Discourse on the SluJh tfthe Law of Mature tatili^A 
thns \ introductory to a Course or Lectures on tiiat Science* to bi 
commenced in Lincoln's Inn Hall, on Wednetdasfy Feb, 2O9 1799^ ill 

Pursuance of an Order of the Honourable Society of Ltucoln'fl 
an. By James Mackintosh, Esq. of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister at 
Law.' 8vo. pp.70. 2s. 6d. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1799. 

'Y^HB history of natutal jurisprudeiicc> of that great and coni^ 
^ prehensivc science which teacheg and ascertains the dulitt 
bf individuals and of states, though a truly nobte and import^ 
4tit subject, has never been considered in all its parts with th* 
J)irecision and attention which it deserveSk The late Doctor 
Smith, at the close of his Theory of Moral Sentiments, made a 
promise to the world oif dedicating his leisure and his talenca 
to this vast sind s|)l<ndid undertaking : but^ unhappily for man^ , 
kind^ he lived to complete only a part of his {(Ian \ and his 
£nquiry into thi Nature and Causes of the W^eahh ^ Natims ei* 
Itends albne to what concerns police, revenue, and arnis^ 

Ih a course of lectures now delivering in Lincoln's Inn HaH, 
the author of the pamphlet before us prbpos-e^-to disctfss thosift 
various subjects which constitute and are cOrfiprised in the laW 
of nature and nations ; and in the present discourse he sivtt 
an outline of the |)lan whicii he intends to pursue. A shorty 
bat a dear and masterly AcciMint of the pvegress aad |>res)enc 
KaHe of the seieiiice is given, a^d of thai sttCcdMiMi of kUc 
writers wiio ha^ graduatlf tirought it to it« preacnt high stats 
of edtivation. Prom this j)«t of the w«tk, "W^ oann«t deny 
ourselves the satisfaction of presentiivg to Our traders tJte 
finished portrait of Grotiusj— of Hrhom h may truly ht. 

<* «^/ ntdlumfere scriheniU gemtf 
Nm tetigit^-^ 
Nullum quod tetigitnonvrmvit!^ 

♦'The reduction of the law of nations to a system Wa* ft«.ci*vrf 
for Craf ttfs^ k was by the advice of Lord 8ao6n aind l^eiMStt IJhat 
iie undertook this arduous task. He prodnced a work whidh ^k tiO^ 
indeed justly deem ijnperfect, but which is perhafpe the Inost ookn* 
f>ldte that the World has yet owed, at so early a stage in the;pi«gre«i 
of any science, to the genius and learning o4 tfae man. So ^eat ia 
the uncertainty of posthumous reputation, and so liable is the fame 
even of the gteatest^en to be obscured by those new fashion^ of 
thinking and writmg which succeed each Other so vapidfyamong po*- 
h'shed nations, that Grotius, who filled to brge ti space m the t!ye of 
hi9 contemporaries, is now -perhaps known to some of -my veadeim 
oTily by name. Yet if fire fai>ly «8tii)iate bonk hk ^ndowsiCMs and 
his virtues, we Inay justly consider him as one of the most memc- 
rnble men who have done honour to modern times. He combined 
the dischai^c of the most importsuil duties of active Sind public Hf^ 

' vdxh. 

U^\iofU)Mi JXmStu oh thi Lmv afNaturi^ t^c. tPf 

iMk tht UtmnuyoLt of that eiact and Tarions learning whicH is g^nc* 
laUy the portion onlf of the reduse oitudent. He was distinguished 
MM an advocate «i|d a magutfate^ and he composed the most v^i^ahje 
woriu on the Inw of hid own country ; he was dmost equally cele* 
hrated as an histonan^ a sehdlar, a poet, and a diyfne : a disinterested 
statesman, a fdiilosopbicd lawyer, ;a patriot who united moderation 
vkh' firmness, aiul a theologian w^o was taught candour iy his Icarnr 
iBg. Uiiroerited exile did not damp his patriotism : the hKteniess of 
coatvo^«rsy did not tatinguish his chaHty. The sagacity of his tm« 
Hierout and Ikrce adversaries could not ^scoyer a blot on his charac- 
ter I and in the midst of all the hard trials and galling proyocations 
#f a twcbident poh'tical life, he ne^er once deserted his h-jends when 
they were unfortunate, nor tnsuk(!d his enemies when they were w^ak. 
In' times of the inost furious cIvH and religious factioft he preserved 
Us same «Bq>olted, aiMl he knew how to reconcile fidelity to his ow;i 
party, with moderation towards "his opponents. Such was the man 
vho 4va8 destined -to ^ive a hew form to the law of nations, or rather 
to create a ecioioe, ot which only rude sketches and indigested m^te* 
tlA$ mre scaHesed over the writings of those who had ?onl^ befo/e 
Uku By tracing tive kws of his comitry to tlieir principles, l\e was 
led to the ooolflnM^tiofi of the law of nature, which he justly cqn^ 
cideivd as <tlic parent df all municipal law ^.- Few yrorks werp more 
cdabratod than that of Ctotius w his own days* zfiA la the age 
whicii fiicceeded. It hats, however, been tlie fashion of ^e Uist him- 
century to depveciate 4ii^ work as a shapeless compilation, In which 
Mason lies bulled under a afta^s of authorities and quotatioiis^ This 
fashion ovigin^ted among -il^rench wits and declaimers, and it has hecj'y 
I t»ow 4iot for ^aft veason, adopted, though wieh far greatp* mo* 
^ati ^ n >aiid decency, {>y some respectable writers amon^ oui^vcp. 
A« to those ipho mt used this language, the most candid supposition 
4»«t we can make with respect to them is, that they .never read the * 
yerk ; ioTj Jf they had not been deterred from the peryssd qf it by 
auch a formidable display of Gredk characters, they n^u^t soon h^ve 
dvcoyercd that Grotius never quotes on any subject tjA he has fir^t 
amealed to come principles^ and cften, in iny humble pppgiKiOy 
i^qii^<iKyt always, to the -soundest and most rational principks. 

< £ttt«noth^sprt of- answer is due to some pfthosef who har^ crU 
ticiaed Grotivis, and that answer migiitbe giyenrip the words of Grp* 
fitts hknself ^. 1l$e rwasaot <^ such a stupid and servile cast pf mitid, 
M4o qude she opinions ksf poets pr prBtors,of histprigns andphiIoso« 
|lv^» as thoae. of judge«> fpom whose decision there vr?^ np appeal, 
nc quotes ^icrn, as he tells us hinuetf, as witnesses whose cons^pinpg 
tcaCiitioay, ^inigbrdly strengthened and cpnftrxped by tlieir /Hscprd^nce 
^n^ditioat -every other Subject, U a cootclusire ^mof of ilie unaniquty 
of^thc whole -human race on the great rules of duty and *t)ie fnoda^ 
ftMOlal "pnamples c^ monlls. . On such matters, poets aqd orators are 

* *i*rda^ juris dvais.«<-I>eTtir. ftflh ap PacPrpHg..} ^* "'" 
^t Dr, Piler, TdMiples of ftfewl^P^iPpUtlQal ,Ph*liqsp^hyy i^^* 
p.«xv. amdxvr , , ^. . 

'J: Gwt. Tuir. fid. <i Pac. Pf <Jleg. J 40/ 

On the 

5 W * MackintoshV Discourse on ih Law of Naitin'f bfc^ 

%)xc mofit UDCXGcptionable of all witnesses ; lor they addrte tJbenisdver 
to the prcncral.fcclingB of mankind > they are neither 
warped by^systctti, nor perverted by sophistry ; they can aKainr none: 
Q.f their objects; they can jneither please nor persuade if they dwell- 
on moral sentiments not in unison with those of their readers. No' 
system -of moral philosophy can^surely disregard the general feelings 
of human nature, and t)ve^accordingf judgment of all. ages and nations. 
But where are these feehngs and that judgment recorded aiid pre* 
served ? In those very writings wT|icU Grotius is gravely blamed for 
having quoted. The usages and ja\'!:s of nations^ the events of history*- 
^he opinions of philosophers, the sentiments of orators and poetSi a« 
■jvell, as the observation of .common life, are, in truth, the matenals* 
out of. which the. science -of morality is formed; and those wlia 
ieglcct fhc^n are }«stly chargi?able with a y^in. attempt to philosophize 
\vitl|QUt r.egard to fact andtexperience, the sole foundation of all true. 
phllosopl^y, ... 

,..y If this were n)erely an objection of t2^t«, I should be willing ta 
idlow tiliat Qrptius ha* indeed poured, forth his learning with a pro*- 
fusion that someti^ies rather cpcunpbeps than adorns. 'his work, and* 
lyhidi .is not always necessary, to the illusjtrsttion of his subject. Yet/ 
gveu in. making thalconc^^ssion,, I should rather yield to the taste of 
otjier^ than ^peak fr6m my own feelings.- I own that such rijchness: 
and splendpi^r of i;terat\ire have .a powerful charm for me. They. 
Jul my mind with 7 an endless, variety of. .delightfeil recollections and 
assoqi.itions. ^ They relieve the understanding in- it9progreSiStbroi%glb 
a vast science, by calling up the jnemory of great men and.of interestr 
lug events. By this noeans we see the truths of .morality clothed with 
ilLtlie eloquence, (not that coi^ld be produced by the powers of Qixt. 
many, but); that could be bestowed on>tb^m by the collective geniyi^ 
9? the w<)rl<i. Even Virtue and Wisdom thenjselyes acquire new ma* 
jc55ty in my eyes, when I thus see all the great masters of thin king' 
a J. writing called together, as it were, frqm aU times and countrjesj- 
to do them homage, and to appear in' their train. .. -^ 

«. JJut this is no place for disciipsigns ^f. taste, and I am verjr read)ti 
to - own tliat mine onay be' cQrnipt^d. The: \york of Grotius^ is liabte 
io a more serious obicctiou, though; I., do 'not, recollect that it. ha^ 
fv;cr^been^ made.. .His Hicthod-is inconvenient ?ind unscientific* He 
lias'iurertcd the natural order, vrhat natural oWer untdoubtedly, ^itf^ 
tatjcs* tliat we. should first search for the original • prin,ciple§, .of. tjift 
icieWeinhiunan nature; then applv; then>t 9 t)ie. regulation pfothe 
conduct of iudiyiduals, and lastly, emj^lQy tlieni. for. th^. decision , o^ 
those difficult and. complicated questions that zyise with th^ 
Intercourse, of nations* ■ But Grrotips. has cHpsen . the* rei^ersc of- tWt 
^fnethod..; He* begins with,. the considcra.tion: of the states ;of. pca^Q 
and. .war, and be examines. Icinginal piflncipi^ only ^-QCcasJopaUx. aJ?4 
incid[^utaily;as thc.y grow ont of the qijestions -wjiki be.isei^d-Vt|>$J^ 
t6^dea^ .k.a^^ this dkoxderiy methods 

whi^h .ea^hibits the elements of tW science in. the, form; of scattered ' 
dig^tfsfphs, .that'.hp seldom employs Wificlentl' dttc'i^Mon on »l¥ree 
fimdratftent^l frlltlts,' and never in the place wEcre such, a discusjioa 

would be most instructive 4;o tlic. rodder. ^.. -,,??/ ,..- V- .•• f • ' 
" « r^^^- -• ^"-- .*, - v Vq^ 

.• Mackint6sli*/ D'uiourie oh the Law of Nature , . &fr. r^ 

' ^Oti die subject of this great man, the opinions of Dr.' Smith* 
and Mr. Mackintosh perfectly coincide. The former learned 
writer says: ^ 

*« Grotius seems to have been the first who attend pted to' 
give the world any tiling like a system of those principles which* 
ought to run through and be the foundation of the laws "of d\\\ 
nations; and his treatise of the 1-aws of war and .peace, with, 
4ll its imperfections, is perhaps at this day ihe mpst complete- 
work that has yet been given upoaVthis subject," 
. In enumerating the advantages enjoyed by a waiter of tho 
present day, wliich were not possessed by Grotius and other 
celebrated jurists, Mr.' Mackintosh mentions that there has beep' 
intrcdnced into the schools a more simple and intelligible phi- 
losophy than that which prevailed in the last century. He: 
flicji poijits o.ut the benefit resulting from the investigations ot; 
Historians, and from the various accounts of travellers and nir' 
vigators; which be has performed with so much eloquence 
ind diacriinination, that we shall lay the passage before our. 
readers, and thus enable them to judge of the high literary 
p)crit of the present discourse. 

*Sincc that time, vast additions have been made to the stock of o\ir' 
JtUowledgc of human nature. Many dark periods pf history have iincc^ 
Seen explored. Many hitliei to unknowu regloiis of the globe luwe^ 
Been visited and described by travellers and navigators not less intel-] 
ligcnt than intrepid. We may be said to stand at the confluencre of" 
tiie greatest number of streams of knowledge.flowing from the mosl^ 
distant sources, that ever met at one point. We are not confined, as^ 
the learned of the last age generally \vere, to the blstfir)' of those re-' 
n'ow'ned pations who aie our masters in literature. Wc can bring' 
before us man in a" lower and more abject condition than any in' which* 
he was ever before seen. The records have been partly opened to us 
of those mighty empires of Asia *, where the beginningii of civiliza^ 
tion arc lost in the darkness of an unfathomable antiquity. We can] 
make human society pass in review before our riiind, from the briital' 
dQui helpless barbarfsm of Terra del FuegOy and' the mild and voluptuous 
savages of Otahcite, to the tame, but ancient and immoveable civihVa-" 

^ .. . .■> ■ al - M i — ^--, ! ^ — 

* « I cannojt picvail pn myself to pass over this subject without. 
paying ihy humble tribute to the menjory pf Sir W* Jones, who has 
laboured so successfully in Oriental literature, vhose fine genius, 
pure taste, unwearied industry, unrivalled and almost prodigious va- 
riety of acquirerrtents, not ^o speak of his amiable manners and spotless 
integrity, must fill every one- who cultivates or admires letters with* 
pcvcrence^ tinged with a mekiRcholy which the recollection of his" 
recent death ia so well adapted to inspire. I hope I ^lall be pardoned 
if I udd my i^plause to the genius and learning of Mr. Maurice, who 
t/^eadi in the; steps of lus iUufitrious friend, and who has (>ewailed his 
death ip a strain uf genuine apd beautiful poetry, not unworthy of hap* 
pier periods of our English literature. * 

.,; • 03- • ' tion' 

i^o MackintdsbV Dtr^tfT/r on the'Lavt tfNdture^ life. 

tibn of Cht62f which be$to^ itt own arts cm ev«ry sticaetsiv^.nkd of 
c.onquer<>raj to the mtek ^nd servile natiyea of Hindo8tan» yrbb pre^ 
serve their ingenuity, their skill and their icience, through a lonff 
senes of ages, under the yoke of foreign tyrants 5 to the gross and 
incorrigible rudeness of the Ottomans, incapable of improvement, arid 
extinguishing the remains of <:ivili'/ati6n among their unhappy subjects, 
dntfc the ihost ingenious nations of the earth. Wfc can examine almost 
^ctj xma^inabte variety in the character, manner*, opini6ns, ftdit^gs, 
pf^jiidiceftahd institutions of mankind, into which they ean \k thtd^tit 
cither by the rudi^ness of barbarism, or by the tapficlous corrupUotit 
of h^finemeot, or by those innumerable combination^ of circumatances, 
Yfhichi both in these opposite conditions and iq all the jntermtdiats 
fita^rci between them, influence or direct the course of human affairs, 
Iiistory, if I may be allowed the expression^ is now a vaat museum, 
ip which specimens of every variety of human nature may be studied. 
From these gr€at accessidns to knowledge, lawgivers and statesihen, 

9 but, 4bDVe all, niotalisis aild political philosophers, may rea|y the 
iftbst im'pbrtant instruction. They niay plainly discover Jn all the 
li^eful and beautiful taWety of governments and institutions, and uhder 
all' the fitntastic multitude or usages and fites which have premikd 
2|iipng men, the same fundamental^ comprehensive truths, the sacred 
mastcr-principlcs which are the guardians of human society, recog- 
nised and revered (with few and slight exceptions) by every nation 
upon earth, and urtiformly taught (with still fewir exceptions) by a 
aiicccssiori of wise men from the first dawn of speculation to the pre- 
sent moment. The exceptions, fevv as they are, will, oh more rencc* 
tion, be found rather apparent than real. If we could raise 6urselve^ 
to that height from which we ought to survey so vast a subject;, thw 
exceptions would altogiether vanish ; the brutality of a nandfm of 
aavdges would disappi^ar in the immense prospect of human nature,^ 
and th(E murmurs of a few licentious sopnists would not ascend to 
break the general harmony. This consent of mankind in first prin- 
ciples, arid tnis endless variety in their application, which is one amon^ 
inany valuable truths which vve may collect from our present exten<s 
sive acquamldnce with the history of man, is itself of vast import- 

• Miw. Much of the majesty and authority of virtue is derived from 
tneFr consent, and almost X\i^ whole pf practical wisdom is founded 
on their variety.' 

The proposed course of lectures ^ will open with a very 
Aott, and (^s Mr. M. exprfiisses the hoffe) a tery simpk and 
i^itcllisibhe account of the jpb'wers itid opetalions of the human 
rtiind. ■ Me will then proceed to a consideration of tVe relative 
i^uties of human life, especially of those which arise o\it of the 
two gveat institutions of property and marris^e^ and having 
established the -principles of private duty, be proposes to coa« 
std^r man undet the importismt relation of Bvrbject tad sove« 
reign, or,- in other words, of citizen and magistrste. In this 
(Hvisiott of hw sdsject) the authol' will eJcat)t)4ne tiit geneva! 
frame of. lAtt most telebrated TOvermnetitls tX amtJeiit and ttic^ 
dern times^ and especially of ditiose ^hrchliavt bcfeloDi'osViie- 

\S 0QWQC4 

MacluntOfiliV Diseourse on the Law of Nature^ isfc. ipi 

fio>viicd for their freedom ; eoncluding with iiti $ctxnmt of the 
constitation of England. The general principles of civil and 
criminal laws wifl then be discussed, with a comparative re- 
view of the codes of Rome and gf England. The nex( gv^t 
division wift be the law of nations^ strictly and properly sq 
called » x\^c Jus F^ciale oi x\\t Romans, and what the Chancellor 
d'Agueaseau accurately terms * Drqit etiire Us Gens,^ As an im* 
portant supplement to his plan, or rat)ier as a necessary part of 
itj Mr. M. will conclude with a survey of the diplomatic ani 
conventional lanv of Europe^ and an account of the treaties of 
Westphalia, of Oiiva, of the Pyrenees, of Breda^ of Nlmeguen, 
ofRyswick, of Utredit, of Aix-la-Chapelle, of Paris (1763), 
and of VcrsaHlcs (i7B3). 

Such is the outline of th^ vast, arduous, an4 m^ntf)Qent 
undertaking which Mr, Mackuitosb has here delineated ; and 
for which his nice talent of discrimination, hi^ accurate an4 
extensive knowlege, his fine tastCy and hi^ fertile powers of 
illustration, seen eminently to i^uaJify him« He concludes hi^ 
pamphlet with the fallowing jygt and eloquent passages : 

' * Though the cour^, of which I have sketched the outline, may 
seem to comprehend so grfeat a variety of miscellaneous subjects, yet 
they are all in trvth closely aud ioscp*i*ably interuoven^ The duties 
efix)tn| pfsubjfK^fi, of .princes, of lawgiva"3, of n^gistiiptjfs, ^nd^f 
sXat^Sy are all p^rts of one x^oosistent System of un/vcj-^al morality. 
j&ctween the pip$t abstract and ckmcotajy xtm^^m of njoral philp- 
sbpby, and the niok compjicated controversies of civil or public law, 
tjicrc subsists a connexion which it will be the main object of these 
lectures to trace.' The pnncipl? of justics, deeply rooted in the na- 
ture and interest of man, pervades the whole system, and is disco- 
verable in every part of it, even to its minutest ramification in a legal 
formality, pr m the constrtxetion of an article in a treaty. 
' * I lusow not .whether a philosopher oti^ht to confess* that ij) his 
ioquirie.8 after l^iiKh he. is biassed by aoy coQsni^ratiou \ even by (he 
iovve jof virtue. B4St I, who conceive th^t a real pbilo^pher pi^g'ht 
to rc^rd trjUh itself i:hiefly on account of its subserviency tg the 
bappmess of mankind^ am not asliamed to confess, thai I shajil feel 4 
great consolation at the conclusion of these lectures,' if, by a wide 
ttirvey and an exact examination of the conditions and relation? of 
buman' nattire, I shall have confirmed but one individual in the con* 
vietioft) that justfct is the pcrmawent interest of all men, and oif oil 
oamxnoiureakhs. To discover one new link of that cteraal chain ly 
j^'ch the Author of the uoivsrae has bound together the bappine»4 
a#i4 ^ duty -of hjs creatures^ aad indissoiubly fas«:ened tbeir iv^ttezu 
tp each other, would ilU my heart with mot-e pl^a^ure than all the 
£une with which tl^ most ingenious paradox ever growncd the mpu 
eloquent sophist. 

* 1 shall concluiie this Discourse in the noble language of two gre-^t 

orators and philosophers^ who have, in a few wprds, stated the sj^b- 

ftance, the object, and the result of aH morality, and politico, and kiw^ 

' -' • O4 . ** Nihil 

f 92 PorsoA'j Hecuba Isf Orestesj bf WakcfieJdV Dlatrih. 

^^ NiiiQ est quo4 adhuc de republica putcm dictum, et quo possinx 
longius progrcdi, oisi sit confinnatum, non modo falsum esse iUud, ^nc 
injjiria uon po8se>std hoc verjssimum, sine summa justitii rempublicaiH' 
regi non posse."— Cx^r. Frag* lib. ii. de Retub* 

" Justice is itself the great standing pohcy of civil society, and aoy 
eminent departure from it, under any circumstances, lies under the 
suspicion of being no policy at all." — Burke* s Works^ vol. iii. p. 207.* 

With this extract we close our account of this prelimi-* 
nary Discourse ; and wc trust that our readers will be gratU 
fied with the length of our quotations, when they consider th^ 
great ability which they manifest, and the very comprehensive 
and important matter to which they are introductory. 

Art. XIII. EYPiniAOr EKABH. Eurlpidis Hecuba^ ad fidem Manu^ 
scfiptorum emendaiay &c. 

Art- Xiy. In EuRiPiDis 'hlis.cvyikvi JLondim nuper'puhricaiam Dias- 
tribe extemporalis. ComposuU Gilbert us Wakefield. 

Art. XV. ErPIXlIAOY OPESTHr. Euripidts OreUes, ad. fdem 
^Mantucriporum cmendaia^ 5c c. 

^ [Continued frOm p. 10 1.] 

THE examination of Mr. Wakefield's objections to Mn Pt>rr 
son's Hecuba was begun in our last Review \ and, from 
the nature of the criticisms proposed in the Diatribe, it wa$ 
necessary to investigate every remark deeply, and to offer at 
full length our pwii sentiments respecting the editor and the 
animadvertor. We propose to proceed on the same plan, and 
beg to solicit a continuance of the indulgent patience of our 

165. Ilor^rf^w; vtiu rig ttofi S tt* Ivofco^oa 
R. P. • Pro vov Musgravius vota conjecit ; receptt Brunckius* 
G. W. * Illud >* otiofum est ; ut oratio mdnca tnsuptry et ne 

Graca quidem* Si rescribas^ ttoi M' y'trw j ^0 me intmittam ? 

haiebis iiy quo nihil purius^ &c. &G. — sed quoniam cessat in hoc 
systemai^ suhinde anapasticorum lex^ malim equidem rescribi .•— 
^01 no A' yVw ; — — * Some part of the honour supposed to be 
derived from this emendation should have been given to Mus* 
grave; wjiosc correction we deem preferable to that of Mr. W. 
* Legendunty ni fallor s sro" 3' n<wj sroJa ; rig Geav^^* ^ays the 
former, in his note ; which led the way to flroAx— the position 
of which word, in the variation of the conjecture propbsed by 
the Intter, totally destroys the artapestic form ; and though, as 
Rlr. W. justly observes, the verses are irregular, yet we arc 
of opinion that all emendations, founded on possible anoma- 
lies, whether in construction or metrci are hazardous^ and< 
c^ight to be carefully avoided. 
' > The* 

Ponoa^j Becuha li OresteSy bf WakefiekT jl Dkstriie. i^ 

The insertion of jriiou^ the correction of Musgrave in the 
text of this line, by Brunck, cieems to us right : the alteratiotf 
itself 18 commended by the authors of the BibliotlMca Critical 

167. i xa«' lysj'Koujroi wiT/aaI'— ^— — * 

Here Mr. Porsojx is silent. Mr. Wakefield changes nrt.^^ 
into THMAT', which he defends by 107. dyyi>ia<i &oi^ 
ftfA/tA£3ia-*by Helen. 1297. ^if/Aa$-^ivn««v (Muigr. 1301.) s^nd 
refers to Hecuba, 178. 668. " 1 

To. this alteration we cannot assent. We think that it M 
totally unnecessary, and that, it even weakens the sentences 
Are sdl figurative expressions to be banished froni the antient 
poets ? In this play, is v. 663 to be molested : 'EMuCny OEPA 
ToS" AAr02 .^«^What is to be done, with £schyla$^ Jgamma: 

Ka\ r6v*fji\v Sitfiv, Toy y Itckt^EIBEIN Mcai 
Kaxiov i?^ IIHMA— And again, 647 : 
"Olfltv S" amuJld UHMAT*, ^SyfiXo^ ^reTAii . 

To these passages^ others may be added, in "^iQhjpifm 'jrr.^isSIm 
bears the sense oi fi^m iyyiktav TrrifAotluv, or clyU^^iv^vnifMihu 
We cannot here transcribe Mr. W.'s note, nof repeat his re- 
ferences -, the curious reader may consult the Diatribe j p. i j. 
., X&o. — :— Ti .no» ... 

.. 1 8a. R. P. is silent. G. W. gives the following note : 

* At enim experpschntniy VV. DD. qui EurlplJem nobis expoTutu ^ 
^tnte cdissertetis veRrn^ quldnam sit hoc pbraseosj tit'n\waw otxc^y Tiva. 
Alujsanff ei nihil bahentf quod respondeant» Forsan tameuj vlr acuUsshne 
it v^^vuM^afla^i ! amicus ille tuusy qui hie subdole et minus candide m 
jEscbya Glasguensl recensendo nuper impetiverit ex iatebris, » 

^honnmculum, siudils improbisslmls Inter has ien^orum angusttas vlcHtm 
difficllem slbl sulsque vlxf out ne vlx quldemy extund^ntem) hac et alia 
miractilfi spechsa piox In lucem proLuurus sit! Dixerim iHitrea, et edhse" 
rhuf in uHltnam barbarlem relegandum esse hoc dlcendi genus : nos adeo 
nyidendi ad Eur, H. F, 976. 987. Ion. 1299. Nimirum^ vel capiendtm, 
est pro iieK\ao-aq» a V)a«, wli!/t*i, volo ; vel scrlbendum^ i^ivloaa'au a 
«rTo»«w, tcrreo. Utrum mavis acclpe.* 

: T^ whole of the note is transcribed. To whom Mr. Wake- 
field refers, and applies his quotation from tlie Herculerpurens^ 
197. it would be presumption in us to attempt to determine.*-^ 
•* Let the gall'd jade wince, ov»r withers arc unwrung.*' Mr. 
*Vr. cannot allude to the, Monthly Reviewers* critique on the 
Glasgow Eschylus, which should have been Mr. Porson's edition. 
Some.^ritic has probably brought forwards Schutz's remarks 

(^ Mr. Wake&eTd>£a«»Rificfl^ add haa been comparing the 
tbfcc ediriona, and the H. RcTiewers' stricture!, together. To 
some auch auiaudver&ions this passage niay perchance relate, 
though they have not r€d€l)€d ua ; and» indeed, we aie rarely 
tempted to dive into the mysteries of contemporary critics. 
Ouf articki if we be not grossly misinformed, has . beeii 
tOfDmcodod by liberal s^liokirs, on accouot of tlie Mmperate 
observations which it contained.— ?»— The ferson to whom 
Mr, W.' alludes xnay possibly teply: but, at all events, it is 
oitr duty to mentiou the passage, and the note. We. shall .vcn- 
tune abo» it'ia hoped without offence, to add one remark*. 
. .tlTosro^ is the Doric form of the verb Ur^tunay zn4 
T^iiSa^ stands by the same dialect. for 'Eleir^Sdc^ thc.&rst 

The usage ot iWaset In an active sense, and the lection 
'Ele^To^a;, which. Mn Foraon is censured by JMr. Wakefield 
for having permitted to remain in Euripides, though there is 
no variation in ^e preceding editions, and appeiurs to be none 
m the MSS', may be de&tS^ed by the authority of Hpiaifir^ 
Jflituii* 40^ 
. - . — : — -^P. ft iif^Q^^ y^^i 

' KiAe, ilTHSE c8 0TMPN hi #3ii Jftfw 'Aa»^* 
«? Ifj vera pbytam^^facius-^est senex Nestor yperUrrefeiiUfueaomum 
in pecioribus Acbivorum.** ClarK. 

In this passage, the Scholiasts s^ate, Hcrodian rearft IIHSE^ 
—but: A^istarcMis, the genuine Aostarchus^ prefer/td JITHSE. 
On thi^ a.uthprity, the former editor* of Euripides, and Rlr. 
Por$on, may be defended for having left the word 'Eiftrlaiaf ia 
xhxi text of liecubaj T|iu$ write tlie commentators : 
.. Scboh^^iS. Lips. 'Hftaiiavoc Tliitv d^cilkXfT^'^''^AfWim^x,H 
it Ilr^lsv, ay]i ri Examivwrs9 ^ '£vTonrcv««<i»Vaicken* Difsnt* 
de SchoL Horn, p. 130. et£niek« ad he, 

Scbol. VefHt. VUhUtm. Ilr^e] *0^1(V( ^ rov T ai "Afi^k^x/^^ 
QtnIev €iC ffkha ^»ft9. 'Ovh»g Km. ^Aficrlsfaun^ 
' Eustathiue in Miad U. 40. i^ii§^rulMi$ V^inffWj iii^^w-^ 
^ftfn!tc<rat J| trt r? to UrT^i. kcBA iKho'tcd^tiaa ?f *», {iVli toS tU 

^\ {^50. 16. Ed. Basil. 966. if). Ed. Rom* 

Hesychius : Hrri^tvy slg (pi^ov iTafev. He also, as might be 
expected, explains the other lection, Iltijf, as Ruhnken 1^6 not 
omitted 'to observe in his -rfwrfariwm, ad II. jo'j'l. . . 
♦ * The explanation of Datntn stands thus : llTnfrxr^>'''*erre9i 
animpim ixMciderf facto t'-^est'^wrbum transitivumy nsif «*^^OTr«s- 
fctov inuitigendutii^ tjqji 'vcrv ay7c9rafiwj. Sic //^. pro « J?«r«6«5i'« 
licxic. aoio- 

PotsonV Hecuba Orestes^ faP T^akcficIdV Diatriie. xpg 
These observations appear to exhiKt an ample justification 

of Mr. Porson, for not Tjolating the^ext of his Hecuba; and 

vre did tiot judg^ it. right that they should be suppressed. 
In addition to these remarks, we jjhall trsinacribe part of a 

note by Mr. Porson, on the Orcstes> io which he cites thi9 

passage of the Flccuba : ' 

* ^/i«i— ••A»«icaXtV7« tarn bene pro atAxaJ^'iflou, JubauSiQ fro* 
pmlae^ pMatur, quam xUla^vcrtxi pro ie«1a<rtitr«;^i,oo Hec. gitj 
hntf pr9 kin\yw infra 788. {M MS. wwx Jirityot.) it aSbi. rvei^f p§^ 
iy»ifw Ip&» A. 626 ? ■ ■ « '^-^Contra verba qu^dam ex nemttoB ifansim, 
tivaminduurU slgnlficationem, tii, wwWc^ii*, ^m, 'Hcc. iSt. KUi ««« 
injam eiset mtcUareJ ' 

R. Porsonusy in Elvip. Orest. 2S8» 

201. w iyfidwM fuBiq ^ioUu 
Mr. Porson here also is silent : Mr, W. says : 

. » Mejidejtuetfrti tu tiatifn eorn^ae tindaciere 

•r AYSTANA f^f jS*<Sa4, 
m pariter ceutieJ in Tra^itis ; neque alter ^ uti jam mkpt ^^b^Hatfei^ 
JfosUr H. F. 48a* 

nine V. D* optime corrcxH Vcr. 2J^. infra i quemadnodum ei Use ftw 
fonendum esse ttaiim viderim^* 

Thin correction we deem totally inadmissible. Au^^to^ oc* 
curs, indeed, frequently with a Gehitivc case afiter it : but the 
' word Av(fhnK9 Dtrice AvAeofo^ is only used in dm GKekplay* 

as a Neuter plural. The Vocative singular is A*alwi, or 
Aydloas^ Dor. : as is evidebt from the yery line in wfaidi Mr.W. 
informs us he made the dame alteration which Is pi*opo6ed by 
Mr. Person* Hecuba, ^15. «J pJirsf ATlTANE. 
I Lest it should be attempted to change the termination itiio A 

S in this instance also, a few miakeraole and incontroyertible 

examples of this Vocative feminine shaM be produced : 
I ECRiPiDBs. Afidfwfi. The attendant addresses AndrotaMchef 

! ' 66. T^i fmi» aw fAf^vtrw^ to ATITHNE 4^^^ 

Again, Hermione says to Andrbmache i 

170. 'EisrouTo f fixiii a>ae»«^, AT2THNE &vi 

Orvjfk The messenger to £}ectra : 

842- "ft rkifnv, i AT'ITHNE tw alfokKdrou 

Med. Oreon to his dving daughter: 
1216. ^M ^ £i ab(rim ttSuj 

ffrwrf. 51X4 A^rtxpe yvmi.*^^*^mm 

So also in «medy. Aristopmanes. JSuh. Bna?^or» «• 
^bims to inie of tiie female spoatess ; 

166. Tth 

I^ VotboikY HecuBa Ssf Orestes^ fcf WakeficldV Diatribe.' 

166. Vv¥a7Kaiuv^ AT£THNE, Tod^ oiii^^CK Tiyiii* 
Thp feminine ^ij(r%v<K occurs frequently in the Attic poets r 
and it is of this gender, in the very example cited by ^^r- 
Wakpfield in his note from the Hercules Furens, 482. where 
jfflegafp^ the « wife of Hercules^ Exclaims of herself: Ayuluvd^' 

Mr, W» also, observes that hifldya is the lection of the 
Scholiast. We wish that tlie Scholion had been quoted, as- 
v4r search after it has proved fruitless^ In Barnes's Euripides^ 
we find the following, which is omitted by Musgrave : cS 

THNOT Kcu a'^Xtag Bi^r^ xal ^0)?$. 

In this note, rhe Scholiast, so far from justifying Av^ldva as 
the Vocative feminine, properly vindicates the old reading 

232. Mr. Porson's change of n into tw, on the authority 
of Eumathius, is commended by Mr. W. ; who observes that 
Tf ia the lection also of Stobxus, Eel. III. p. 36. which referei^cch 
Mr. P. has omitted. He appears, indeed, to mention xmiy. 
those citations of the antients in which his author is quote4 
wkh any varie1fy,of lection, — Mr. W. adds that he had fallen 
cm this very alteration of ri into tw, many years ago. 

The same mode of . correcting defective 'passages' must fre- 
quently occur to different scholars : but the merit of all emend-^ 
ations must be attributed to the writer by whom they a^re iirsr 

246. f^oLv^i pLOu, and £47. naltiK^ lfA%L 

G. W. * Videas et in transitu mirerisy hk atqne per totam fa^ 
hutam V. J), in his scribefidi^ ohstupescendam sane incpnstantiam/ 

After a careful examination of Mr. Porson's editions of 
Hecuba and Orestes, we are decidedly of opinion, instead. (^ 
joining in this censure, that he deserves the commendation o£ 
V» readers for this variation. If there had been- no emphaisis 
in the latter instance, he would .have given Kainvi (aoi^ as in 
Or est, 1073.— fA»? ^v]f^yn<Txi /t*oi. In the former also, if any 
emphasis had been demanded, he would have published l^cw<f\ 

Brunck intended to have observed the same distinction, 'as 
he informs us in a note on. Eur. Phosn. 852, where he .points 
out the difference between hiri fioi, and hw* ifjLoi, and between 
mU^ov^ r* ifMi ^vXccarcrty %id itT^.fouf te /xm. He has not always 
preserved this variation of ifMou and fwu accurately : but his 
observations will bp of service to any reader, who may have 
doubts on the subject. They are too long for transcription : 
but we shaUadd a short note from Mr. Porson, in order that he 
may explain, in his own wiu:ds» whence this obstupescenda iu^ 


Bbrsonur Hectiha ^.Oratesi fa*" Wakefield'/ Dmit^iH fpj 

hftstafffta arose ^ aod what his views' wcrc^ i» ptinting the db- 
liquc cases^ singular of the pronouns substantive, in* some 
passages accttitedy as :,f/L*oy, ijuol, IjiJ, i. t. x: and in others with 
the accent on the Jinalis syllaha vocis pr^cedentisi . a^ eacliticst 
^^{^^ ftOf^ 1^9* X; T. A«' >' - 

» * Ore ST. 514. *0t'5^ ci. tic edifit ex ff: y. cum nmlgo sit *Ov^ <tu 
JLeve ittf sed serffel Juxi monendumj me in pronommthuj accentu sigfumdijt 
nut non signandis sententia et emphaseos rationem semper bcdfuilsi** 

26g. Mr. W. again commends Mr. Porsoit*s insertion' of 
TTfocr^aT/xola in his text ; though, as on v. 41., he wishes td 
double the sigma^ and refers to his notes on Soph. Philoct, 35J 
on Lucretius f IV. 591. and 678. and to his Siha Crit. jfVv 
p. 49.-7-rn the first of these places, it may be remarked as wtf 
proceed, Mr. iWakefield mentions the Schema j^lcmamcunty an<t 
^Mot^^ Ammonius, (he should have said LesboTiax^) and his learnccf 
^Jltor, p. 179., and cites a memorable instance of this figure* 
from Vllloison's Anecdota -Graca^ II. i^6* * 

^ This citation, which, should have, been produced as .from 
Jlerodlan's ' work TTffl %r.(Aocloc^ first* published .by Villoison, 
1$ also quoted with some variation by the ?>chdliast 6ft 
Knd'ar, Pyth. IV. 318. ; from whom Valckenaer inserted ifi 
jn his note on Lesbonax, p. 180. ; which he thus concludes: 
•* e quo Alcmanis loco^ si quis voces iTTTrorat co^oi^ v'eluti alienai. 
loUivelit^ me certi sibi advenum non hahehit/* It is to be men-" 
tipned. that JEustatbius, who- has preserved this fragmertt| iri 
Qdyss. K. p. 410* Edit. Basil, otinits these very two w'ord?.. 
This reference and its remarkable variations escaped the truly 
learned Valckenaer; and Mr. Wakefield has not noticed Pindar*3 
Scholiast and-Eustathius, and the lections which they afford- 
' In*thc last of these references, Siha Crit. IV. 171. Mr. W. 
commends'a stricture on the Philoctetes of Sophocles, pub-^ 
lished in the Appendix to Toupv IV. 503., which he attributes 
to .Mr. Porsonv ^nd he cites T£;^vaV|xjjJa, in capital letters, 
from the Orest. of Euripides, 1051. as if it were a new read- 
ing. He rightly, however, compares the 7rfO(7^aV««Ja of the 
Hecuba, with the rex'^ua-fMOila of the Orestes. Mr. Porsoii ' 
hi his note on the former, Hec, 260. refers us to his ob- 
servations on the Orest. 10; i. in which he prpduces some 
examples of neuter plurals, applied to single objects. In neither 
of these annotations, the one published before the Diatribe^' 
and the other after it, has Mr. Porson mentioned the name nor 
the-remark of Mr. Wakefield : but he has treated with equi\l 
peglect- even the '* Nofa breves (td Toupii Emendatihfies in St/i" 

dam, A.k.p.c.'s.s.T.c.s:: '• 

3:^ 14 :i84. He- 

tj^t PofWnV Riula V Orestn^ Isf Wakefield*/ DlMrVk 

al4« Hbcuba, ia Jber suUress to UJysfiesi w{% of %dk 

^HJ' ifX voMuSir 1^7/ /EAM 9*af a^^^vxi?! 
lIoAiCt r/OnvHy ^ettQ^09y nyifu^n oiotu 

Mr* Person produces a similar passage from a fragment of 
Euripides quoted hj Alexander, ojie of the Aldiue rhetoricians^ 
y* 578- Musgrav. iff/^r //«"^r/, clxxxv.— ^^-JU^« /»« ^t^f^t 

M^tv^f »)cA^\ ^ftwt'^, MYMv^atf frUyn, 
Mr. W. complains that Mr. Person did not jiu^e bis correc- 
tion of nO£I2) for nOAIX worth mentioning ; though it was 
proposed in his Silv. Cni, Sect, 175. in whicli the newreadinjj[ 
is defended by Homer, U. Z. 429. where Hector is called by 
Andromachcy irakf^ (M^irn^y tcurtyvnlof, woL^OLHiCk^. In his Dia' 
, wibe, Mr.W« allows that the present lection derives some 
support from Eustathlns, d^ Ismen. A^n, p. 205. * \ yet stiU he 
contends for the admission of IIoTic, 'and refers the vere r^« 
£ios ae venustos to seven diiFerent pa5sages> which w^ shali 
beg leave •to examine. 

I. The passage from the sixth Iuad^ which has been just 
tnentioned. l^s does not apply; for though Andron^ache 
might properly call Hector va^aiii!kq^ yet Hecuba could not 
on that account style her daughter PolyxeaaHOTIZ. 

. IL EuE. ALejU 657. 65,8. Here Admetus tells Phercs, thaf 
fie justly reckons hi» wife to be botli father and mother. This 
dees not defend nODIS. 

III. Troad. 107. Here Hecuba says, speaking of ierself: 
Holfty (pfft, «flii Tcitya, Ka\ irivii. Does' it fpllow, because sho 
had lost her country, her children, and her husband> that she 
would therefore call her daughter IIO'SIS ; 

IV. The Tragic Ferses^ quoted by Diogenes Laertius, YU 
38. vol. I. p- 332. The lines are : 

In, the former, we have taken 7rX«irnc from £Uan. V.Ij[. IIL 
19. instead of iiKoUg, the reading in Laertius^ and Juliaa 
Orat. VI. p. 195. B. and in Epist. ad Themisihwi, p. 255. It 
seems to be a gloss, explanatory of orolp/Sb; 4^7)ipi^»^ Inrthe 
latter also, SyfrtlfJUM^ instead of vrAftvuVnf, from £Uan.'<^f anj 
defender of "AmXn; .should arise, we shall not vehemently 
contend for our readiiig. In whichever mode, however^ l^ese 
iambics are to stand, they surely c^annot be deqmed the slight*- 

*" " ■ ' • - " ■->-■ "^ ' " / ■ " I 1 1. I II II 1 1^. i ^ I ■ 

^ * The passage IS :^ Ly fui »<k7f*\, j^ wJnn^ t^ ^^^^; jj) ffMm{%-4 


FortonV Hecuba bf Onjt^i^ bf WalccficlcTi D'utHniil I99 
kst ficfctice df Hecuba applying to bcr diiugliter tht vmtA 

V. O^m. Epirt. ni. C2. Brtfids writes thus to AcfaiUc9: , 

" Ttit tapjffi amkti i ■ ' '■ ... 

<*^ 2« Domhins, tu Fir^ tu itiihifrater tras.^ ' > 

Briscts might call Achilles, Vir : but would Hecuba thcirfbte 
tqrm hfit daughter, HoJti ; 

Vll. Antholog. X'Of. Burmamjs. t. 161, 1. Thtrlinc i«; • 
*^ Proie^ vh'Oi rs^noque carem Pnaineia oinjunx** 
This priTatioify .whidi scem^ copied from the verse in the Troai^ 
«07« ivould not, we apprehend, jlead the wife of Priam to call 
her daughter nO'ZII. 

From a due consideration of the new reading, and the cita- 
tions produced to defend it, we are compelled to ^here td 
the old leceion rio^tf. v 

Mr. W. next contends that tlic wond "A**Ak, ckyUss^ m 
Hecub. 469. ^5. and Troad. 11 86. should be chang^ into 
^AsroMf, husbandless* 

The compound ^A9rw;$, as far aa our recollectiott efctcnds^ 
docs not occur in any Greek writer of any age, nor of any di»^ 
lect. The introduction of Vocables, which depend mesdy q« 
analogy for their formation, and which are not authorized bf 
sofiie good writer, cannot, in our 'opinion, be too cautio«isly 
vfoMtAi ''Asro^K, therefore, a sound, genuine, and cstaUIshavt 
word, >diich perfectly suits the sense of the three passages, 
ihould not be banished in order to favour the admlssipn bf this 
Bcwly-crcaftd "ATrwri^.^-:— -In the first passage of tlie Heouba, 
»ko> ifToHi is preceded by ebtoai^^ Mr. Wakefield has 
ndt informed us how the two £vaiigoi and 'oi.fto<yKt in the same 
Verse, ^acre to be translated ; nor would either of the,other two 
places, according to our view of the poet's meaning, 'even if 
MMA^ were notaa im^^ioary wordj be improved by receiving 
k instead. of ^ir9;^i€. 

On V. aS6. Mr^ W. properly remarks the omission of a va- 
rious readiHg, whith he has carefully noted from Stobaeu6,dIIl 
p. 5($'iv This should have been specified by Mr. f orson ; 
whO) however, tefers in his notes to the citation. As to the 
text of the Hecuba, we think tliat the. passage would lose 
miich.of its force by changiJE^g the pliir>al^ wliich is^the proseni 
redding, into the singiilar, r^ .^gabMx^ which, Stdbsous e;cr^ 
hibits.— Mr. W. we find, is of a different opinion.—— 

Thns Mr. Person publishes the passage, as it is silently 
conccted by MuretuSj III. p. sn* ^^ oj^poaition to all the Eii<L 


cob P6rtoh*i ffectiia V Om/^/, (sT^akcficiaV Dmtriii, 

¥etU and MSS.^ GelHuis, and Stobacus. Y<Jur dignity, ibomgl^ 
jou speak ill, will persuade ; instead of, thaugi it speak ilL 

MtI W/c«nsurcfs this introdiidf ion of * iocuilo h)ulgaris^ >^4f 
fro exquisitissimd A^j/yZ-^Let the learned decide whether xiyfi^ 
or y^eyyt be the true reading. Wd shall only observe that tlid 
Siddition of the sigma by Muretus is not warranted by thk 
insertion of Mr. Person only 5 for AeJ^j is proposed, as i ' 
«fw. conjecture, by Wasse, in the MiscelL Ol^ p» 5)3. 
Aiyvig is commended by Musgravc ; A/^yj is adopted by 
yalck,enaer,.who quotes this passage, DiA-fRl be, p. 261. Aiy^f 
Js praised by Brunclc, who gives it a place in his text"; and 
Asyiiu—if the opinion be worth recording,— is judged to be the 
genuine Lection by the Monthly Review. 

321. KalfjcAvsftotye ^oivlt fxh ka6* ^fAi^avy 

iLh cfjiU^* tx'^^f^h ^oivT* oil dpkcuyroig ticPh 
, Tu^^ov i\ RoyXoifMYiV cU otitgufjLEvov 

* R. P. iis silent.- G. W. proposes a new punctuation ; and 

then asserts that a|iot/(r6«i is never used * sine substantivo ph 
kotrjj^iiriMy and therefore, ^'rescripsimus TIMD.^ pro ro¥ f/we»A— 
RtirsuSf si ydPi/jLo^ pro yswxios nobilis^ laxiore sensu ferri poterai\ 
jrONlMON a vestigiis Uterarum TONEMON, de veteri scnp'^ 
iurif propitis ahfuisset* 

Sir. Wakefield's second emendation rONIMON is in direct . 
Violation of the canon which he lays down as a proof that the 
t'iRST,'TlMnN, is necessary.— If it tvere true that d^ioifjimi 
Requires a substantive after it, how is the deficiency supplied 
by the substitution of roNIMON for TON EMON j 

Custathius, whose remark has escaped the editol'Sy refers to 
this part bf.UlyssesV. Speech, /// //. H*. p. 535. Ed, Bas, IL 
p. 666, 44. £</. Horn, 'EttI roiroiq "ExJwp xai r^ rixo^ rni lai/rotf 

* 'n? TToli TIC ipiti^ T<) J* IfJi^v «Afof ouTtdf o\urau ii^ wapi^fovf 
Mat o Jv T^.TfafyJ/ft f*7rcJv, liiXsiv T'^v <ijHo9 rv>Sov fjt.i{(i ^avaki 
\/!i^6tyoua6ai, Sici fianj^ou yaj,' ^<rtVf n ydpi^^ The quot^tion^ 
which immediately follows^ is from the Medea^ 547. 

* .These. <vords ^i^' fAock^oD yif r. x^p^i ^^ ^so illustrated by 
hipfi, p. 568.40. and in Iliad K. 720. 15. *ol« il pCtni ^aloowrit 

ycivd^M roiV lauloZ rx^ov i^i^uv rrg Stat /uuvcpou J^a'pilof mxa. He 
then cites the same passage froni Medea, which be had quoted 
in Iliad' H. 

We should strongly have suspected that Eustathius foond in 
the place ; . ... 


PdrsbnV Hnuha hr Oratet^ bf WatefieldVDarfrifc. 201 

if he hid not so carefutty inserted to'v atflou and roV imfkv tumSoit 
f*i9x^'9avt«7o»; whtcA shev^s that toH> f/uo'v was itv his copy of the 
Hecuha. Eustathius, therefore, explains A^idThi by crlspavour* 
ictif and Euripides himself tuses otimiMsvoy ill the same sense as 
he docs rj/^dfji^ivov, in 320. It may also be noted that^ where 
a person speaks of himself, the pronoun should fatjier be 
doubled than omitted ^ ^s here r^v s/xoV follows s/tAoiiVs> a?id in 
the H^L 49* ^ - 

To^ lA^ oV ira^MxtXy TOTS 'tMO^Tt ix^^oi; i'^UO'l 

And in the lUeJea 547. which Eustathius quotes: 

* m ••♦••♦ 
*E< pLT^ VjVtijiaoj n rJp^n y£vd<7> MOI. 
Why d^iwirixi should demand a tubstantive after it> we do 
not exactly comprehend* This verb is used, \irithout^the Geni- 
tive expressed, in the Active voice : Eurip. 

TlaTSag Aio^^ iilfoaa^ 
SopL Aj. 1 1 14. — ^^Guyot^ Htou Todi ffs^vtaq. 
In the passive : Orest. 1165, Ed. Porsoni 

and 1 2o8. KoXorcriy iynvdmauf ot^iov^in/^. 

336. Mr. P« reads 'ittPtnuvxit with Aldus, several MSS. and 
Eumathius, p. 301. ; and in 337. roXfAoiv for roh.^oU Mr. W. 
prefers -vi^ux* ae), the common reading, and 9PornfuUy re« 
jects reXfjixv. 

To us, Mn Porson's lections appear right: but the follow* 
ing passage of the Diatribe is extraordinary : * Suspecia nobis , 
semper lectid est^ qua suffulciri se Jlagitet arbitraria prorsus contra 
libr9rwn auctoritatem conjectural Are not all conjectures contra 
librorum auctoritatem ? On what do Mr. Wakefield's newly-pro- 
posed resldings^ and the corrections promulgated in his notes 
on the Tragedies, and in his ^ilva Critical depend*? 

4JSK MnW. proposes to change 'Tc^o^rt'.'jtm ovo/«« into n^oatinr^v 
o/ut/ia— ** light J foi^ it is allowed me to accost your eye^i^ and 
not^'«^Mr•«fl#w^"— At the end of the note, however, Mr, W. 
discovers that Frideric Jacobs* had before formed this most 
incontrovertible conjecture. 

Od this emendation, we shall give Mr. Porson*s remarks, 
from his note on the Orestesl ibSo. After having stated that, 
though it la sometimes difficult to determine, disseritlerttihus 
'JUSS. whethcT Syx^ or o^ofxa should be adniitfed, yet, con^ 
^entientihisMSS. nihil inutarfdum ; he thus proceeds : 

Rev. Fib. 1799.: J? '^ S^jfoch-ca 

IM PenetiV Huuha isT Onstes, tsT Wakefidd*/ Diatrik. 

^ ^foeuxs. Friduid JacM eonjutmram In Hec. 4^9. w^fm%xva t«f 
»j rf| i | i rr' mrtk fm%. wi inutitmt fr^termuh iedsoMf occoiume 0UaUf,mmf 
poms MMfmmsip*^ A^ frinam dtud qumren ^uhUt quid mendostm at im 
vulgari Uetione f An vttiosum est ^rr^wnvwih ow^ f ^t^atr ? ^pa mu^ 
quam ifibi occttrritm OceumUtie atihi^ an non^ neicio ; ted cur non fn* 
iuSits beat ttbi r^oaturtif ofA/M oceurrat ? Jam tt nmquam ea verba con 
juncta reperlantUTf cujusmoS dudectices ett^ lemel Actum efsceret ttf mm- 
qnam metum tubitUuai f ^uanauam^ ut verum fateary nrgwrav^t c^ifuK 
exiiare videtur afud JEschyL Cioefh. 236. Ihi tamen F^dcienenut kgk 
owfitt* dt SfHMToc in ioco Pbnmtsarum 415) qua u* viri docti conjectural 
uon elate loqmtur^ Mihi quidem omnino m his lods recepta lectio servanda 
videtur. yacohu^ est vir neque ingenii neque doctrina es^s ; quo tamen 
utroque sape ahutitur ad sanas lectiones solBcitandas, f/e imge abeam ; 
in hacfahma 1 01 7 pro irtffaq cot^ieit vvXtK* Lcgerat scilicet nescio quid 
de nertpm nvKenf et aUqv Wxobk. Ferum priusquam de hoc invento sihi 
plauderetf detnoiistrare dehebat nexiptn vt/^ac vitiostfm esse; demousfran 
detebatf vt!x« singulan numero EwriphU esse usitatum* Cum ihrariotum 
audita atque audatia tot ubique so&tcismos^ aique barbarismos, de pdbus 
nemo dubitare possit^ inveneritf BcUa gori pbcuit nuQos habkuFa tri* 
umphos ^ 

490. The Chorus describes Hecuba as having her hack on the 
ground, ¥vr* ixevo-' lit\ xt^**'«<^'rau Mr. W. is offended at 
this grossness*, and proposes, xf«T^ ixov^a, bavin^ her shin. 
He explains x^^ indeed* by corpus^ in. this passage $ as 
Hecuba, 505. asks : rU ourot ZHMA rivfuiy .oJ« ia mTaiai ;— 
asid also, (but improperly,' in our opinion,} in Homer U. N. 279. 
*nd P. 733. ^ 

This alteration appears to us wholly unnecessary, as the 
meahlng of the passage figuratively will be the same, whether 
the word be xf^« <>t vidra^ instead of <r»f(«.«-So Elcctr. 481* 

' This correction is of the same nature with that of v/tyuuf 
fr.fjMlct notnoi, instead of Tn'/A^flos, and some others, proposed in 
the Diatribe. 

flir* W. reads «Vln, at the beginning of this verse, whei^e 
Mn P. and the EditjoM give oiulyw which t^ deem right. It 
is the feminine of ifioi. 

/ . ""Oti Tn> Ai!uuumit i&ylow9 Atoomfoa/^ 
'E?iim Afo%iAi* 
The Edipors of Euripides place a full stop after plxoU. In a 
note on this Hne, which follows instead of pceopdes th$Lt on 
Y>49^ M^fM* proposed a slighter stop after (piA^r wiuch 
isifnpra proper iii4nxtbifypleHiltdiiiihaio.Qf the Editions. 

* Ti ya^ (k. M^^f ir*rV* "^w vraXettAie. ma^ffv*i6i limfy sakys the 
Scholfastonlhe Suppl. (it'Xf^thylVt$i^Sr . BciW.widdlJr diitbtntis die 
case in HcCtiba 1 

. Forsoo'i Hicuia isf Oi^estef, tt WalefiddV ZHoriie. ao) 

It may be mentioqc<i» on thU t>assage| that in execratims^ 
among tne antients^* it is not unusual for the iuffenr to pray 
chat the inJHcUr may lie exposed to the very same calamjities 
which he has occasioned. Philoctetus thtis exclaimsj describ- 
ing his situation whefi the Grecians Chiefs left hl^ asleep t 

Soph. Phil. ; ■ li9 (pdifi iufffX^pa 

"Evo^ihnfJia afux^^p^ oV ATTOIX TTXOI^ 
This passage brings to our recollection an excellent emenda*' . 
tion of a Jearned friend— 'Whom on the present o^caaon w^ 
shaH~ forbear to name.— P^irr^ vivehtu nomini. It is pn tb| 
concluding part ef Philoctetus's speech: V* 3x4. 

The oM reading, is o(( 'oxvpiriM 96o'u--.Tq|tbe reader ol tast^ 
snd erudition tins correction requires no display of words to 
prove its certainty. It is simple and happy. ** In hac ftiaa^ 
MTte mbil J&fficilius^ quam ti^ quod se dicturas futsse omnei futantj^ 
postquam au£eruntS ValcKBN. i> E. Phcen. V. 1637. p. 552. 

493. An intricate^ if not a corrupt, passage ; which none o^ 
the commentators, in our opinion, have either correpted or ex« 
plained in a Satisfactory manner. It must be noted that iM$^ 
which Musgrave,|'in his first note, proposes as a substitute for 
«^X6};, and which stands in the text of Brungk) was originally 
the enhendation of Reiske. The alteration we do not thins 
right, but thus it is : o^ m txA^.^ ^ ^ «X<* i^ailai aV aviov. 
S. Matt. xxv. 29. 

joo. ■ ■■ -yJya p6fw<rat ii^luwf «»/»<«. 

R. P. IS silent. G. W. <^£/ caput tanttm fuln)ere fedabai 
uiiicetf dunt joium volutabunda premeretl LrgO koifu ^« i. XPOA. 
JUk pMfito dhfrM est lugttidi modus : viJeas Supph 8a^« Hom. 
\\. 2. U3. 2$. aUi passim* 

^ This affteratioii also appears to us unnecessary. Fr6nl the 
sitnafion of Heouba, liie might more properly be described' as 
defiiing btr tt^fSofttmafi H£Ai> with dust^ than eiUief h^r Unfor^ 
imms Skin,' or het rnifmumu Body, in whidhever sigoificii^i 
timi Mr. W/ undmnnds XlPOA. Thfe htl^r fart of the o\f^ 
iervation has no relation to this passage^ aft *< the* ttiob-leil 
Queen'' is not reprdsentfcd as peiip^m^ any messntv^ of 
sprrow: her- Head was natuially e^sed to ^is pol^ion^ 
fi^ni her (kTsitioh. The vSfm m 4S)0^^ an4 fhe ^^ In this 
verse, illustrate and support ea(^ other. ^■dthybmi^t&^^^ 
cbnelttdes bis speech with desirtflff hor tjpi x^ise t^Aif^y^ jKa!" ri 
ir«x^fv»0f KdtZST ' r. :. . . 

• Pa jo«.Tal- 

ie4 Tatsetk^f Hecuh is^ Orestes, to" WakefieldV Diatriit. 
^68- Takhybius sj^ys; to Hecuba : ^«a, 

' R.'P. is silent. G. W. complains loudly oif a solecism left 
pntoflchca by the Editors, and propo6es> with six refcjrences to 
aifierent passag6^ in Euripides : 

'AyecfJt.t[Mvovo{ irefA^ayloi T, d ywcu, f^rx. ^ Qui me ad ic 
fufrendam mi^it.' 

This correction gives an iambic verse with a firm and 
steady spondeus, in the fourth place. We find it, how- 
^ter/ altered thus with a pen, doubtless by the author's direc« 
ftion;- w our copy of the Diatribe ; 

< £.'•■ ' ' TTg/tx j/gy7of , a yuvxt, fAiJxV ' 

but £'' for If does not appear, as far as we recollect, at the be- 
ginning of an' iambic verse ; nor will such a position be justi- 
fied by the. production of examples from the Chorus. A tri- 
meter CatakctTc laf^Hcf indeed, begins with S^ avc^, in the 
Phcpfi. '^oi.' Vahk. 365'. Mmgrnv. which, though on a dif- 
ferent account, Valckcnaer removes. 

■ ' X* for SB, elisa vocally • it may be added> is not placed by 
the Attic Poets at the end of an iambic, when' the following 
ifine begins with a vowel ; though A*^ for AE is 3o aH€>wed«. 


O. T. 29. fiiXx; A' 

AIAHS cTevaf/xoiff -xa] yioc; wXovJ/^Ejafc 

1224, "' ■ ofl-ov^A' 

•'Afir<r9e cTfvSog-*- 
• O. C. 17. - ^vxr^Tflt^oi A* 

T' for TE also is similarly situated. Euripides: 

Iph. T ^ 65 i\my T . 

. . . 'J5STHN 

TJ)e instances in the Choral Ode?, and in the Anapestic 
Systems, are more numerous^: but they have no relation to th^ 
poin.t : under, consideration .' IE without an elision is to be 
found at the end of iambics, as in Med, 611. Hipp, 1327- 
Helefi. 1^21. Androm* 460. 557, 72^2.. It also stands the first 
Mrord of the verse in a. variety of- instances 1 but. in no one o£ 
them is the line terminated with the prepoeTtioii^ by which this 
tnceptine-^DE is go^rned. 

. • tkifiii\fei[fh^'^i^ot IS thr same as nx/JoireiJ/aJof » ' 
• * j^2^ Mr. W/pi«ces^:ife^ before and aftdr 'Ax«»> ooijU 
%, ' whichTfendcts the ^'ssage clearer. 

r ' 

>G. W.^— *-" Ndn maleJ"^ 7«p, fiifi loaUc'Jallori f^mmk- Jf^m 

io€9 .• turn subnftialwet igkur genu Fofyxetya^ ^^X ^* ^^^i /^ tp^> 
ikiii jflane, qiuui ligrwiura, et t^ahre poUtumy ^ si ])U placet, \ . • ' . ^ 

For the rest of this whimsical note, wem.ust je£er;^o :^I% 

Why putting down Jar knee, jtai^li&x^ niay not be s?id^. at^ 
well as /«//i/?^ ^i^«;a xa^u^.a,. wt shaU not attei^pt (.o.determi^qt 
In the Troadcs, 13 15. an4 1 31 7. we £n4 ; . . . : , . ^ 

and^~Aia3'«;g«v (ro* 7^;w-Tl6nftt Taltt.' ■ • J' 

In Latin, DfiPOKo is tised in the satnc mantfer ih whlcll^ 
Mr* Porson appears to suppose Ka7a?:^i niight have been ad^' 
xnitted hf Euripides. A few examples may be^uffidem. Ho- 
race, I. 36. 1 8« Deponent oculps. Qicero, Pkilipp. XIIL 1 1 • 
Ed. Gr. Vol. VII. p. 883. in gremiis miman40. tnenUini"^ tnin^ 
i^m^f/rdeponeres. . Ovid.,,\Amor# m^5. ap. Cornigerum. iterfa 
dcposuisse ^^J^^ . .....-' .♦ \. ; :.. ' -«% 

It must s^lso be obseiyeil that Ah y.tx\^^Dep9nfire<^ \a Jike^; 
wise <^used in the sense ta .which the author of 'tb«- DiaUibeJA^. 
^esinnis of confining Mc7»7i9mxt« In Lucretius^ L 2^9>-^-. * - 
P,ecudcSf pingues per fabuld lata " • •' -■-. >• '^' \ '.^oa 
" O/^r^y de?onut5t:^— ' :i -i^. 1 ";' ''^ 

Where the great l^pntley/sajs : ** scilicet cum ^pdriuriunt^ and 
Mr. Wakefield adds, xxt his^ truly beantiful edition of this Poet: 
<< Htnc interpr^Utumi toiiu-aicesierim'\^ ztA then qubces^ Vif^l* 
JEn. VIL 10&. and Catullu^, XXXIL 8. ibr^faioh «iw li«m^ 
oiend his taste and his leavning. .11 . .: i 

'In £uri|)iidesj however, tkef true reading is'issiiredly iaVtt^mJ^ 
liethino defend himself: Iphig. in Taut- 333. * ' -i "j 

R.P. Aiyw is the conjecture of.H^th', v*ich ii ftierthtf. 
reading of the Harleian MS. Alj^fi9(, and in y.^957 fbriToyx^vM 
the Reg. SqcMS. gives Tv%a^flv. ^prell, ,n^t.King» (?>» ^« 
P. corrects his note in.his pr^JFaqe,) sjjenfly pijblishe^jt , , • . ^, 
^ tbTo; (^.fjLf) (fig hiyo^' I'l -.. .li •.: \- 

** Bed si imperfectutn omnino retineri opertehai^ fion erditf .ftni 
iriumpharant Mtfg^nmA hoste^ cum Ifp foss^^XQitHl^ ihsfypv tifAfi 

"^ •■-.., 

G. W. states the Faria LectidneSf ar/d obserying that * Xiyi^f 
frigore letali ferit locum^*' proposes AEXOT for ^y«^ and dc-p 
fends it. by long citations. 

P3 We 

We are hocsatMfkd with Airw. Aiycv for O^ov h indispUt-. 
ab^ wrong ; and ZUxm/ U too violent a chaogei and does not 
suit the general tenplr of the passage.— *Thc new arrangement, 
romf ixifw »fi.f * <rii^ in our opinion, might more safely^ have 
been admitted into the text, than Aifa?. We deem no mode 
of correction so secure as that which alters only the positipn. 
fte words, and not the letters. 'f 

We cannot but add that Thomas Morell, who < audact^r 
itS tacrii edidit roTo^ dfAfl oti; >Ayoi [Praefat. R. Porsoni, p. xvi.] 
in his repetition of King's edition, instead of Kind's »fApl vrig 
Xf>oy, afterward seems to have altered his opinion ; > as we 
have seen, written by himself , in a copy of the Hecuba 
which once belonged to. him» the varifition which Mr« Porson 
ifj^tion^i^^cixy AXiycv PifAipi tn^-' — This, w^ repeat, appears 
^ ys the genuine reading. . 

. ^^Imi . ' I ' J lotfQtMaxlk Invito 4u 

*. B. 18 silent. 

G. W. * CriticuSf quictmque fatUem hujusce" tyntaxeos. wfttsitmetrf 

fnodfOam frdstkerk^ ; — erit mU magntu Apoilo. \ Tres reconduntMr 

tnUt in piargtra iOgOUtf fuamm quitShd devtm jaciu s€opumfen^4-^ 
Mnorh»ut:'^£i\XikOKOM: uet9tm mm$nHii'^P^ttu aiamfe t n ■ ■■■. tBi^ 

tiomfacerei^'^^'Com* Androip* 745. 804*' 

Of these'three emendations, the first, ^hich.Mr. W. judges 
^^Vfrofirofiorm^* is not original ^ for thus says Mus|;nive*s note4 

Tlf$:9^<sondk ^^^^xrn^t like. Heath's Aip^q;tt9i^, is str ainitd ; and 
d)^llMs4# Amhxjft^ is mote ctcfption^nble th^n the fix^t, ae^it 
less resemUes the original word. on wbieh.the.eonecisooSseviiv 
dw^y.tounded. No qpe ofthe thcee seems* in our opinion, to 
h9 necessary. Th? consuaction.i^ the same 93 in the Sitffth j'Zi 

S^'Sopfaodes says, JJ. ttiS. 
" Horn aroVy ^oyp (p(ff4* 
We have placed a iwwiTw' after rfx^fitf, instead ol^ after y^ap^^ 
and would admit titlier Valclcenacr's correction, yooii, or read 
^oorin the place of the second -r^V- 'Ib AkluS| the passage 
sismls^uss - > 

Va^lpepaei' in PAcm, p. 134. rea^s : A. «i. a. rg;e<V ysf»»» 
y'tfif i^i^iox^u ^^ quia rtfi stfuere seiet, iffam dictUneifi/ SurJ^ 

fides.'' ■ ' r ' ' 

Ai«Ypyo^. takes sonietitots a GenMtecMe ftfte^ it, iotne^Mk 
aSative^ and sometimes a Geiikite «nd t THtAftp Etmfln 
BUy be produced from the tragedies. 

iEscRTLUSt Prom. 1026. Edit. Pofsotd. 

So^HpCLES. Phil. 867. ^A fiyFof vTrvov diaSVxsv. 
EuRlPxbBS. Androm. 744. 

3ii4 3oj ^ (J^ Min^ J6jm^ 

Aldus reads mw^ mmmI^. Vakkenaef rightlfi ha eitaia^ re* 
Stmts MJi» from the FloientiJie edition in capital letters,. wber4 
it stasds iU&XlI. 

£iifipr Akest. 666. 

JBschyl. Prom* 477 -;— Xificnarlv V Sn^c^^ 

dviKi^ IA$f[i7U¥ 3ka&J»p(fi f/iroxinfjtelrm ^ , .. ^ 

In this passage of the Heeubaf 592^ and m thait of jthfS 
BufpUas 73; if our proposed punauation. be right % the(9 
ari; bo^ a Genitive and a Datiye after Al^(js;(fl^ A Genidvf 
is also £miii4 in Xenophon, Hellen« L i. p* 43^ 

Bw£d. Paris. i5l5. rjm m 3U^x^ xm £inaMNrflriMi.if M^m 

A(fli)<^ IS fcrilowed bj a Genitive: S» iu^» 1 ijpf^ 
AigJtfxfcf J^Mowm ;gy>y« ^: 

I^ Tauff. 79. -*-^ 9ia)b;cai( r 'fifiisim *IlMtMyffdlb>»<MM^ 

It is ahp used without a stibMantfiv<i : E. Fbmn. tb6f. Suffh 

408. Mscbjl^Agmm. \i\ : %i eii^&^ is- in £• Ti^. I3fi^ 

riLffldi^jga is found adimiailf E. AnJrom* 1204. The W^ 

. does not occur in the Come«Res of AristopfaaMri.' ^ 

After lia?iBg duly considered these passages^ it appiears* to 
m diat Mr. Porsoin uroidd Ml have beetr justiHaiblei if file hti 
admitted Musgnrve^s akerarion^ or that of' any other, ctidci^^ 
into the te;tt of his Hecubat 592* 

[7p be poH^nuedJy 

^la iu UsBCt Mr. Portea't opintoa of thit pMi^ nfUy we tmH^ 
ap|isaii. Mirkbwd reads \ tp^ y^ y^M A»*^xH» ^ >liMI8rsi^ 
points it| but in his no^ coajectures 'm ▲» at* a. <^W.|fjaf 7^ ^le* 

P4 ^ *»t. 

^fft., Xyi.^U'^H.'JBnpi^.'Uiid the $m^ of tie PMt MinJ amofijfn 

,, the Lower Cfof^a ^m ^ '^ Means of turning it to the W.elfarevf 

the State, th a Letter to William Wllbcrforcc,. Esq. M. T* By 

Arthur Young, Esq.. F-R'S.; 8v6. is. Richardson. 1798." 

THE author of this Inquiry gives avery^vourable and, in 
maxiv respects, a very just account of the'condijtion of the 
poor in tnis country, <:ontrasted with that ofthose who reside 
in neighbouring nations; and he then represents ihft danger, 
to which they are exposed, of being leducfed' intb' repub- 
licanism with regard to poUtics^ and into infideKty on the 
subject of religion. In ouropinxon, he feels or feigns alarm in 
a much greater degree than the actuarl state of the public mind, 
especially among 'the lowa> classes of the community,' ^ill 
justify. It i& not unconunoii- for men ju^ho sure ^really terrified, 
or who wish to produce terror in others, to exaggerate 8a:ex- 
isting evil ; and this we conceive to be ^be oase iaihepttesent 
instance. Ignors^QQC and prpflig^cy» and ^ di^poBiticm to in- 
dulge discontent and complaint^ have been always:mor<c com- 
mon in the inferior orders of society, thanu a 'friend to his 
country and tO' the tflie interest ef mankind would wi^h : but 
we do not. apprehend that, at tbc present pcrioc},' they arc 
more* prevalent* and'' notorious' than thiy Ifavfe bceii bn'Tormct 
occasions.' At all times, if is the dfity 'bf those who" poisess 
ffie Tcq\fisite talents^ and who^se statioas * give thetn ^n oppor- 
tunity and laf*AenS under a pcculfaFoBligaiSorij \ti fettligmen 
die'ignasaf^,>ttt«^8ttain thcUbenttous, and^Gf tran4uiBt2eilhe 
disconteatetf aftd /querulous. < -Mr. Youhg^ mode t^ stating 
the evil is not, we apprehend,, the n»D9t eligible a^-^he^iost 
«i«etttaL method lof. redressing it : .for eiEfigger^ition and cHmi- 
mtion are not thei>e8t means of £uardii9g against tl^^n^u^nce 
of either p<^itical or moial depr^yity.!^ Jnfiuite paiiis^hc ^ySt 
l^yp heje^ take%on,tlxe oise ha^id, tPrC^^pt the people y and, 
very much to oi\rsur|fjse he adds; ofi,tJi§,Cithcr^,j , ., 
r* * Wliatr.a^bl^k is presented KorUs;^vhfi^ we dw9B<I what .has 
jbesn.dpnfi b^ th^ legisljiture, to fipgober/tH^t tQireqt.-^f athfefso^ 
4eism, ixTtiig^onf^^ and contempt of,^3^ti;i|i.hi^majr/and .divine, 
Vhich has pervaded the nation like a J}? W'^^*]^ tlasphcmy, scdi- 
fion, treason, distributed for a'peiinvi'tneir antidotesToVa''sKiIIIng, 
^r half-a*crown.* . ■ ■ * ^' i 

' 'Jn another place, after having infifnafccl the good or bad ise 
that may be made of existing liberty 'ft diffHstfijtliit SiWe, 
irnd Mir. Wilberftircc's Practical View*,' br 'disseminating- !ra** 
'Pmney &G. he says that, *' horribW 'i^ f^i^nch principfcs aro^ 
Shey might be counteracted, v^rc "^bvferrtment as 'anxious in 
preserving, as Jacobips are sedulous in poisonings the minds of 
the people.* 
-* . la 

' Young on- th ZiaU ofsh BmIUc J^^mit . Z^ 

In order to guard the poor and laborious* 'agaz^st'lmbtbill|} 
tliscontent> he directs them to vi^w the ^»te of.Smt;&Qrland| 
;ind also that of Ireland, < where Atjmvf sec a.peais^U/ 
fraotic with disdbutent, yet witboiit-the powes of st ii^g n 
single grievance ; involving their country in anarchy, and ^tit^ 
ting throats, they kfiownot for what;' fevburs accnmulated 
upon them, <^et prdducihg no other cflfe^t'than darkening the 
I shades of di§cpntent, and sharpening the daggers re^^ to .be 

I plunged into the hearts of Jiheir benefactor^/ ^ 

He. farther leads them to consider ' ' .: / : 

* .Tbe almost, incakulahle and, to t2icin,..tpcredIUe sums which 
they -receive in the paymcat of thieir. hbovr, and in'the irebeipt of Its 
Inland voluutary charity. 1 havc.ealculat'td, and with some\atten« 
^ioo, the aiDQuat of ivhat ia paid for taiaur of all sorts iA£nglHiid; 
^i it 18 not» jprpbafaiy, lesa than one huojired millions Bterliag.; .poon 
[ rates, aad chanties of every, sort, cannot amount to less f ban stv^ 

millions. . Add/to this, the income (to the lower classei) denvad 
from xhe amount of our taxes, lo large a part of 'which, by firtha 
greatest partyis-ewMllowed Up by those diaiTfrs, and It will be a Ytkf 
nipderate calculaticm to estimate, ^halt a revolution in this coimtry^ 
through French' assistance, ^vould annihilate a greater massif incoins 
than. 18 enjoyed by all France, in. this u^ominit of. her triumph^ a|:(ipa4 
and misery at hopie.'' 

From such calculationsi Mr. Young ..infers that. ^ of «lji the 
k classes of a sta^e,^ none yould suffer ;more. by a tdvoluiic^ ^iim 

i the labouring pOqr, Except h be i|he gti^at landlprds -add tbe 

I i^lergy* These ^n^, facts suscaptible.^/danipifiati^tion: what^ 

' ^en, is the carei.thkt has been exert^ bf gpfveriMif^tt toiiave 

|hem, (:le4rly in^pi^efi^fid .op thfc minds of tiie; people ?'i . . v r 

Having explai»e4 th($ pojitical cai^e of the discontents^ .^icH 

be conceives toexistrafnongthe.lower classes,- the ^udmrdir 

^ rects the views of d)e r<a^(;r to that defect of, religious- i^true^ 

fion, of which the pbor, if they wer^ duly sensible of Its valuer 

would be dispose.d.t<> complain* A^ Our churchc;s >re'i|ovf 

arr^^ngedj he say^/ there can be no s^gh;thing as religions i in* 

^truction and public vtro^rship among the .lower classes iii cUf 

xnctfopolis. Our churchesi acQording to h^is accpunt, .a§eo^ te 

^ ^buiit oply for the rich : for thc'whole space which they int 

/Dlude is occupied by pews, to wl](icfa ;iie poor have no admlt^ 

I t£inca. The aislea are ^narrow, and in some churchq^/^tl^ere 

I are few or no bjcnches to sit on, and no mats, to kneel on/ r 

! Having stated the evil in his usual manner, he proceeds to 

specify the remedy, with respect particularly to London z 

* Build new churches in those parts of the town, where the poor 
iare most numerous. Let them be in the form of a theatre; the 
whole area occupied by benches for thrf poor, with thick mats to kneel 
^pdn V atid for the higher dassesi ranges of galleries, or boxes, con- 



lid temgmdiSiaiio/tbiPubSeXrtni. 

tntcA for hesrinf^ diseinctly. Do more t&ah biuld : proTMe pnacherit 
who tliaH tnculcatc tke vital Christilinky of the Church of Eng. 
hftd-; fior that aloot eaa adtnhiigtcr tru^ eomfort to th« niteraUe, 
tfie datfvsicd^ tkc poor^-^Tke service might be pa&rmcd feut 
t^o rirrjr Sumhy ; a«id if thr f^bvo^hcA wen as well eootmed for 
aeceiTing emners to bo render^ penkent, ^ tbeati:es are ior ooQcct^ 
ing them hx <thcr purpo«e8» thpusaods might* and iy>uld resort (o 

' Let this ex|)«nce be mcurrcd^ notwithstanding the charges of 
assessments, taxes and subscription/—^ Shall we go in cn)w4s to 
aabscribe for building a ship, or payine a regiment ; and shall we 
»otbc«dcsftt>'ti8of€OtttributiQ|; tOAn«&rmii»r^ greal basis 

ef every other. The mere hall of a single 74 wM^dboild two ehnrdies; 
wliich» IB the covne of a year, must cany the gospel ^ctrine of 
content, and of submission to kgal authority, to tbe hearts of many 
Aeufand* tt jmlMnt debased, profligate, and ready fiiremy mischidr.' 
mm* GoBukie Christianity is inoMisistent with revolt, or «vith discontent 
J» the midst of pknty. The true Christum will never be a kvdlerr 
wffl ncve^ listen to f^rench poUticsf, or to French philosophy. He 
vho wofihipt God in spirit' and in tmidi, wtU hive the gofvenimcnt 
and the laws which protect him, without asking hiy whom they mt 

Other evils, for which Mr. Young wishes that a remedy were 
provided, are—^the non-residence of the clergy, and their ex* 
ceptionaUe coniduct. Let those whom it concerns perose what 
hA aaya on this sul|}eet. To his ivmairka on the state of reK* 
gtout instmction ind eccresiasttcal discipline, h$ aobjoina aimi^ 
br reflections «ft tho syMem of our moral police ; and he can* 
tionaegainetmnting so many licences to public houses, whieh^ 
he adds, < is building revenue oil the rain of morals* It is to 
c8ta1>G^ public security on dlsaflbction to govemment-^k is 
to hold out a jacobin paper^aS a rival to the parson'd sermon-* 
ikis to consider iildustry as useless, and sobriety as a national 
losa* The financed that are levied on sudi principles will not 
Itottrisli kmg^ nor do they deserve prosperity.' 

The pernicious effect of wealth and luxury on the lower 
elassea of' the community is another subject on which the au* 
Aor enlarges; and to this he attributes much of that habi«» 
fual neglect of reltgion, and that spirit of infidelity, which are 
gaining ground, and which are promoted by the diil^oh 
and taint of French princrples. MaAy of nia rellectionav 
in this part of his address, are very just| and de^irve atten* 


( ^11 ) 

For FEBRUARY, 1795*. 

M A T H £ 1^ 1^ T I C ft. 

Art. 17. A Tr$(Uke 9m Sjhmcd^ Geometry, containing its funda^ 

mental Properties $ the Doctrine of its Loci \ the Max^na and 

lilini|i|a of Sphertcsll Liaei and Areas : with an Aopiioation ot' 

these Elements to a Variety of Problems* By John Howard. 

StoJ pp. 170. 6s. l^pard^ Longman. 17^* 

^HS ohject of this treatise is to advanoe the doctrine of the sphm^ 

^ which ias made hut small progress s^ice the time of thip antieot 

Geonctneii^s.— -The distribtttion of the wpvk is as fblloi»s : 

^ Book L contains the fundamental pnnciples of spherical asgba 
and triangle^ including not only those composed of p^ ch'cles of 
the q>liere ; but» in general, such as arc composed of circles olF Itm 
nidii. A sulijeet that I d9 not know h|» before been attempted. 

< Book II. contains the fundamental principles of spherical ^ua* 
dranglee, with some added properties of ^hencal qiiadrapgkf^ and 
determines the measunement of solid angles: 

* Book ill. contains a great many curioQS properties of str|ii^t: 
line8> and circles drawn from given points within and without the 
aurfece of the sphere, and terminating in the circuthferenoe of givett^ 
ephencal circles ; alsO; some cunous Loei of spherical angles Suid 
triangles, and of lines drawn to spherical and cylindri<;al enrfacesy'ana^ 
logons to some of the plane loci of Apolloniiis. And htM tlw 
reader w^ find many beautiful analogies betiiireen the jpropertiea of 
lines ^wn to meet in the surfiM:e of the 9fi^ex^ %x^ pt tho^ dn^wa 
to, meet in the circle Ml /i2sn^ ^ ^ . ^ 

< Book IV. includes the doctrine of spherical mofclm^ and nimmft % 
^nd )^^>^ J. ^^^9. ^^.^ founfl.a variety of new and useful pro* 
perties mative to triangles, polygons, &c.' not confined to figures 
Con^Qsed of great circles of the sphere; but, in generalf, extendipg ^ 
to suc^ SA are composed of circles of less cadii^. including the vt^ 
marka^Ife problem which detem>ines the curve, th^t under a g^vei^ 
|;crimeter, includes the greatest spheric^ Mi-irfapc, a^ also an ^ten* 
sire tbe<mm of solid umx^ ai^ mittimu. 

* Book V. (or I. of t^ iqNplic^tion) ccrntat^s tjbe construction ot^ 
sphericalproblems deduced from the foregoing principles; nvM&y of 
ifrhicb ^^ } trust, be found usfsful in aiitfpa^tnical researches i^ ^nd 
hm is itu^uded^ st series of curious proble^cis, analogpus to thos^, 
^hiiqlv vi^BTA b^ pon8t]^4^4 ^^i4^f,.9nd ^hat KEJa^4.T bps exi 
tended to planesr and spheres ; beginning with determining a circle 
on the ^h)|te that sl^jll pasa diroug^h. vm^ giveff points^ and tpn^V « 
circle given^in magnitude and positioPt ^ endipff vritb finding, ft 
circle on the sj^hp-e that sh^l toni^b. thii^ ^tfb^r pxc^^ ffMCjfx in xpag« 

< B^h VL (ov, IL of t^ a^lic^tip^) cQfft^fis a v»pf^ ctf prph* 
llBAa relati^ig to trifuiglfa^' 

TC»( fmffHm dWfinrcft thfi nptiKjfj of Philaei9^s, 




Art. iS, Specimens and^ Parts ; 'coMaining a History of tht County of 
Kentf and a.pisscrtation oi) the I#a\i's,. fi^om .the Reign of ILi- 
ward the Confessor to Edward the First; of a Topographical^' 
Coamcrdal, Civil, and Nautical Hhiory of -South Britain, with its 
gradual and comparative Progress .10. Trade, ^tts> Pbpulation, and 
Shipping, from authentic Documentfi« • By Samuel Henshfrlli Ckrik* 
M*A. Fellow of Brazen-Nose College, Oxford. 4t0w' pp« X75. 
los, 6d. Boards. Faulder. X798* • 

This ample title*page is foUowed by a ptospectus, &om which wc 
Icam' that it is Mr. IL's oiteDtion to conliojuLe a similar tnyescigatioir 
in every county, uip to the present reign ; and fhat his whole design 
will be completed in ten fascieuU% of the same size and plan as tm 
before us, .... 

The uadcrtaking is arduous, in proportion to the di$ooIty of it» 
excicution^ the extent of the subjects, and their importance in forming 
a gcnfuioe history of the early reigns* This specimen gives ^ map u£ 
Ken^ from Domesday4)ook-y and a new ^arrangement of its jcoateats 
in suqfiraary tables,. which are digested with dihgencc and perspicuity. 
In describing the early feudal tenures, and ascertaining the ran](. 
9nd privileges of -the tenants, an unconvmon acquainta ace with the 
Korman law, and its. influence in England during the first cent uriesi 
after the conquest, is displayed in almost every page* We rdtr our- 
leaders to. the. specimen itself, which. would suffer by an analysis^, 
cordi^y wishing that thd .attempt may. meet: with ite meirite^ eacou-^. 
ragemeiit and success. • • < ^ ; < 1 . . , . < ' 

ArtT. 19. 'Mift?eUaneous Antiqmties (lA, Continuation of the SiBIiotte^ 
* Topographica iBntanmca), No. 6. containing the History" and An^^ 
tiquities of T^wickenham, being the Firtit Part of Parochial CoUecv 
lions foi- tire 'County of Middlesex, begiin-in 1780. , 'By -Ed- 
war^ Ironside, Esq, 4to. pp.156, i OS. 6d. sewed.* f^ichbls* 

1797. ... ..•,.- . -r.,..; ... 

On tin's specimen of the parochial siifvey of the countj oPMtd^* 
Scx> and as the sixth No. of the contirtuStion of Mr. N»<^l^ol»'8 fli&f** 
/w«i/ antiquities, we would beg to hazard one or t\vo observiitions. 

Are exthicts of thfc mere names of obscure individuals from the re^ 
gister, and epitaphs given verbatim^ of sufficient importance to 'any 
class of t-eaders, to occupy ^jr^w^ages -out of 1561 larg^and 
bosely printed ? ^ . ... *' 

Arc a comparative st^atement of the price of jJrovisions frpn^ r73'd to 
1780, and a list of princfpai inhabitants m 178$ relating'td'a popii* 
lous village near' the^ap'it&l,- worthy of forming a part of i. generti} 
county history ? ^ ' ''"' 'y ' i • 

Oiir opinion is'iiV thc-ncgativej—^and- we hoped to hayefound some 
Kttle rcKcf in the dcsctifrtion of a place which is rendered chftsical by- 
thi long residence of PSipc and Walpble, and- highly embellished by 
the raiprt of the opulent and the polished : but wc have disco'ttrcd n& 
valuable snpplem^ntto the jijdicidus acfcottnt^Kei byMr.Lysons in hia 
Envir(|/ns of London (vol. iii. p. 5^8), whidt Mr* Ironside has very^ 
freely adopted^'as far is the facts. The ineni6ir0 of the learned Vioar» ' 
XI Gcorgff 

MokTHLY CatALOG0£) Ireland. . aij 

CkoTgc Costard, are the most interesting : but his portrait, and the 
other plates, arc positively below criticism J especially at a time like 
the present, when able artists abound, whose temploy meat is very 

Art, 2a. The History and Antiqulites of Tewhshury, By W. Dyde^ 
2d Edition, with considerable Additions and ' Corrections. 8vo» 

?p. 215. 6s. Boards. Printed at Tewkesbury, by the Editor, 
^ondon, Wilkie. 1798.. 

The first edition of tliis work has been already noticed with appro- 
bation in our annals *. It now appears in an enlarged and improved 
form, and may be considered as a pretty performance, fit once instruc- 
tive and entertaining. It is accompanied with a View of the Town^ 
and some other additional engravings, very well executed. 

Art. 21. Necessity of an Incorporate Union between Great Britain and 

Ireland^ proved from the Situation of both Kingdoms^ With a Sketch 

of the Principles on which it ought tq be formed. 8vo. pp. 132, 

28. 6d. Wright. 1799. 

Not one of the many tracts which we have seen, in favour of the 
proposed Unioii between Great Britain and Ireland, has taken a more 
comprehensive view of the subject than that which is now before us. 
The author supposes that the first idea, that an union was to take 
place between Great Britain and Ireland, originated with the public; 
whence he infers * a general coaviction, that some arrangemeirt must 
lie formed between the countries, to ensure their joint prosperity and 
mutual good understanding.' The manner in which the idea origin- 
ated does not affect its merits : but our belief is, that it first came to 
^e public in the sliape of a rumour that such a plan was in the con- 
lemplation of ministry, independently of any public or general con- 
tideration res{>ecting its necessity. 

The points which the author attempts to establish are, first, * that 
the present system is insufficient to promote the prosperity and en- 
sure the tranquillity of the empire ;' and 2dly, < that an incorporating 
union, forming the two nations into one kingdom, subject to the 
same laws, and governed by the same legislature, is the only means 
to accomplish these salutary effects/ After a short but clear states 
mcnt of the situation of Ireland previously to 1782, he observes that, 
« By the fiual recognition of her legislative independence, Ireland. 
then took a new station, in respect to this country, from that in 
which «he had previously stood. Two consequences necessarily fol- 
k>wed, from iter Parliament having gained the exclusive right to re« 
* gulatc her national interests ; both materially affecting her connection 
with Great Britain* First, it left no common bond of union be- 
tween the kingdoms, except what arose from their ac.knowledgment 
of: a coipmon sovereign. Secondly, it reduced their commercial in« 
tercourse to a mere matter of convention. It left each at liberty, 
ankss where bbu^d by positive compact, tp consider the other as a 
foreign nation ; to disregard its maritime regulations ; to exclude its 

' ^ '♦ S€eReyif9rMay X79t> N.S. p. 111. 

• ' conunodities 

a 14 MqtiTHtr GATAtOGUE, Inland. 

commodities from the home marketi or even to give % decided pre* 
fcrence to those of a rival suplc/ 

Sifter kingdoms, being portions of the same empire, he insists, 
'* paxxit admit of some common supremacy to regulate their mutual 
intercourse, and to improve and apply their physical strength to their 
joint advantage.' If the present system supplies such an authority, 
be adds, ^ it must be, that a principle of empire sufficient to regu- 
late the conduct of these islands to their mutual advantage is created 
by the unity of the executive government, or that it exists some- 
Where dse,* After having shewn that the prerogatives of the crown 
do not furnish power adecjuate to this purpose, lie demands, * where 
else, then, can this imperial principle be said to exist ? Surely not in 
tlvo legislatures, by their constitution wholly distinct and independ->^ 
ent ; possessing neither means n6r forms, nor even a painted chamber 
to communicate or hold a conference with each other.' 
' It must be obvious that a principle, sufficientlv powerful to direct 
the affairs of Ireland according to the views of the executive govern- 
meat of this country, has existed, notwithstanding the recent ^in- 
stance of the legislature of that kingdom rejecting the proposed pfam 
of an union ; which is only to be regarded as an exception to a nde, 
otherwise almost virithout exception. The wnfeer sdlows that the 
Irish Parliament, notwithstanding the ' giddy wishes of the peG^e, 
have wisely avoided all subjects of contest with this country, and 
prudently submitted to such regulations as her laws prescribe to ^e 
empire : but (adds he) a new malady, dangerous to the connection' 
of the countries, ha» arisen out of this very practice^ by which it has- 
been hitherto preserved. Artful, innovating men, have ascribed this 
acquiescence to servile and shameless corruption. They have ^nted 
the ParHament of Ireland as more attentive to the nod of a j3ritu& 
Minister, than to the interests or the will of that peo][de by whomr 
they arc chosen/ 

The rHithoT asserts, (we hope, erroneously,) that many wdl-affccted 
Iribhmen are oi opinion that a separation of the two countries would^ 
produce no ill consequences to Ireland* Many of the probable evds, 
which Ireland would have to sustain in consequence or a Separation^ 
are pointed out, and by no means exaggerated : -^indeed, we are of 
cg^inion that it is scarcely possible to exaggerate the description ofthe 
mischiefs which a separation woiild brin^ on both countries; and that it 
would be to each an event more fatal than any which has bcMkn 
^ther, since the Norman conquest. As a separate oonntry, the auJ%* 
thor justly renutrks, the very limited stiength of Irdand ' mast keep- 
iber in a state of relative insignificance, when Compared Wi&l those 
empires which predoraiuate in Europe.' — . * '* * 

. < Diminutive states iiavc neither means nor power to command '^ 
tranquillity, or ensure the prosperity of their people; They-cSeiiit 
father by the sufferance and jealousy of bore powerful aei^pkbottHs, 
than by their own inherent vigour. - ' »w 

* Mstay suchbave been.crpated* and dl ^ose wUeh k«ve extsfed 
since tile time of. the En^eror Charl^ Vt bare bee» Mnoared ?ftA 
pro.tected by the balance of power in Suiope.- Tkieir destniotioa- 
jHTas the first con5e<)uence.0f its faU. ThMe mi^girrepqblican storms, 


MMtHjLT CATALoCOFt Intund. %ii^ 

irhieh -ilMM>k 'Utde ^ovt tlum leafy and deciduous honoi»^ firom ^he 
mat monarchies of Europe, liave torn the lesser sCaScs from XkuSk 
iMiDdationay and laid diem prostrate.' 

Ireland may share greatness with others, but, by hers^ she caor 
not hope pren for tlut tranquillity which is essential to happiaess. 

The author has happily described the temper and abSities neces- 
sary for the examination of a question so important as a scheme of 
perpetual union; * 

' Those who consider an object which extends infinitely beyond 
our petty space of time upon the earth, should cautiouslT purge the 
nund of such little anxieties Tor aggrandisement as center m ourselves^ 
and must terminate with us. We must disencumber and lightea the 
iuiderBtan4ing of these selfish passions, whioh cannot flutter abov^ 
the narvow spot on which they are used to grovel, if we would rist 
to that degree of elcTatTon from whence, as from the true point of 
perspective, the mind's eye may wander over the entire phin ; survejr 
-Its proportions; examine its ends; compare its beauty with its use; 
and contrast Its durability with both.'— r* To frame or judge of the 
plans of a statesman,^ with the wisdom of a statesman^ requires k 
iCacistical knowledge of the country upon which they are tO opemte; 
profound views of hiiman nature ; a laborious and patient comparisoll 
of all that the wise and the disintei'ested have aecomplished| and 
all in which they have failed, to assuage the evils and augment the 
happiness of h^utian life.' 

Having remarked on the inconveniences of the different kinds of 
■fiederal union, and on the advantages of an incorporate union* as die 
•nly one suited to the present occasion, the writer states the fbI)o«^* 
.ing objections, which are most likely to be firged : 

* X. That ^ it would destroy the very name of Ireland as a natioa* 
2. It would annihilate her Government and her independence. 3* It 
would greatly increase the preponderance of English influence : every 
place, worth having, would be conferred on Ei^lishmeh f the re- 
tainers of ministers, peers, or persons otherwise of great English it^ 
terest. 4, The numbs^r of absentees would be greatly augiAented. 
5. Dublittji the capital and present seat of the legislature, would be 
reduced to the state of an inconsiderable village. 6. It would brmg 
that country into partnership as to t^ie debts» as well as the pvoi- 
•perity of England, and her taxes would be increased ta an enonfioui 
extent."* ' ^ 

^ Of these,; the ^d and last are p€rluq)s the most important. Th2 
establishment of a new government necessarily annihilates tha^ old: 
the only question worth consideration is, whether the new be pMT- 
fqrable to tliat which it has superseded. Indopendencof, like^se^ 
cannot belong to any separate portion of a state-; und this wilL aoply 
tp'Wh countries. The share of political importance which- trelaad 
would enjoy,, if she were fairly represented in an united parlipnum^ 
Would probabty be' more than she at present possesses^- and wf as^ 
witting to believe, with the writer, tlkt the ' obj^otion built u|kmI 
\ht supposition that a narrow principle of riralship.audjaalAM^ iltitst 
^ continue to exist between the two countries, atthoi|g^ an uais^ sbMld 
^ke place/ is void of foundation ; and that an unitefl legislature 

ts6 MdMTHLT CATALdCuE, tr^oni. 

wtMiId be actuated by a Aiore liberal spirit. Another ground cm 
«ich{cH Iitland may hesitate, not^thstandiag that she faatf no preten* 
&ion8 to superiority in that res^ect^ is the present state of our re« 

The latter pages are occupied with schemes of financial adjust* 
nent. The following is the outline of what the author pro- < 
poses : 

< The debt of that kingdom which is the least majr be easily con* 
Kolidatcd with a' portion of that which is the greater ; calculated m a 
proportionate ratio to the number of Representatives which each re- 
turn» to the Legislature. But as the excess of debt will still remain 
considerable on the side of Great Britain, she has two ways of pro* 
%iding for it, without injury to Ireland. By the first, it may be iih« 
posed upon the two countries indi£FerentIy ; this kingdom, paying an 
equivalent in money to Ireland, proportioned to the burthen whith 
would thus fall upon her td sustain ; the equivalent to be laid out ^* 
clusively for her advantage and improvement. By the second, she 
m^y , take it entirely upon nerself, and raise the means upon her own 
people to defray the interest, and discharge the principal.' 

The Tate decision in Ireland, on the question.of an Union, had not 
taken place when this publication first made its appearance. The 
author is an able advocate for the cause which he has undertaken : 
but some may think that he is not free from partiality to this coun- 
try ; and perhaps it may be said,— on the other side of the Water, at 
•leasr,-^that he rates too highly the obligations wbich she has conferred 
•on Ireland. His reasonings, however, are clear ; and it must be ac- 
knowleged that many of his arguments, in favour of an Incorporate 
Union with Ireland, have great weight. 

•Art. 22*. Argumenls. for and againft the Union hettoeen Great Britatn 
and Ireland^ considered, 8vo. pp. 58. is. 6d. Printed at Dublin ; 
reprinted in London, for Wright. 
• The title prefixed to this pamphlet led us to expect ah unpartial 
statement of both sides of the question ; instead of which, the aim of 
the writer is wholly directed to prove the benefit of the proposed 
union. No arguments on the other side are advanced by him, except 
with the design of refutation ; — and his ideas of political expedience he 
endeavours to maintain with too little respect for right. His leading 
position is the preservation of the protcstant ascendancy ; and loss of 
power is treated, as loss of right. 

' 'that justice shall in any case be superseded by motives of expe- 
. diency can be excusable on no other plea than that of self-defence. 
Ireland, ever since it has been subject to the crown of Great Britain, 
^as^ in fact, been united to ^is country. Whether, by incorporating 
the legislatures, the union will be stronger, will most probably depend 
tm the principles on which such a measure shall be carried into effect : 
but it is,, no' doubt, in the power of this country, by acting with 

i'ustice towards Ireland, to make such an union palatable to every 
lonest man on both sides of the water.— With respect to the pam^ 
phlet before us, it may be said to contain more of information than 
vf sound argument* 


MoNTHLt Catalogue; irii^nd. r 217 

Art. 25i Cease ^otir Funhhg. , 8vo. is. 6d. . Dublm printed j Dc* 
brett, Aondori. 1799. 

The proribied schone of uiiion between Great Britain and Irdand. 
' has naturally called forth the exercise of considerable abilities oa 
both sides of the queftion. The writer of this pamphlet is a warm 
opposer of the njeasure. He attacks the author o£ jirgumenisfor 
'ana agcnrut an ifnion considtred in a strain of severe irony, which is 
contipued throughout ; — ^but his language is frequently too strong j 
and there is not a sufficient portion of that light and relief whick 
are the soul of irony, and without which the author's real meaning 
sometimes appears ambiguous. 

A measure involving so many complicated and contradictory in-, 
tcrcsts as an union between twy kingdoms, and wliich would 
certain!)' be productive of so many advantages and, disadvantages^ 
must afford an inexhaustible fund for disputation. The misfortune 
IS, that there aire so few who enter the lists for the purpose of faii: 
investigation. ^ 

Art. 24. Letferr on the Subject of Union, In which Mr. Jebb'f 

* Reply *' is considered ; and the Competence of Parliament to , 
bind Ireland to an Union is asserted. By a Barrister and Menw 
ber of Parliament. 8vo. 2s. Printed at Dublin : Reprinted ia 
London, for Wright. 1799. 

Some of these letters are addressed to William Saurin, Esq* ait 
eminent barrister in Dublin^ and Captain of the Lawyers' Corpse 
and others to Richard Jcbb, Esq. The concludino; Letter is addtessed 
to the Roman Catholics of Ireland. Though the author writes ia 
A lively and rather eccentric manner, he is a good arguer, and, with 
a semblance of simplicity, makes many shrewd remarks. His rea^* 
toning in favour of encouraging doubts, in the discussion of ish« 
portant questions, is entertaining and uncommon. . 

*.Mcn are not zealous (still less are they violent) in supporting an 
opinion the truth of which they doubt. We do not venture to stamp 
and rant, where we are not sure tliat we are standing on firm ground*, , 
Now, , as a violent support of either side of the present question 
^es not seem calculated to promote the happiness or tranquillity of 
our country, that man is perhaps something more than justified, who 
would excite doubts, for the purpose of appeasing violence.* — 

• He who chooses to weigh the arguments before he decides the 
question, is not a weaker man than him who decides without exa- 
mmation ; yet the period of examination vn)l be a period of doubt* 
and the duration of this period will bear some proportion to the 
complication of the question, and to the number of the arguments 
which It supplies. IBut this interval of uncertainty it has been my 
k)t to find scorned by the promptitude and sublimity of many of 
those 'ffcniuses with whom I jiave conversed on the subject of 
tJnion.^ • * 

The writer combats tl^ propriety of a premature and unqualified 
rejection of the abstract question of Union, as being excuseable 

' 1 ■ ■ ■ ^ — ' " ■■ ^ 

* Mr. Jebb's Reply is not yet before us. 

Rkv. F«b. 1799* <i^ ♦nlf 

2i9 MonthIt CATAL0<?gB7 Ireland. ' * ' 

phly In those wlio are prepared to assert * that no scheme of Umon can 
h^ devised, 'which will not Be injunous to Ireland J t^*H (says he) I 
it/kvt tikked wliether an Union would be advantageous to Ireland, I 
should answer ^Vj/ selon : — that Union in the abstract is a thing «r- 
Mfferent, and becomes good or bad aecording to the kind of Uniofli 
that it is. and^to the circumstances under which it is obtained.' In^' 
steai of the questioti « whether there be arty thiiig that by an Union 
(!an be obtained from Great Britain, wliich she mi^ht not grant with- 
out ari Union,* he observes, another qutstioh might be substituted^ 
u e. whether Great BrlJaln 'unllhe, or, in Sound policy, ought tp be 
as liberal. In a connection under cirsuni stances tenjdihg to promote a 
jealous and reserved policy, as in an Union ? 
"* In answer to the hackneyed objection against reform or alteration,, 
that " tlus is not the proper time," the writer asks ; if Ireland hadbectf 
peaceably advancing In industry, and had * now attained that pro- 
sperity, which I trust still awaits her, w6uld this be the proper 
period for proposing an Union ? — Could the Minister gravely tell the 
Parliameilt, or'the People, that their situation being mamfistly ptospermu 
Und 'happy in d high degree^ he thought they could not do batter than trnmi* 
diafely aher and correct that Constitutionj under which tluir prosperity and 
happiness had gf-o^vn,' . . 

In the two concluding letters, the question of the competency of 
|larlitfmeut is argued, and opinions of great lawyers are quoted on 
th^fr . absolute atld- ancontrollable authority of paHiaments* If WC' 
•h(hild venture an opinion on thie subject, it would be that^ when a. 
parliament or legitldture is so constituted as to express the real seUsg and 
^iihes of the people for whom it legislates y such a parliament will not, 
skiim alsoluti supremacy y unless it is willingly concede^, to them by its. 

Art. 25. An Examination into the Discontents tn Ireland ; with Re^ 
marks on the Writ?ngs and Interference, ex officio, of ' Arthur 
Youiig, Esq. Being a faithful Narrative of the oufferings of the 
Roman Catfiolic Peasantry, fiom the Operation of Tithes, the 
Payment and Exactions of Surplice Fees, &c. Shewing, hy » 
»cry easy Method, a Plan for the Tranquillization of that Kmg- 
dom. By William BIngley, /owr/mi Tairs a Resident in Irclandi* 
4to. 23. 6d. Sold by the Editor, at .No, 2, Red-Lion-Passagc; 
- Fleet-Street. 1799. 

Th<^ pubirc-spirited writer of this tract, who fs well known on' 
accoui^t of some former productions of a political nature, haS in- 
cidentally bee* funiished with singular opportunities of judging, 
from a personal acquaintance v.'it\i facts, of the real state of the cbun-' 
try and country-people of Ireland, and of the actual nature arid* con- 
sequence of the grievances to whLch the late insurrections and fatal 
occurrences in tj^ sister kingdom have been, or may be, ascribed; 
These he here points out, for the particular consideration of hi* 
English readers ; and he has done Ms with every appearance of 
«andour, Icmperance, and sagacity of observation. Indited, these 
details ha^ Mofded us more satisfactory info rmati on on the subject,, 
than we have found m al) the swarm of speeches,, pamphlets, and 
ttcwtpaper-etsaysi which have lately beea circulated on tbif «idc of 

- the 

Monthly Catalogue, PoIUics^ lie. ^19 

the water ; and perhaps the same remark may apply to the greatest 
part of what has appeared on both sides. — We suggest tkrs opinion 
111 fnll conviction that the author is right in his conclusicwr, that ouf 
statesmen and poh'ticians * have begun at the wrong end/ in their 
measures for terminating the differences which have so unhappily di- 
vided and harassed the tv^o nations. He dwells, especially, on the 
Blatter of tithes, &c. the weight of which, he is firmly persuaded, 
the Roman Catholic inhabitants, (the peasantry, |)articularly , ) never 
will nor can patiently endure. Remove this stumbling block, thifl 
* hone of contention y and the writer is decidedly of opinion that all the 
cmttention nov^ subsisting, in regard to the government and peace of 
Irelaild, will speedily subside, and he no more ! 

With respect to a due provision for the established clergy, he pro- 
poses a plan for their * better maintenance y which seems liable to little, 
if any, reasonable objection ; though possibly, considerable improve- 
ixicnt may be added to it. 

Mr. B. offers many other observations and arguments, on pomts of 
coQateral import : the whole forming a miscellany not devoid of cn- 
tertainmeat, and certainly abounding with useful information. 


Art. 26. An Addrefs to the "People ^ on the present relative Sltuationt of . 

England and PratuCf with Reflections on the Genius of Democracy, 

and on Parliamentary Reform. By Robert Fellowcs, A. B. 

OxoD. i2mo. IS. 6d. Rivingtons. 1799. 

A spirited and animated writer is generally himself hurried, and ' 
consequently endeavours to carry his renders to extremes. It is not 
so with Mr. F., who is energetic without being violent ; and who 
pttservcfi great moderation ef senti'nent in the midst of. 'glowing cx- 
|>re«Mo/i8» He docs not declaim against republican democracy be- 
cause he is partial to absolute monarcliy ; nor, in combating the doc- 
trine of universal suffrage, does he scout all ideas of parliamentary 
refornl. So far from subseiibin;^ to the doctrine of divine right, 
he asserts that'' there is no truth which appears more plain ana in- 
disputable to his mind than this, that all government is a power in 
trust y and that the only valid title-deed or its right is the will of thf 
people.' Notwithstanding this, however, Mr. F. is a most strenu- 
ous advocate for kingly government, in opposition to the republican 
system ; and he has supported his preference 6y the liaost weighty 
arguments. *• In monarchy, there is a certain limit, at which^ ambi- 
tious expectation ends ; in democracy, there is no quiescence to the 
ilcmon of aspinng pride till it reaches the pinnacle of tyranny.-— In . 
monarchy, there is a wish to be liigh ; in democracy to be highest x 
in the one, individuals are emulous to the great, in the other, to the 
|;#date8t.'-«>-Ii> moiui^hy, the highest station of power is no okgect o^ 
CQvy ; in democracy envy is busy even with the lowest.— The feic- 
taiim, that agitate a democracy,* resentble the eruptions of a volcano, 
that spvead devastation and ruin through the space which they oc« ^ 
««py ; in a monarchy they are more like the mists, that ^Ife^ 
and firat »way t^i)c kafmless rage round the susmit of the moh&» 

C^z - After 

>3^ Monthly CiiTALoGDE, Politics^ JfJV. 

After this contrast, it^is scarcely necessary to add that this Ail-- 
dress exhibits no favourable picture of modern France. Mr. F. 
JHStly thinks, indeed, that we ought to be thankful that Directorial 
despotism is not suffered to stalk, with strides of ruia, through this 

On one subject which Mr. F. has introduced in a note, wc wish 
that he had written a pamphlet, \iz. The influence of property on 
principle ; shewing how far virtue depends on a certain share of phy- 
sical happiness, and consequently how far the morality of the people 
may be amended by an improvement of their circumftancc^. Such 
a discussion will lead to a juil view of the state of the poor, and 
will expose the fol'iy of that system of laws which endeavours to im- 
prove their morals by (as it were) annihilating ihem as members of 
-tlw; community. It will perhaps be discovered that our poor-laws 
originate in a mistake. * Philosophers (says Mr. F.) have never eit- 
plained the true relations between physical want, and the want of 
moral principle;* — will he permit us, then, to request liim to oblige the 
public with this important explanation I By the sketch which he . 
has given, we think that we perceive his ability to finish the. picture. 

Art. 27. Suhsiance^ of Mr, Canning*! Speech in the House of Commons 9. 

Dec. II, 1798» on Mr. Tierney's Motion respecting Continental 

Alliances. 8vo. is. 6d. Wright.- 

We believe that past experience must have sufficiently instructed 
our count! ymen, what degree of dependence is to be placed On con- 
tinental aUiances'; especially those of which the principal cement is 
British gold. Neither Mr. Canning's arguments, nor his acknow- 
leged eloquence, have lessened our distrust. 

Art. 28. Tax vfion Income^ as stated in Mr. Pitt's Speech, Dec* 5^ 
1 798, impartially considered. By a Member of Parliament. Svo* 
. IS. Clement. 

This pamphlet contains many strong arguments against the priot 
ciple of taxing income ; and particularly against taxing such income 
as arises from industry >. in the same proportion as that which arises 
from capital. 

Art. 29. Tests of the National IFealth and Finances of Great Britmfff 
in Dec. 1798. 8vo. is. 6d. White. 
This writer infers, from the increase of our taxes, the increase of 
the national wealth. His pamphlet likewise contains some remarks 
on the redemption of the land tax, and the copy of a letter from the 
author to Mr. Pitt on that subject ; in which he proposes a phm to 
chablc the proprietor of land, by borrowing, (if he cannot otlierwisc' 
effect his purpose,) to. purchase the redemption of his land-tax. 

Art. 30. State of the Country in the Autumn of 1 798. 8vo. ]«• 

A gknving panegyric on Government ; * which,* says the writer, 
* has been the instrument, in the hands of Heaven, to effect our de- 
liverance, and. to conduct us to safety and to. glory. Wliat mu€t: be 
the tree which has produced such fruit V Speaking of the continental 
powers that have been confederated against, France, he says, *.Wc 



Monthly Catalogto, Politicsy bfc. aai 

Jove done our part, and shall, I trust, continue to do it. — Let fhentp 
«ven now, do theirs, and the World is saved.' 

Art. 31. ^ Measure productive of substantial Benefit s^ to Govemmenty 
the Country, the Public Funds, and ,to Bant Sto^k;. Respectfully 
aubmitted to the Governors, Directory and Proprietors of the 
Bank of England. By Simeon Pope. 8vo. pp. 46. is. 6d« 
Richardson. 1 799. 

The measure proposed by Mr. Pope is. as follows : 
* Let the Bank of England (under the sanction of Parb'ament) 
advance to Government, this year, the sum of ten millions, at an 
interest of four per cent, and payable in ten instalments, on the secu- 
rity or credit of the general income tax for the ensuing year 1800-^ 
then to be optional in the Bank proprietors to extend or not the loan 
to the year. 1801-^and so to every succeeding year as long as the ta^ 
shall exist.' 

The most important objection to this plan is the increase of baojw ' 
paper in circulation which it might cause. Mr. P. supposes that, 
the sum being advanced by instalments, the notes issued for the fir^t 
wiU, in the common course of business, have returned to the bank 
before the second instalment becomes payable : — ^but if not, he af- 
firms that, in our present circumstances, an * emission of more than 
double the notes at this time in circulation is justiiiable.' If the 
Bank be re&tiaiued from paying in specie, and under no restraint as to 
the quantity of paper which it niay circulate. It may well afford 
to Jegd to. government any number of ntiilUons : but a dispropor- 
tionate use of such a licence endangers not only public credit, but all 
property in the kingdom. We believe the legislature to be the anly 
judge competent to determine the quantity of bank notes whiph 
should be allowed to circulate. 

Mr. P. advances several positions to which we cannot accede. He 
is of opinion, for instance, that taxes which distress the farmer are be- 
neficial, and occasion overflowing markets and low prices : — but, if th,e 
farmer carries more to the market than the average protluce, he mu3t 
lessen his stock, and future years will suffer for a present plenty. — 
The style of this pamphlet is too florid -for such sober subjects ^8 
money and artithmetical calculations. 

Art. 32. The Speech of Sir John Sinclair^ Bart. M, P. &c. on the 
Bill for imposing a Tax upon Income, in the Debate on that Bill, 
on Friday the 14th December 1798. 8yo. 6d. Debrett. 1799. 
* Sir John Sinclair regards the funding system as * the climax of 
financial invention, the greatest of all political discoveries, 'the most 
valuable mine,' &c. If there be merit in anticipating revenue and in 
incurring debt, the modems are not entitled to jhe honour of the in- 
vention ; for it IS a discovery of very antient date. Funding depen4s 
OW the ability of the borrower, and on the credit which the opi- 
nion of that ability creates. When Governments anticipat^e, if 
there |[)C a want of ability in the country, or a deficiency of creditf 
they become bankrupt. Nothing strengthens so much as the prac- 
tice of funding, in appearance, the mischievous political paradox that 
private vices arc public .benefits. In Sir John's speech, it is appr^- 
pj::n(ji.ed) as a misfortune^ that 'a spirit of economy may be introduced 

O 3 into 

zzt Monthly Catalogue, P^lUks^ Itfc. 

into the establishments of private families. Yet it must invariably hp 
true, and mathematically demonstrable, that the less each individual 
expends on himself, the more he might afford to contribute to the 
public support. 

* If (says he) a new plan must be adopted, and if property^ instead of 
expenditure, mast be attacked, it becomes a matter of nice discussion, 
whether the extraordinary contribution should be raised by a tax on 
capital, or a tax on income, or by blending the two together, which," 
though the mo&t complicated, yet being unquestionably the justcst, 
ought to be preferred. What I mean is, that every man should pay, 
instead of lO per cent, on his income, \ per cent, on his capital, and 
5 per cent* on his income, by which persona who had no capital, 
would be greatly relieved, and those ^who were possessed of consider- 
able property, would pay more in propprtion to their opulence, than 

.under the system that is proposed. 

* Almost the only olyection to this plan is, the difficulty of asceN 
/ taining the value of a man's capital.' 

There appears to us at least one other objection : the present tax 
on income may prove, in many ca^es, partial: but would the plan 
proposed by Sir John Sinclair be less so ? Land, he classes ae^ in- 
come. Reckoning land, which produces a clear annual rental of one 
thousand pounds, at 25 years* purchase ; then property worth 
£* 25,000, if it be in land, will not be required to contribute mort 
than will be demanded from property of ;^. 10,000 value which shall 
be deemed capital. Such great tenderness shewn to the landed in- 
terest could not be very encouraging to industry, and ill accords with 
the professed object, thai those tuho were possessed of considefahh pr6* 
Periy should pay in proportion to their opulence. 

Art. 33. The Substance of a Speech made by Lord Auckland in the 
House of Peersy 8th January 1799, on the ^d Reading of the 
Bill for granting certain Duties upon Income, 8vo. is. Wright, 
The political opinions of this Noble Loid being so generally known, 
jmd the subject of the speech before us having been so fully discussed, 
inany remarks will not now be necessary. The principle of gradual 
rise in taxation, or •of requiring a higher proportion from the higher 
classes,' hi« Lordship thinks, is objectionable, as having a levelling ten- 
dency ; and * that it would amount to neither more nor less than the 
Jnfroduction of a plan for equah'zing fortunes ; and to the implied in- 
ference, that, because a mao possesses n:uch, therefore moi'e shall 
be taken from him than is proportionably taken from others.* On 
the merits of thisr objection, there will be various opinions. Hia 
Lordship has not thought it necessary to add weight to it by ar- 

The noble Lord endeavours to prove tliat every species of annuity 
dr income is equally valuable. He demand'^ ; 

* Will it be contended, that, in point of real value, an unsettled 
CRtatc, which its owner will leave to hi:? son, fa* of more worth to him, 
tlian if the eume estate were for his lift- gnly, and already settled on 
his son and his descendants ? Would an Cistate so settled for life with 
remainder to his son, be more vuliKtble to him, than it would be, if 
he had no son, and it were, set^Kd on ijonie distant relation or oh a 

stranorcT ? 

MONTHLT CaTALOGHTCj P^ttJ^ Isfc^ , fllj^ 

ilrangtr ? And if on a stranger, how is it more valuable to the .p9.|- 
«e88or than any other anpuity for life V ... 

The erases here supposed do not seem selected on account . gff 
their, di&ulty. All "property left by those who have no child refl 
musty in course, go to more distant relations, or to strangers.: but 
how win any of the cases mentioned apply to that of a man paving 
children, whose annuity nevertheless expires with him, or is perhapi 
only for a short term of years, ano who must depend on what he 
can save during the term, for the maintenance of himself and Ids 
family after its expiration ? 

The change in political opinions which has of late years taken 
place in this country, is strikingly exemplified in the following' •pa- 
ragraph of this speech ; in which^ alluding to some ^expressions ip 
his letters addressed |o the Earl of Carlisle, written in 177.9, ^"^ 
which were now quoted by the Earl, in debate^, Lord A^ says, 

' If however the Noble Lord had adverted .with his usual accuracf 
to the context of the passages' which he thought proper to cite, be 
w>uld have found, that they related to a volijntary contribution to 
be dependent on the enthusiasm of the contributors ; or if to .a forced 
and ffeneral contributioo, then to be dependent on a mere voluntary 
disdwu're of inconfft. At the period of which \ speeak, it never ctt«> 
tered into thcminds of the most enlightened statesmen (and I ap- 
peal to a Noble and Learned Friend * who now hears me, and was 
conversant in the discussions to which I refer) that \i could be prac- 
ticable to establish a forced and general contribution on the only just 
and efficient system of a forced disclosure.' 


Art. 54. Sidney. A Monody, occasioned by the Lots of the Vici- ' 

k)y Packet, on her Passage from Liverpool to Dublin, in Dec. 

1798. 4to. 2s. Rickman. 

We wish not to repress sensibility, when excited by unafFeot^fci^ 
Borrow : but there is something so- singularly mechanical in the afflic- 
tion which is )3aid to have produced these lines, by atiticipatirH^ 
the ifeath of the 1?wo youths whom they were intended to bewail, 
and transferring them to two others who were not in the authoffs 
thoQghts when they were written, that we must own their effect on 
our teelings td have been rather feeble, ' 

The effusions of a poetical imagination, even in fictitious sorro^', 
if iDumined by the slightest radiations of genius^ and if not et- 
trelftely wild, we are ever disposed to treat with lenity : but, when . 
the best lines and sentiments of a production called a Monodvy or 
whatever be its title, consist of threds and patches from the writings 
of others, It cannot claim,—* nor ought it, through tenderness, to ; 
receive — the praises due to' works of real merit. 

This monody may be very acceptable, perhaps, to the author^* 
friends, and to the particular families which have been bereaved bf 
their children bj; the calamity described ; without being fit for the 
gablie we, whicti can be repaid for perusal oaly by real poetical merits 
What firtue can there be in the oame ofLycidas, or Sidney ^ to cgmpen- 

< * The Lord Chancellor,' .. ^\. J. ^ 

'«4 M'ovmiv CXTAtoduK, P0rtr7^ t^ci 

sate for defects of composition? The untimely death of dogg, cz^t^* 
and birds, has often been bewailed with wit and ingenuity in the bn- 
jpiagc of apiTow: JDut the merit of these fugitive fieces did not rc5^ ' 
on the name of Caesar, Pompey, or Selima. 

Though the author calls on a Muse in tHe first stanza^ he bids her 
l^et about her business in the second : 

^ Amid the sacred griefs which rend my heart, 
what sympathizing Muse will bear a part ??— 7 

* Far hence be all the giddy train 
Of fabled inspiration, light and vain/ 

The title of Sidney, which, like Lycidas, seems merely to imply 
an individual, must perplex arid embarrass those English readers wh^ 
iave not had a Sir Hugh Evans to tell them that " there is numbers 
in nouns," or have never heard of the Greeks wntlne and speaking in 
the dual number : for Sidney here implies two brothers sharing "the 
same melancholy fate. The sorrow seems equally fictitious with the 
name. The author may, however, boast at least one requisite for a 
poet : for he Invents not only the sorrow but the occasioh ; and in- 
deed he has found so many scraps and allusions to his purpose ia . 
-Milton, Gray, .and other plaintive bards, thatjiis compilation re- 
-tninds u^of what musicians call, not a M^nody^ but a Mediey. - - ' 

Art. 35. CafnbrO'BrltonSf an Historical' Play, in Three A^ct%, Fii*st 
' pcrformeid at the Theatre- Royal, Haymarket, July 2I9 179?- 
'•With a 'Preface. Written by James Boaden, Esq, 8vo. 2^ 
Robinsons. 1798. ' - 

Historical playfi 'very rarely observe the truth of history. Faith- 
fully ta e^^hibit the march and issue of events in real hfc would ni^t 
exactly answer the play-wright's purpose- Fiction must be invoked, 
in order to g\wt a continued interest to the drama ; and probability 
jnust be outraged, in order to surprise and give stage effect. Ghosta 
and spectres have lately received some countenance, to the no small 
satisfaction of the dramatic writer ; who is happy, when piit to a dif- 
ficulty, to avail himself of the ready assistance of these preternatural 
beings. Hence a splendid and amusing scene is exhibited to tlie gal«' 
Jeries, but good taste is al>yays disgusted. Mr. Boaden, in order to pro- 4 
duce a sudden reconciliation between Llewellyn (the hero of the piec^) 
and l>is brother' David, makes the tomb of tlieir mother <* ope itsj 
ponderous and marble jaws!' to vomit forth her ghost; vyhich being 
accomplished, the apparition magnificently ascends to the upper re-- 
^ions ! Thus, by the intervention of this cerulean-coloured ghost, the 
angry hocblpoded Welshmen are prevented from destroying each 
l>ther : a momentary change from hatred to love is effected j and 
j)avio, who just before was in rebellion against his brother LlcwcUyn 
and ^tixipos fo deprive him of his mistress, returns to his allegiance, 
renounces his passion, and undertakes to conduct Elinor from 
jCHeiiter, where she ^as in captivity, to Llewellyn's retreat in the • 
fastnesses of Snowdon. Jt must be confessed that this maternal ^rhost 
is not invoked for' nothing, for no sprite could do more in less tim^' : 
but was it necessary to oblige the tombs to give up their dead, in 
fcrdcr to bring a rebellious brother to *a sense of hi« duty? The 
'^'^^ • " . -...,•<- . . ^^^^ 


Monthly Catalogue, Poetry^ lis. «25 , 

aUge cannot produce its proper moral effect by such a condqct. Are 
ghoats necessary to frighten to repejitancc ? Is conscience so weak 
that It must be supematurally aided before it can do its duty? Miser- 
able erroneous doctrine ! Would it not have been jijore Judicious in 
f he poet, to have brought the offending brother to seek fgr recoup 
filiation with his prince by ** compunctious yisitingj of nature V* 

The piece in other respects is not ill conducted, and the character^ 
arc well delineated. Welsh scenery and Welsh bards are introduced ; 
and Llewellyn, instead of being conducted to a miserable end, triumphs, 
and'becomes the ally of Edward. The play abounds with loyal sen- 
timents, and is calculated to inspire ardor against an invading 

Art. 36. TChe "Patrons of Gemus : a Satirical Poem. With Anec- 
dotes of their Dependents, Votaries, and Toad-eaters. Part the 

First. 4to. 28. 6d. Parsons. 1798. 

^his poem will probably be read by all parties, as the kuthor callg 
f^ a spade a spade,'/ and favours neither power nor person, nor pror 
fcssion. It is written on the plan (so often adopted^ of the first satire 
of Pe^:siu8. 

With respect ^o the little patronage at present bestowed on geniua 
by the great, we must observe that the time for expecting specific 
simas for dedications, and remuneration for flattery, is past. Au- 
^ors are now too numerous, and the great aie too poor, for such com^- 
kncrce. If a work has real merit, the Public does more for it, by 
^enabling the booksellers to give a price for the copy-right, than, in 
^imes wtien a Mecacnas could be found, any auUior could ever expect 
from individual patronage. Pope, the first poet who ceased to solicit 
patronage, j( except for the subscription to his Homer,J was the first 
who acquired a consideratle fortune by the sale of his writings. 
Every man can dedicate, but every man cannot produce a great 
work. It 18 well known that, in all countries, as civilization ap- 
. pFoaches, hospitality recedes : so in litei-ature, while the writers and 
xeadcrs are few, patronage is wanting to encourage ingenuity and dtH* 
gence to instruct and amuse mankind. 

The personages ^s^ailed in this satire have a sturdy foe to encotm« 
ter. If, uiiluckily, some of our friends be among them, however 
we may'wish tp ipount t}ie stage in their defence, our interference 
might, possibly, have no other effect than to render future flagellation 
atiu more violent. We must therefore leave them to fight their own 
tattles \ — for, though Broughtoo, the Pugilist and Beaf-eater, when 
in Germany, having had a quarrel with some soldiers of a Hanoverian 
regiment, is said to have offered to %ht every individual of that 
corps, provided he might Ijiave leave to return home when he had 
'done ; wc cannot *^ screw qur courage to the striking place" tight 
enough ito fight^or a whole regiment ^traite by one who might an- 
swer, perhaps, if asked his name, — " my name is Legion.*^ 

We shall therefore, without attempting a defence of the nominal 
pulprits, merely bear ^'ur testimony to the abilities of the judge, and 
present our feaders with the exordium to his poem ; which will at 
pDce manifest the author's design, and serve as a specixncn of the 
Bolish ai)d force of Km numbers ; 

aad ' MoNTHLT Catalogue, P<?^/r;,.(5'r. 

* Beat to the ground at life's meridiaa atagc^ . 
Like fruit mature by equinoctial rage; 
O'erwhelm'd with illsy by many a care consumed, 
Misfortune's child, to disappointment doom'd : 
Perplcx'd, dejected, doubtiul what to do, 
I summon'd all my friends : — My friends were two j 
One was Petronius, Cassius one by name ; — 
'Twas but advice I wanted — and tliey came* 
The first, endow'd with ev'ry gentle grace, 
Smooth was his speech, and smoother was his face ; 
Trim his appai-cl, Courtier-like his air — 
A wond'rous fav'ritc of the young and fair. 
Nor yet of worth or honour did he lack : 
Strong, tho' complying, like a supple jack. 

« My other friend was hewn from sterner stuff. 
.Rude, unrefiu'd, impracticable, rough, 
Beneath a fnisanthrope's unseemly crust. 
He hid a heart courageous, kind, and just : 
Thought, war, and travel, and the hand of Care, 
Before the time had stripped his forehead bjrc ; 
Mad robb'd his e}'e8 of fire, his cheeks of bloom, 
And o'er his visage cast a turbid p;Ioom : ' 
Yet still with nerves unbroke, and brow elate. 
Firm, proud, and patient, he derided Fate. 

• So the tall oak, by winds impctuousicft 
With mangled branches, and of leaves bereft. 
Amid the tefhpest lifts its head on high, 
And nods defiance at the threat'ning sky. 

« These friends and I were met in close divan \ 
And thus the tenor of their counsel ran :— ' 

We shall not cite personal accusations in the subsequent text,«<>nor 
the notes, which are written with still more spleen and personal ob- 
loquy,— ^but hasten to p. 36 ; where, after a bittef invective against 
^e Whig Club in the aggregate, the poet exclaims : 

*^ No Whig is Cassius r—I'should blush to sec 
My name enroll'd in sudh society : 
A drinking, brawling, singing, motley crew, - 
Made up of rogues of ev'ry shape and hue : 
IrisoWent debtors, swindlers, ganriestero, rooki, r 

Discarded statesmen, disappointed dukes. 

« Gods I how ifty bile o*erfl6ws when men like thcsq 
Corrupt society's motft loathsome lees j • -^ 

. Amaze the welkin with an empty cry 
Of Justice, Rights of Man, and. Liberty, 
As if the villain, whom no ties can bind 
In private life, can cherish all his kind ! 

* On that dread day, for coiiic it surely must, 
WTien p'oW'r abus'd shall render up its trust, 

O ! my poor country, ere" thou l;Tt'st the lande,. 
- Contemplate well the destinies of France* 

• Monthly Catalogue, Poetrj^ lie. -^^7 

See there ! Oh ! sec o'er all her fertfle plains, 

With kiUing gnpe, how cruel famine reigns I 

Sec towns (fcmoiish'd, villages consiim'd ! 

See all that^s virtuous to the sca£Fold doomM ! 

And listen how the troublous air rebounds 

With an accurst society of sounds ! 

A horrid concert— harmony of hell — 

The victim's dying groan, — ^the murd'rer's yell ; 

The whoop of civil v\rar,— the cannon's roar, 

WhiJc Discord claps her wings, distilling gore, 

And Tyranny's dark genius laughs to see 

The drops ppllute the face of Liberty ! — 

Whose hateful work was this \ The Whigs of Gaul,. 

Their country's boasting champions, did it all. 

With furious rage they puil'd a tyrant down, 

And then, with rage more fell, ^t up their own.* 
Notwithstanding this Philippfc against the V/higs, the author spcmt 
to have no partiality for Tories : — neither the Royal Family nor 
nobles arc flattered, nor ever supposed to do any tiling right : — nor 
pan we rank him with Jacobins and Revolutionists. 

He complains in his preface, and in the opening of the poem, 
of something— -we know not whit : — but if ever he was in humour. 
with the world before his misfortune happened, it has had a mar^ 
^ellous effect on his temper ! His disorder is, peradventure, the 
jaundice J which has discoloured persons as well as things :— or, per- 
haps, his complaint is bilwus. 

Art. 37. The Battle of the Nile, a Poem : by WiUiam Sotheby, 
Esq. 4to. as. 6d. Hatchard. 1799. 
We hope that we shall not offend any of the preceding patriouc 
candidates for poetical fame, who have^ celebrated this signal». 
portant victory, if we should d<»em the poem before us the best pro- 
duction on the subject, that has come to our knowlege. It possessea 
more nerve, more poetry, and a wider range of detail and dcbcrip- 

The events in Egypt, .subsequently to Buonaparte's landing, arc 
accurately related, m lines which would not disgiiice Dryden. One 
inaccuracy, however, will be laid to Mr. Sotheby's charge, arising 
from credulity in the rumour of the death of the French leadei!, p. 13, 
where it is said : 

* Hark, the loud voice of rumour loads the gale. 
And Europe spreads from realm to realm, the tale : 
He rests in death, the dream of Glory o*er, 
He. rests untimely on a barbarous shore !— 
Not in the front of War, mid Armies slain !— 
Fell the bold Conqueror, bleeding on the plain. 
While Glory waV'd her banner o'er his head. 
And sooth'd the hero, as his spirit fled : 
l»o I th^e-he lies, by treach'ry girt around ; ^ 
The grim Assassin sternly eyes the wound, , 
Taunts the Invader, as he groasis in Death, 
And .loads with i£gypt'8 curse hi&pi^rting breath/ 


^28 MoNTHtT Oatalogoe, Educatton^ ttV. 

but, as Prior «ays : 

«* -Odzooks! must one swear to the tnith of a song ?'* 

Mr. Sotheby fvas not singular in his belief of this runK)ury which 
had penetrated every part of, Europe ; nor is the fallacy yet totally 
/discredited among those who so ardently wislied for the event. 

After the lines just citedy Mr. S. paints, with a glowing pencil, 
many of the revolutionary horrors in France, and the insidious arts 
srith which she compassed the ruin, devastation, carnage, and plunder 
/of other countries ; particulaily Switzerland. Speaking of the hap- 
piness of the latter, he says : 

< Did none resist ?— before the invading host 
I^Ione fall in arms upon his native coart ? 
A race went forth-— the women mogk'd at fear. 
Fought mid the ranks, and fell the warrior near— .- 
A race went forth-»-ihe grandsire, father, son, 
March 'd side by side and decm'd the battle won ; — 
March'd where their sires of old had proudly bled, 
^nd clash'd their iron shields as Austria fled !— 
Ah, hapless race I in vain each bosom glow'd, f 

And li^c> thro' all, one kindred current flow*d ! 
Gaul ! by thy fraud subdu'd, the patriot band 
Dy'd with fraternal blood each murderous hand : 
While thou aloof, upon the mountain height 
Towerd'st like a vulture hanging o'er the fight $ 
And, when the slaughter ceas'd upon the plain,! 
Pid's.t rush ii^ triumph down, and spoil the slain.' 
The last' of these lines, we think, is the most feeble in the pocm^ . 
l)i(Pst has scarcely been admitted in good poetry, since it was scig- 
matized by Pope ; ., 

.♦* While expletives their feeble aid fio join." 
Mr. S. admirably describes our military ardour in arming to rcpd 
invasion — the Foe's vain attempts on Irclandr-and his threats against 
England ; — then bids * Albion beware ! 

* Trust not their oath, till heav'n accepts their pray'r^-r 
Have we not seen their harlot Goddess crown'd, 
■ While frantic elders howPd the shrine around ? 
Seen their pledgM hand, to still their rav'nous ho8t| 
Unbar th' associate town, and ransc.mM coast ? 
On fear'* bow'd neck, their yoke of freedom chain, 
Fotoi states, self-rul'd, bent-ath a tyrant reign ; 
And cast proud Venice, that espous'd the wave, 
At Aiutiia's feet, a tributary slave -' 

— ^and terminates the poem by recommending firmness in resistance. 

and in the support oi our government and religion. 

E D U C A T I O f^, '^f. 
"Art. 38. jftt Introduction to English Grammar: intended also tQ 
assist young Persons in the Study of other Languages, and to re- 
niovc many of the Difficulties which impede their Progress \x\ 
Learning, ^^to. 28. 6d. Phillips, Lombani-Strto, 

Monthly CataloguS) Education, bfe^ • 22^ 

It lias beeo observed that, in the Augustan age of Engh'sh litera- 
ture, \Ye could not boaj;t of cither a dictionary or a grammar of our 
language ; or at least of any books tliat might be said to reduce our 
vernacular tongue to a fixed standard, lliis defect has been sup- 
plied by Dr. Johnson's dictionary,' and Bisliop Lowth's grammar: 
and perhaps it is not one of the least of the merits tvf those works, 
that they Iiave induced scholars to pay attention to a language which 
for copiousness and vigour is exceeded by few ; the capacity of 
■which For harmonious modulation is sufficiently manifest in the writ- 
ings of our poets ; and which perhaps wants only regularity to make 
it complete. That this regulanty is unattainablei with out. ^racrificc 
of the greatest excellencies of the language, is genen^ allowed : but 
surely every attempt toexplain the analogy between words and the ideas 
of which they are the symbols, to mark their relations, and to as- 
certain the different modes of action and pas&ion, witii the circum- 
stRBtlals of time and place, must be of general use : — for, if a great 
part of the disputes among mankind arise from the obscurity and 
ambiguity of tlie terms v-hich they use, we cannot take too much 
pains in assigning to every word a clear and precise meaning^ both 
singly and in ct>nj unction with others. 

The author of the work before u§ seems to have been actuated by 
vcr)' laudable motives, and to have bestowed much time and thought 
on the subject. — Of his plan, a judgement may be formed from the 
following extract from his preface : 

* Although an attempt to become \iseful may not in general Avant 
ap. apology, yet this Introduction to Grammar requires one. 
The public are in possession of so many English Grammars, among 
wliich are many good ones, that my entering the lists might make me 
appear like the knights-errant of old, who, coming from distant rt- 
gions, suddenly appeared in a tournament, and threw the gauntlet to ' 
the stoutest men lu the land ; if, to clear myself of the reproach of 
Quixotism, which I do not wish to incur, I did not gl\c an idea of 
my plan. 

* I will venture to say, that when young persons understand this 
Introduction, they, to say no more, will know as much of English 
grammar as most of those who have been taught by the Grammars 
which are commonly put into children's hands. But the design of 
this ^ittle work is more particularly to open the way to other lan- 
guages, and to lessen those dif&cul ties which are apt to discourage young 
people, when they come to study Latin, French, &c. because having 
little or no idea, and certainly no habit, of some things unnecessary 
in English, such as making adjectives agree with substantives, flee 
they naturally dislike a study which at first view presents trouble, and 
very littW to entice them : for it is well known how dry the study of 
languages is at first. ' 

* Here I cannot help taking notice of an opinion, the more dan- 
gerous 48 it originated amongst scholars, though it has been propa- 
gated by others, who know lictte about the matter, " Let a youth," 
•ay they, " learn Latin, and he will know his English grammar." 
"That may be true, but the question k^ whether the knowledge Lc 
wU acquire of it in that manner, may not cos^ him much more 

• ; , truttble. 

I'jir* Monthly Catalogue, Educa^tim^ feV. 

trouble, an4 rcqufre much more time, than if the first nbtrons of 
grammar had been given him in his own language ; and whether he 
may not be disgusted with Latin, before he know^ his English 
Grammar, wKich la sometimes the case. For my part, I think, . 
that it IS much easier to make a youth understand what is a substan- 
tive and w^hat an adjective, by applying them to the English words, 
' g^od man, than to the Latin ones, bonus homo ; and if any pne still 
persist in a contrary opinion, my answer will be, prove it, et erit 
mht magnus Apdlo, We might as well put under the care of a dancing- 
master, a child before he can stand on his legs, saying that he could 
not fail to know how to walk by the time he should be an adept in 

* To this Introduction I have added Directions for Parslri^^ which 
to some may seem long ; but I hope, when read attentively, nothing 
in them will appear unnecessary to my design. ^I am convinced that 
no one can translate properly, or even feel the beauties of an English, 
book, who cannot perceive the right construction x)f phrases, or' 
who mistakes the tenses (vf verbs ; 1 have always found a deficiency 
in that point, attended with an almost invincible difficulty to young 
peojJe, wLtn they try to translate English into any other language ; 
and I dare say many teachers have found great difficulty, if not in 
pointing out the different meanings, at least in making their pupils 
remember their distinctions, so as to make use of them when neces- 
sary. -I have therefore said what seemed Co me necessary to obviate 
these difficulties.' 

There is something peculiar in Mr. B ridel *s * disposition of the . 
subject, and the terms which he uses are rather uncommon : yet wc 
cannot biit allow that they are significant ; — and although it may re- 
quire more attention to understand this work, than young persont 
may always be willing to bestow, it will reward them for their labour | 
it may also be of great service to foreigners who are desiroua of in- 
forming themselves respecting the principles of our language. 

Art. J9* The Infant's Friend: in Two, P^rts. By Mrs. Lovechild. 
1 2mo. 28. .6d. Newbery. 

The first of these volumes is a spelling-book, the second cossisti 
of re«kding4essons. So numerous are publications of this kind, that 
it ia difficult to assign to each its distinct or peculiar office or merit. 
Few are totally destitute of use, though some are better adapted 
to the purpose than others. The.presefit work, it ii said, (particu- ' 
larly the first volume,) may cither serve alone for teaehioff nidi- 
meats, or prove a convenient appendage to any of the ingenious in- : 
vecitions now^ to be purchased for the purpose of rendering begkmmg4. 
pleasant, and point out. how to use th^m, sq that they may l|e rem^ 
ai\ amusement. 

^The writer has bestowed considerable pains in coUeoting and ar- 
raoging the materials ; and if instructors wfll attend to the direcp 
ttons which ase given, or take those measures of their owa wbicb 

* The work is said to be printed for E. P. Bridel, Master of aa 
Academy at Stoke Newington ; and w$ therefore cgMadude that he is 
the author of it. ^ 


MoNTiHiir Catalogue, Miscellaneous. 231' 

nutyiral good sense may suggest, the volumes will no doubt prove aij* ' 
vTintageous. In the second, the lessons lead very properly to the., 
distinctions of nouns^ adjectives, verbs, 6cc. and they include certain^ 
•hoit narrativeSf which may afford pleasure and instruction, 


' Art, 40. A Plew of the Causes and Consequences of EttgRsb Warif 
"froito the Invasion of the Country by Juhus Caesar to the present 

Time. By Anthony Robinson. 8vo. pp, 241. 4s. Board*. 
• Johnson. "' 1798. 

This compilation from the English historians, but chiefly taken 
SxofCL Dr. Henry, appears to have been made for the purpose of im* 
pcctting on the public mind, as a grand political axiom, the opinion 
that.,, whatever may have been the pretences or whosoever the authors 
of t war> the event has bepn always fatal to the nation at hirg^. 

"Mr. R.'s style is much too inflated, and not unfreqiiently vulgrar| 
as when he says^ of Henry the Third, that he wa* * a coward^ a Kar, 
and some think a fo'ol,f p. 42.->-and again p. $0. 

* How maokind shall be governed in. future, it is imposstble t<» 
•ay: but that they have hitherto been governed by ybrtv cannot be 
tkiiiedfc • , • 

: ' 'Muscular strength has indeed been subdued by the energies of 
mind : but the advantage to man has only been, that the cunning of 
a pick-pocket has succeeded to the strengfth of a ruiRan.' 

He is the panq^yrist of Heni-y the Seventh and James I. merely; 
because they were lovers, of peace ; — and even the immortal King 
William loses all claim to h':s respect, because he opposed Louis XIV, 
Bitlieiklil. - 

The wars ' of the present cfcntury, as being nearer ta obsei^ation^ 
arc treated with intemperate prejudice, and with muchnK>re declama* 
tion than argument. Concerning that contest in which we are novt 
engaged, Mr. R. tells us that so acute are his reflections, and so 
dreadful his, that * the pen trembles in his hand.' 

Art. 4c. Copu's of Original Ldtcrs from the Armj of General Bona* 
parte In Egvpty intercepted by the llect under tlie Command of 
Admiral Lord Nelson. . With an English Translation. 8vo» 
' 4s. 6d. sewed. Wright. 

These intercepted and unquestionably authentic letters contain • 
highl^'-interesting mass of information, respecting Bonaparte's virild 
Egyptian expedition, andNelson's c^c^-m^nlQrable and^lorious victory. 
Some of these articles of correspondence were written by General 
Bonaparte himself; others by ofiiccrs .of dfsiinction, military and 
naval ; and many passages in them are aptly illustrated by the trans* 
lator*s notes. A well- writ ten Introduction is prefixed ; in whicU 
the author has taken especial care to evince his loyalty, zeal, an4 
patriotism, by a ton-cnt of execration, which he unceasingly pouV^ 
out against the commander of the ** Army of the East," his wretch* 
ed followers, and the existing rulers of the French nation irt generd* 
For thc'honbur of human nature, it were to be wished that our 
continental enemies had not afforded him ^uch incontroveftibie ocea- 
3 sionf 

^gi Monthly OrAioGfUE, MisallafUoui. 

toons as they have done, for the exercise of his distinguished talent sit . 
invective. He has, nevertheless, whatever be the ornament of his 
style, fairly communicated to the world » most acceptable publico 
tion.— Were it not for the multiplicity and pressure of articlest ia 
every class of literature, now waiting for admission into our work, 
wc could have enrichqd it "WTtb extracts which would have afforded 
much gratification to the generality of our readers : but we mu^t con* 
t^nt ourselves with recommending to theni a perusal of tie coHectioa 
at large. 

Art. 42. jfn Authentic Narrative of the Proceeding^ of hii Majesty* i 

Squadron^ under the Command of Rear- Admiral Sir Horatio Ncl- 

son^ from its sailing from Gibraltar to the Conclusion of the glo-i 

rious Battle of the Nile ; drawn up from the Minutes of an Omcer 

of Rank in the Squadron. 8vo. 6d. Cadell jun. and Davies. 

This account has already appeared in different newspapers, and »- 

now republished in the form of a pamphlet. Tlie editor, in an ad- 

<ire8s prefixed to the narrative, makes use of some expressions which* 

are too i^nqualified, but which are in a great degree excusable iar 

the warmth of admiration for one of the most brilliant victories ever 

atchitved^ and which was distinguished by many peculiar circum* 

stances : particularly in the time of commencing the attack. It wa» 

noon, (on the ist of August) when the Britisn fleet arrived in sight 

of the Pharos of Alexandria ; and then, it may be supposed, ther 

could not be less than six leagues distant from the French fleet ; whics 

was at least equal in force, and was placed to defend themselves and the 

harbour* in soch a position as they believed to be most advantageous^ 

their flanks being defendc4 by gun-boats and a battery on the land. 

Ko time was lost, nor was the attack delayed from a preference of * 

fighting by day-light. Tlic Admiral's plan had been long formed ; 

and the fleets were closely engaged by sun-set, viz. ; at half past six# 

* At about seven o'clock, total darkness had come on ; but the whole 

hemisphere was, with intervals, illuminated by the fire of the hostile 

fleets.' By this light, the battle was fought. 

The narrative is plain and clear : but, in order to give correct ideas, 
the account should have been accompanied with a plan of the port^ 
and of the position of the enemy's fleet. 

Art. 4.3. An authentic Narrative of the Mutiny on hoard the ^Trun^ 
port'\ Shib Lady Shore \ witli Particulars of a Journey through Part 
of Brazil : in a Letter, dated " Rio Janeiro, 1 8th January I7S^«** 
to the Rev. John Black, Woodbridge, Suffolk, from Mr. Joha 
Black, one of the surviving Ofiicers of the Ship. 8vo- 28. Ro* 
tinsons, &c. 1798. 

The account of this mutiny is short, and the circumstances we 
interesting. The proposed destination of the ship was to New South 
\Vale8 ; and a party of militaiy were embarked m her, who were to 
tave landed at Port Jackson. The mutineers were principally French- 
men. After having murdered Captain Wilcocks and the cnief mate^ 
they put into the long-boat^ when near the coast of Brazil, the remain^ 
ing officers, and several others j first compelling them to sign certi- 
ficates that none of them would save agamst £e French^ for a year 
4 and 

tM4 a chiy ) aAd>Iikewis6 tutinfi thkt. the petty 0ffiderii and seamen, not 
put into the long boat^ were deCaiaed against their incynatipns. In rc- 
tnrn» the mutineers^ ^o had chosen two Frenchmen for their first 
and second caj^ns, gave a paper certifying that it was not by any ill 
treatment received that they had been induced to the measures which 
they had taken, * but on account of their having been trepanned into, 
the British service, without being able to obtain any redress.' The 
long boat soon arrived at Rio Grande, and the ship was afterward 
taken by a French frigate.' — The narrative is inscribed to his Excel- 
lency the Chevalier D* Almeida, Minister I^lenipotentiary from the 
Court of Lisbon to that of London, * as a testimony of gratitude* 
for the hospitah'ty shewn to the narrator and h!s fellow-sufierera 
at the Portuguese settlements in the Brazils. 

Amon? the circumstances which attracted the notice of the writer 
vhile at t£e Brazils, he mentions the almost incredible number of cattle 
which are killed merely for thd sake of the skihs. The number of 
akins exported annually from Rio Janeiro alone was said to be nearly 
400,000. The price of a fine buUbck is a dollar. , 

Art. 44« Memoirs of Colonel Edward Marcus Dapard, By Jame^ 
Bannantine, his Secretary when King's Su|>erintendant at Hondu- . 
t-as, &c. 8vo. IS. Ridgway. 1799. 

Mr. Bannantine enumerates the active pubh'c services* of his friend 
I Col. Despard in his professional capacity, and complains that this 

\ gallant, but at present unfortunate, gentlem^, has been much in- 

jured through the misrepresentations of certain enemies ; notwith- 
standing that he has repeatedly received assurances ^ that his services 
I were not forgotten, and would receive their reward.' It is added * tiiat 

[ his attempts, for nearly thi:se eight years, to get his accounts with 

[ government settled, have been equally fruitless and unsuccessful, al- 

though he has claims to a Urge amount.' We doubt not the Colo» 
nePs merit as a commanding officer, in Jamaica, on the Mosquito* 
Shore, and at Honduras ; and we are the more concerned on finding 
this account of his present embarrassmelits concluding with the follov^* 
i ing piaragraph : * Respecting the nature of his imprisonment in Cold 

} Bath Fields, it would be improper here to enter into any detail or tn^ 

vestigatioo. It is enough to say, that after having been kept in con* 
£nement for several weeks last spring, he was released, no charge 
being substantiated against him ; but immediately after the suspensioa 
o£ the Jlaieai Corpus act, he was again arrested, without any specie 
fie charge, and has now been l^ept a close prisoner for above ei^ht 
months in a House of Correction, without any attempt to bung 
him to trial.' — Surely there are some circumstauc^ attending this ap* 
parently hard case, which are not y^t before us* yiudi alurampartemm 

Art. 45« A^ OhUque Vuw of the Grand Cortspiraty againft Soctal 

Order ^ &c. &c.. 8vo. is. Wright. ,. 

* This ObUque View is sketched with a porcupine-quill, which can 

ecratch, but cannot write. It is really not our fault if the Anti- Ja« 

cSbin literature does not amuse the pubhc. We are charged, indeed; 

b^ this and by every unsuccessful author of the^ p?a^y> in his tUm, 

with a conspiracy to bring bis writings and all that is valuable lA society 

lirv. F«B. 1799. ^ - ' . i»*o 

dj4 MttlltMt tAtAlMMt kH^^y l^c. 

into dnrapntr. <jMirt'cannbt bt brbafiht Into dintput^. IvD*^ 
Surkc, whether he wiiotc to enlnMinlg^ the fotttiditipiiy bf i^b«^it^ 
of a repbbHc in Aifaenca, or to discodnig« the foundattoh, hf ifebH- 
Hohf oft trpoblic ia Framce, VnA alike seciMre of ftwisrlU of adtttireH, 
fmd obtained the {irake of the Monthly Retieir. . • . 

Art. 46. irifaM iHstttufetj Part the fcst: or, a Nurseiical Essaf 
bn the Pbetry, lyric and alicgorJcal. of the earlier Ages. ' Wuh aa 
; Appendix. 8vo. pjp. 6^. is. 6a. Rmngtong, 

** Blessed be the man who invented laugbirt]g.^' We esteem* our* 
.iclvb singiiMy happy; wben a writer forces us to change the graTC 
and se'riou^ aapect of criticism for the cheerftfl smile, and enables at 
to khake the cobwebs off the heart by a ^od and gcnurnc laugh. 
: The author before us seemed at first to be of tnis kind : but the rogue 
^as disap^inted us. His comments on ttie LuHahj XfittCf or the 
.nonsense wbkU tas been invented for the diyersibn oFcbildren, have 
W)i)ie ti'iuMiOur : but, atasl he 'wears it threadSare, and the acrimon j of 
J>oiitfc8 is rfee'A thVough It, * ' 

As it may be difficult by descriptibh to give ah idea of this work^ 
in which a gentlenmn .of «Dttie learning' and abilities has in a Strang 
way endeavoured to amuse, hims^elf, and hopes also, tp amuse others, 
w£ sliall extract a part of his illuitrkm Commjpi\tary on the 0eUbrsteS 

*i I sing a song o^ sixpence 
A pocket fuU of rye^ 
And fbtr and twenty Uackbird% 
^aked in a pie." 
* if it lihonKI be ti^ondei^ \^y the Tsiac^t-birds afrd the rf e M 
iArticiilaTfy specified in this tdarce> a salficieAt reason-, pethap^ ihi^ 
W given for oor awthorH choice, both %s to the ohe and the OtMf. 
With respect torjfi iht aitthor might probabty intend it as^a final ab- 
bitxiatidfi,.aiicording to the orthography of hib dby, df the Nvofd trea- 
^tvtiye; just astt 'is aaid, though Iknow not how truly, that a certala 
kiagmV-woman, faoicrus for pkking up gtekt (fuantitiet (^ this kiad 
^ rycfropii'thdee who have irot wit enough to keep h, is called Mdi^ 
becaufe h^ name is MaoiaMfffA. — ^But this cdnjectiire I mu^ lea^ 
to die'cntxt9«-*-Here then tre see what it is that tlfese bifds havetft 
' cHifp aift( whistk for ;. iest however thh fnigbt appear to be rather to6 
■atincal, the port hhB artfully edntri*fed to ^ften it, by erltillilig 
them Uack-birdB, as eidpremive of their fkeddm ilf speech % the pRH- 
priety of ^hkh. I might not tnytelf perhaps have'fuUy Olfhcted, had k 
not been for the observation of % fnend, that the very 'note of Cht 
bkck-bird always inqnitd him^ with the idea of liberty. 

** Oqiuafaum est in tduk imtHe P^ Does thti writer "taieiaa to ridicule 
fbme strangle commentaries on the Hevdation, which proceed with a 
laiitude of intcrpretaiioO' almost equal to the i^oik i 
^ The author; haa however brought together, in <nw ^tow, Ihe xfMM* 
tity of nonsense formerly taught to chSdren ; whidi'isnataiiggett (Re 
propnety of €|»b«titHtiog btUtr Infant lofltttates. 

ll-fiLlGlOtIS, tS^c ' '^ 

'^vUJff. ut Guide to the Church f itt several Disdbutses; to ydiuib 
ait added, two Pottscmt«; the firsti to Ui»8« Member* of the 


• 'Ghttfch v)i0 occaelomafiy frequent* other I^cet of Public Wor« 

Aip ; the ^com) to the Clergy. Addrctaed to Wiliiam WSber*. 
^ loTDe, Esq. M^ P. By 4he Rer. Charles Darubeny, LL.B. 

9 Fmbyter of the Church of Enjglamd. ' 6^b* pp. 4B8. 78, 6d. 

Boards. Caddl jiu). abd Daviet. 1796. 

Ia the dedication to Mr. W3beilbTce» thv fnthor deems sooie apo* , 
logy ncceifiary for addreasing tp him discoufws, many parts jof w&ich 
hvfc 3)o daim to his noticey l)ei|ig calculate only For die vie oF those 
mAaformei pe^soiis forwhonp they weri! odg^ally leritten. Th^ 
mtkiformid persons we fuKi in the sequel to be all those «4i6 dissect 
bom the docttioears^nd disdpMne of the Church bf 'England as bylaw 
«8tabliahfid^ of whatever sect or denbcnnation :they )nay be i for k 
upppasSf ^m the whole ten{^ of seripture, Tii' seems^) (hat the enlV 
appoirUad road to heaxren lin throiigh th< Church • of Christ ott d&rw 
{sriiiek is the Church of Enghmd} :-r^r the church is the sponse of 
ChoL^i , whpae office it is to brme fofth children unto G^ |— ^aad it is 
from the arms of this ^iritual mother that a&'dic iegkitnbte ehildrs^ 
pfthe Fjajtbgr jire recqv^^ -To Uacc the i^ff:\ 4iKQUgh its ?eve|al 
pro|rre88ive ^ageSf frpm us original eft^Kslupent in Fa^dise, where 
the^opd i>cw.s of i Sp vioqr was i^ df Uy ere^ Xo bH^ inan^T— through 
Jts iDfaQtc^ndition,*— ^i)d from i>^ djiys^of eontracjti^n ^ thea^y^:«i^en 
It was confined to one single family » to its su&Se^uent cnlargefBe^ in 
thf 4^fnd»qt^ ofAfy^^iX^; 4rqmi^s»'aad9fi^.sW^ V :^b*c wiWfi»A«5» 
jan^ Its jp<f e ,cpmpletc .spttlcpait iij th^ J^ild of Qf na^fi, ^qvffi tp ^1)^ - . 
^ujnes? of UTOC >vhen o,ur Savipur^ape p tl>e flffjil^.visit it ; 0|ir ?w- 
^pr jn9tty wyp^.y^v^ld into tpo ^vjde a fidL It is ,oii^c jij^ppi- 
ness,^ te ^Msj th^t ,we live in jjiat Mfjfgc of tl^e'.cavqcjh.iwjjiglj lasf 
pe ^gD§i4^red as. tjie (joinpjctipu ftf cverjr former dispcfiSftti9n» Jesfif 
Christy the hc^d flrth<e^<i^v»r<^ i>y pMrifyiag it /rjofu ^hlc qprr^pupi^ 
which it^h^d cpD)tji^ctcd,'^rid rcspr^ig its w;oMip t^^tJic fPfntJjjJ 

iBg hand to jthc.cstabljsli^Dfjnt pf Si;* .pxi the jglao.bcst,cafcul^d"lo s^« 
curip the Wppk s^w)> i^ j?fl4;? \^W' 

After tftis «taxemg^t, jM^^ irvfijgqros usp p. 47^6^ tj^ <* .^ome .yejlr 
;._i-»j _i__7. 1.1 •'- t_.j_3'_' — -_ r' : V • '.t: 1 ^ ^jj^ 


with ,5o^p),aii§il^i9 ^an i^^a^ <j^p be np^nia^tt^p qt j^uxjxrisc : ^ey JbaKe 
been.a^^d iilw.ajrs ^ijil iy\a<5c^iKQ^ by .8o^ds,:^ut,that men ot rj^^d^. 
***£: , ,^"4 . ciwibitipfj ,^|)ouj0 gdyjpt it ^ordia ji^e pr9af, . afi^ong m^py, 
that experience d^^ Oj}^ ^Iw^ys^^ni^^^^ 

We need say no naore cPficernmg tliis wprk^ tl^n to remarH that 
tjie . ^t^or is V ^mrjfin^^^Ji^h Bj;i. IJoadly ^d A^cbd^^cpn P?W, 
and evenwltfi jBjb. W^rbifjiijny and not in ,^tf^/,f^«?ij^«/ with JiOr, 

3i.H<;^,a «£iL3ip.KB* 

^t.,48. * X%f Fi^ofPhpi^ Rome r^comnjienJed {o the Consideration of 
^Engiand.. 'By the 'Re^ Charles Daubchy, ' LL. B. Author of a 
.Gtf^de tQ. ^e. Church* . 8vq. .pp/i^j. ' 1^ CadcUiun. and 

' 2^6 9/h^ntr QAriLocjit, ShrU Sermnh 

In thii icrtubk discourMt the prfacber ttkes occasion/ from thi) 
.mpplication of several prophecies to Papal Rone^ to point out some 
g^rcumstancei' which present events force* as It were, on immediate 
notice ; .with th^ vi/rw of impressing -on the mimls of his hearers, by- 
way of antidote to the growing infimity of the day, a full convittion 
of the superii^tending providence of tnat all* wise Governor of the 
.pniverse* *^ whose counsel shall stand, and who will do all hift plea- 
•ure."- . He- ^pi^clud^ by bbservipg that * tdese are eventfiil tunes. 
An impprtantpageJn the great history of the , world is now before 
JI0. ISo^ far tftis. nation may be concerned in the contents of it, Ood 
pn}y kno^s^ : Bllt it is.suffieieht for us to know, that, if the Christ- 
ian religion is to be .preserved, in thiscofuntry, the jprofesaors must be 
in earnest upon the subjy^ct. Possessing the form of the church, we 
ilnust aJsQ possess, that Mnctifying iofltsence of the Holf Spirit, which 
'*was designed to accdrnprnv: it ; without which we arie m the condii* 
rtion of the church of Sardisimentioned in the RevdatioBB, << We havt 
a name tbtt w^ Zft^, and are dead** kev.iii. W 

Art. 49. Preached A'u^I .13, 1798, before the Reading and Henley 

Associations, the Woodley Cavalry, and the Rtading Vohmteersj 
' it the Consecration of the (Jolours of the Reading Association, 

By "Richirtf Valpy, D. D. F. A. S. 8vo. is, . Elmsly and 
'• Brcmner, &c. ' ' ....,'.. ^' . ' 

• Ardently and frequently hdVe Prbtestint Divines prayed for the 
down&ll of the Pdp^e ! yet, When the venerable old ifaari waa 
-htirled' from his throne, aria hife triple crown was torn frbm his head 
by Frepch violence, how few haVe even noticed the circumstance 1 
I>r. Valpy is an exception. He seems to have given ttitf subject ihuch 
thought, and he apprehends that ;ill tniist be struck with the comple* 
t!<yn bf prophecy by this event. * Iniht yeai^j^S, (he says,) the empire 
of the Goths was abolisjied in Rome, and' from that time the Ponti- 
Scal power advanced with rapid strides', ititfl it became, by its influence 
*and authority, the most extensive rfominipn fc Europe. If this epoch 
be admitted, the period mentionfed by ' the pr6J)hets fixes the destruc- 
tion of the Pontifical aufhority to the present year, in which the Pope 
was forced to fjy from Rome by the arfhs of prance.' — Copious notes 
. Sire subjoined to justify the calcufetion, otf "v^hrdh we sajr nothirtg. 

Dr. Valpy |Jroceeds to' a6surc us that brller wfll arise out of thd 
present anarchy ; and he exjiresses his wish that we should cherish 
what he calls an humble hope that " the Lord hath chosen Eri^landJ'ar 
Umself" If there be gi'ound for such hobe, all Englishmen ou^ht 
to be atlway^ ready (text, Matth. aaiv. 44.) foi* every service whicti 
their country may require. 

Affixed is the Consecration prayer; in* which the Association * de- 
dicate themselves to the service and gk>ry of God^ and in his name set 
up their banners* 

Art. 50. Preached at the Consetration of a Chapel at Bradley, by 

'the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Worcester, 12th Se^ 

1798. By the Rev. Johu Plumptrc, M. A. jPfcbendary of WiR 

cester. 8vo. , 6d. Riyingtons. 

^ * Mr. P. lias here advanced all that his subject required, from MaCth* 

:$xm^ 20. Indeed, the expediency^ and neccisUy of appointed places 


SfotfTtiLY Gataloqubi Sitigk Semwts^ 137 

for religious worship must be evident, and there h no reason why they 
diQ^d not be appropriate. 

J^xU$l. Preached August 17, 1 798, before the Armed Association oF 
, the united Parishes of St. Margaret and St, John, Westminster ; o« 

the Con6ecration,of the Colours. To \vhich is prefixed the Cere* 
. iQony observed on the Occasion. By the Rev. Cliaries Fynes, 
. X*L.D. &c. .4to. IS. Hatchard, 

Dr. F. commences this discourbc with an acqount of the miraculous 
intexpositions in favourpft)xeJe^vish people, |heir almost miraculous 
JAgratltude and iii£ddity» dnd their subsequent punishmeat, Thb 
picture he exhibits .as* an awful lesson tp every nation which enjoys 
Bivine revelation. and. protection, not to forget nor deny their Uod* 
Whik he is sorry in rdflcctin|j that the people of this privileged countiy 
px^ not 8ufficicn\Jy Vratefiu and obtdicnt to the *• Father of ^ 
jnqradS)'* he is co9«ole4 by thinking, that we are not to be degraded 
jby a comparison with those who have daringly renounced the wprshm 
of Cod^ and blaspliemed the Saviour of the world : — he hope& that the 
solemnif ^ which ^s called his zfudience- together may inspire theni 
yritb fortitude* established on rdigious principles ;— ^and he conc^udot 
•with. complimenting the associated corps on their respectable militarr 
aTOearance, and w^tb. his assurance tl^al, were they really called t« 
ikfend their King and Country agains^ an invaxjing foe, Uiey^ woidi 
qmt'tBa^elvtf like men* . 

ArL 52* :0« the pecuUar Necessky of renevojii and 'vigorous ExeMtotu 
, en the Pant of the Clergy y in the frejott.extraardinafy Conjuikture^ fur 
* the Saff>ort ofRtfjgioti^ Peace j and Order y i2fc. r preached at the primary 

Visitation of the Bishop of Chichester, at Hastings, August zOf 
: 1798. ByJ. Lctlice, D^D. 4to. is. RIviagtons. 

By what rule of mterpi^etation, tlie text Isa. xL 5 1 . can be snppoeed 
to refer Do the apostles: and first preadsrs of the gospel, or the iirst part 
of ilfThey who wait on the LoiiJfCaa be SDfely appropriated to the clergy 
or * the. imnmers o£ the altsr/ we are imable to divine. The te^ei m 
a general promise to men of piety and virtue, whether dergy or laity ; 
a promise which ought to 'animate aU'to religious exertion,' and to 
keep the pious and consdentious iirom bcifig cast down ^n^ di^irheA 
in the worst and matt oopromi^n^ times. ' Dr. L. seem's aWan, at 
the conclusion of his discourse, that he has not been altogiether cor* 
rect in lta»thig the description in bis text to the clergy ; and he calls 
on aH the church militant, as comprising all sects and parties, to unite 
iu;ai.nst the foes of reU^a^ order, liberty, and ^eace. To stimulate ' 
their exertions, he td£ them* that < the very existence of Christiantty 
0iay depend on the combat : • but on this latter score we have no fearft| 
since ^ greater than Dn* L. has told us that against the Go^d 
matber J>eath ttor Hell shall frewL 

Art. 5 J. Rome it Fallen / Prtacbed at the Visitation held at Scar- 
borouehy Juiie 5, 1798. By Francis Wrangham, M. A. 410. 
^ IS. ^illy. 

Th»s sevinon will reflect considerable credit on its author. We 
know not which most to coxnmend, it^ learning, its manlii^ess, its seri^^ 
oiuoots, or its liberality. It appears te tfe diar, td a vinUoU's and con- 


238 WpNTHty C^TAI^OG^ . iifij^f Sirmont. 

KientiotU jiligcQce in dischmrging the 4atleft pf his ^ipfcssipn^ Ultf, 
W. unites the utmost candour and generoMty of sentiment. He re- 
joiccs at the fall of {'apal po^eft *without the acrimony of a polemic % 
imd wfth zeal and learning he maintains his own principles, without 
feeling any narrow and ungenerous sentiments Respecting those who do 
not come within the pde.of the est^lished communion. 

From Rer. xiv. 6. he discpurses on the Fall of Fapd Rome^ aiip* 
posing that thts is meant by Bcibyhn in the -te^t, though he docs not 
pretend to undertake the developement-of the'roysteripus psigesof the 
Apocdypse ; which he ^with critical jnstiqp represents as ' bat* 
l)«rou8 even to solecism in its style^ of an iavolved. ajnd fntricate gdh- 
•tracC!on> and loaded with daric and apparently-wfld stUegory.' To 
tfetfi his own judgment of ;t as.a composition^ he sjubjoins m a i^gt^ 
the opinions of several learned men ; as tl^ of Scal(gery who said Cat^ 
minus x/ztei/ quln non script it in ^pocjjptin; an^ tjlai of t)T. Sputh^* whd ' 
Msertea that *^ it either finds a man mad, of l^iires him so.** W^ 
•jnoerely wish that the extreme difficulty, iri!uch the 1^0^ able ySAi- ' 
cal scholars have found in attempting to intcipret .consistently Hft 
«i^t«rioits contents of this, book, camd operate to restrain die pro- 
pensity of some modem Christians ; whor seem to read their Bible' 
«Aid th^ir newspaper together, . iQnake Gazettes their (expositors of Sti 
John's ^signs, and' supply the strange allegoric of thip book to the 
whole diain of recent occurrences. Such persons m«y mean weH, 
but they are not justified by common sense and sound cntictsm. The 
pattwge to which Mr. Wjamgham refers may be hdd up as |i mii 
^gu/ativeidetinieatsoQ.of the.cnmei and punishroient qfl^pal &omc^ 
9nd be if^eniomly aeeonfmodaf^ to them : hut the judiciaus critic YiU 
^vance with extreme caution in this dangerous careen 

As Chrisxiaos and ^Trotestanis, however, , we must be pleased, not 
that the latter liays of a venerable indiyidusLaie embittered* but Aat 
• -powor which tqpen^ised the-jsott gneYous-^tritual tyranny .over 
King« and their pec^He it subverted* aad that jiir, w^o made all tia* 
kfiffif fp drbik of tliiMne qf tic nfraib of ber fomscaiiost, k tumbled 
fn^llun- ^Vbafl enincDGe.'! 

, By: tj>e fail of .the Papal jpower and authprity, the protert^nt 
ebifrch <}f CMist-iS' not. xndeea. delivered from -adl its.enemies. ;¥i£e 
ai^d jii)£delky pTex^il in an:alarming degree 9 ami therefore Mr. W. - 
ffi^^efii^'to exhort his brethren .the qlergy to 'peciili'ar. diligence and 
94»diiHy. His admonitioasAEe serious and pcrtine&t, and nerit<miicb . 
^tt^DtipTv He particularly f^utioiis hia iuvtbren. against secularkf 
aad hikewacmness ; not th^ hf wishes to see th&elorgy sfichidedimp 
inooccQt and.cheerful iotercouise wkh. their f eIlow?orqatUKes, iiDr.aoi» 
|Bi»ted hy a flaming asoo] iwhach jhall Gonamne mil liberality* fod 
|HKUX)pt themitn the cause of religion to {M-oofaim ^omtarii) yrA9^ .ixi«« 
WILL tofwardi men. No. * Let us jsot .(^says iie) ex)>ihk xutr>ints>* 
taken crpdlir^ss^^t fche KrXpenqe of oiu* Inimanity, nor cr^t ^ ajlt^ 
to Faith upon the ruips of tlie temple of QiJMrit j-.* 

In uotlcmg the militaiy associations, of which the clergy are' la^ 
8oi>jc places^ members, Mr. W^ offers it ;as Jj^is oj>iQion that they Ojugh^ 
mot as yet, if they kave t» s^Ci^ord^ tfisefl t^dr fnrmfjufs flff/}i^' qftf^put 
to cofitent tbgB|oeiv«8 with mil$ the apjri^al^e^pjuijs ^ond[iig .^p 

'''':.' their 

. their proFessidn. by dOigentljr and faftfifuUjr WieUlhg these agiiiift* 
tlie enemies of religion and of oitr courttry, he Mlys addressing !)im« 
delf to hla brethren^ * we shall have done all that w« were pcrmttted, 
perhaps all tliat we ought to have been permitted to do t and if-«.fbr 
^ tome mysteviotls btkt udquetftionabty wiae purpose of Providence-*-«jc 
be indeed ordained in our tui^i to drink at the band of the Lordthi n^ 
of hu Jury^ 16 drint the Jte^s of the cup of itembBng^ and *wrmg them 
90 — we shall possess the consciousness of haying contributed our 
inost'zealoui endeavours to avert the ruin of our country; a con- 
sciousness which, sustaining and consoling us amidst our suffcringg, 
. will in itself be our exceeding great rrtvOfd.*' 

TtHs discourse is enriched by manv valuable notes $ at the begin- 
llii\g of which Mr. W. ttRi us that he has been Jakeiy sii^ected 5^ 
l>eiQg the author of the Purmts rf Lkeratwtk 

Art. §4. Pretchedt Av^^ust zjf, 17989 before the £ast-Stonehoif% 
Foot AiModatieB^ and published at their Request, by Joha Bi^ 
' ^ iakc^ A. B. &c. &C. 8vo. is. Chapman. 

Wte ha^ ^ehbscd this discourse with pleasure, for the preacher ap« ' 
.pedhrs Aet as a party«inaD, but as a friend to truth and virtue. He it 
.tem^xnite and mtioiial in speaking of the French revolution; and 
he gives a just account, we think, of religion in general, and of the 
Cknstka sckeme in particular. As to the latter, he says, p. 3 1« 
* «t aHMt look for it in its primitive state ; not^as it is tound, dis- 
torted by -narrow. b^otry, or disguised by sordid interest ; not;^ as k 
•tec often is| mixed with the passions and temporal interests of de-^ 
■a^ntn^ men, ahd made the insthiment of worldly ambition, coloured^ 
hy hirman avarice and clothed «n incongruous splendour.' — Again^ 
^mwai addressif^ himself immediately to the Asioclaiion : — « Trae ws 
4ig{iMi conaists in a heart devoted to God| and a life of holinesn. It 
.Jt «ot the slave of sect or party* It is not subservient to worldly t»- 
<ereilts, nor basely submissive to the reigning humours of the daf. 
.Its ^tet is uniform and unalterable righteousness, tt does hot con- 
Mt in the offering of the lips, in a set of enthusiastic phrases of littfie 
Cleaning, and « £eart full of spiritual pride, but it is at once sincere 
and ardent. God hath shewed thee^ motif what it good^ 'ifec. — ^Thes^ 
aentimenti ait worthy of dissemination. 


« To the MonTHLt RsrrBWEaa. 
^(tentlbmen, Livafpool, 1 S th Feb. 1 799. 

^ ^N your Review ibr last mouth, on noticing Capt. VancouvcrV 
rdation of * his having seen Uaek swans at King George the 
Third's Sound, on the south-west coast of New Holland, you screfli 
to doubt the e^ifttence of^his'nzra avis^ and to suppose tl^ thebiida 
taken for bkck swans night be cygnets. . . 

* From the concurrent testimony of several, nay mo«t, of the t«- 
Tellers who have visited New Holland, it appears, however, tlm ^ 
Uidk^Waos are feally to bt met with .in almost every part of ^at 
country. In Governor Phillip'a Voyage to Botany Bay, cfaep.- aci. 
tre are kfotmed that, an an eaily excursion of the Governor to the 
ncrtk tidt ^ )^ hasbouT ^f Port Jaokson, they m<l wi^ a lake,-tm 
6 ^fkiA 

240 CoXRESFOVPCtf C9» 

wKcli they firtt observed ** a Uack^swan, wWch Bpecicfljiliongli ppd* 
vcrbially rare in otker parts of the wbrid, is here by no means tincoiri- ' 
Tnbn» being found on most of the lakes. This was a very noble bW» 
laiger than the common swan, and equally beautiful in form. On 
being shot at; it rose, and discovered that its wings were edged with 
white." , 

* In Whitens account of Botany Bay, p. 137^ we have equally ad 
account of their seeing) on a small salt water lagoon, nine black swans ; 
whjdi, though when upon the water they seemed perfectly black, ' 

' when they rose, gave an opportunity of seeing some white feathers, 
which terminated the tip of each wing. Mr. White, however, says 
that their size appeared not equal to that of an European swan. 

*■ Of the same kind, in all probability, were the birds observed by 
the gentlemen on board the Endeavour, both at Botany Bay and at 
Hervey 's Bay ; at, the former place, among- the aquatic birds seen, " one 
of the most remarkable was black and white, much larger than a swan, 
being nearly five feet high, and in shape somewhat resembling a peli- 
can 1'^ and at the latter place they saw among the shoal&and sandbanks 
mahv large birds, '* some in particular of the same kind as bad been 
•ecn^ih Botany Bay, much bigger than swans, which were judged to 
be pelicans ; but they were so shy that there was no gettmg within 
shot of thein." 

* 1 have hot an" opportunity, at present, of <:onBuIting other recent 
accounts of Ntw Holland; but I am enabled to add a relation of those , 
singular birds being both seen and caught by a Dutch navigator, oi> 
the west coast of that large island. It is given in the thiid volume 
of VatcntytCs Oud en meunv Oost Indtcrty Amsterdam 1726, and the 
voyage in which it occurs has not, I believe, ever been published in 
English. On the 6th of January 1697, WtUem de Vtaming landed on 
that part of the main land of New Holland called the Land of the 
JEendragt^ and near Dirk Hartog*s Bay ; where, in a lagoon, commu- 
nicating with the sea, they found two and afterward more black 
swins, four of which they caught and took on board : bringing, 

, however, only two of them alive to Batavia. This account is accom- 
panied by an engraving, representing the" lagoon with the black 
swatis swimming on it, and the catching ofoneof them by a boat's crew. 

« These facts seem to me sufficient to remove all scepticism as to the 

existence ofiilac'k swans in New Holland ; and presuming that you wiM 

not be displeased with the communication of the last, and my reminding 

you of tlie other instances pf their being seen, I ^eipain. Gentlemen, 

* Your very humble Servant, S. H, W.* 

We arc obliged to th/s correspondent, for recalling to our recollection 
the above corroborations of Capt. V.'s'statenient, which we had foi'- 
gotten, and whiqh decidedly mih'tate against our doubts. 

The qtiari from Ipswich, from one of " the Friends," surely cannot 
be seriously proposed x^ us : but certainly we cannot seriously aiw* 
swefit. ' . • 

In the last Appendix, j). 508. 1. 26, for * subordination,' read iit- 
subordirfation ; p. 511. 1. 12. from bottom, read by defnlattons of^de^ 
f motions ; p. 5.19. li 8. for * du* read r/f ; p. 580. 1. 26. put a fidl 
Itop after * mhu^ous^* and only a colon after iime^ in L a8. / *. ; 


For MA R C H, ' 1799. 

AiLT« I. Jiu authentic Ac€onnt of the Bmkassy of the Datei Eatt»In£a 
Company to the Court of thf Emperor of Chifia, in the Years 1794 
and 1795 *f (subsequent, to that of the Earl of Macartney ;) con- 
taining a Description of several Parts of the Chinese Empire^ un« 
known to Europeans 5 taken. from the Journal of Andre Everard 
Van Braam, Chief of the Direction of that Company, and Secopd 

• in the EmbasBy. Tranarlated from the Original of M, L. E. Mo- 
reau de Saint-Mery. WitK a correct Chart of tlie Route, 8vo» 
2 Vols. 1 2S. Boards. Phillips, Debrett, &c. 1798. 

I^HiNA is likely to continue to be an object of European cu- 
^ rio§ity, while it refuses free access to foreigners i and while 
It cherishes those manners and customs which, originating in the 
, first ages of the world, form such a portrait of primeval civiUz* 
ation as might be deemed either ideal or embellished, were it 
not represented by a succession of eve-witnesses and authentic 
writers. Yet a country, inhabited by one of the most jealous 
nations on the globe, can be perfectly known only from the 
observations of many. Every traveller, indeed, adds a trait to 
the interestine picture ; and the stronger the presumption ap« 
pears of his having strictly adhered to the truth,— which, m 
accounts of distant countries, is frequently sacrificed to vanitj, 
—the more value" will be set on his communications. 

The present narrative. of the recent Dutch, embassy to China 
bears evident indications of veracitv, and will be a valuable 
addition to our literary stock of writings in this class, in pro- 
portion as it may be found to contain new information. M., Van 
Braam, as the second personage in that mission, had better op« 
pof tunities of making observations, than those of inferior raok 
who were attached to it. The French editpir assHres us, also^ 
in a prefixed advertisement, that the author had lost no time 
in making the inhabitants of other parts of the world, as fiar as ' 
depended on Um, 'partakers iti the sensations which he expe* 
rienced. * Doubly a painter, his pen and his pencil were con- 
stantly employed in depicting whatever he saw ; and sparing 
neither pains nor expencc, he may be said not to have suffered 

Vol. xxviii. S any 

242 Van Braam'/ Account of the Dutch Emhassy I0 China. 

any thing to escape hinii whidi was worthy of the attention of 
a discerning public/ 

' We are j[ivtn> t^findcrstands (if we mistake not,) that die 

•: Viceroy of Csm ton himself sttggctfted to M. Van Braam the 

idea of a Dutch embassy to the Court of China, in order to 

congratulate the. Emperor on tlie anniversary of his accession 

to the throriew ^e Q)mmissanes- General at Batavia, being 

informed by M. Van B. of this overture, thought proper to 

avail themselves 'S^t, and appointed M. Isaac Titzirrg * am* 

bassador. Among his suite, which does not appear to have 

'..been very n'umerous, were, in. the capacity of intefpreters, 

.' Messrs* j4gk and De Guignes^ bwh Frenchmen j besides whom, 

we also find frequently mentioned, and here called by a Por- 

* tUgacsc tcr;n, z Lhtgua^ or Chinese lihgutst. 

The Dutch Embassy proceeded from Canton in the litter end 
"of November I794, and arrived at Pekin on January the ptb, 
^ ,J795 \ during lyKch time t^cj yr^^\ through so many hard- 
ships, that4| is QQt .ea^y m QOfiCC'mc hQW.thfy.^puld reach the 
Chinese capital in healdi, or ^ow the author could find him* 
^^'selP disposed for taking any m^inutes on the journey. 'It s'eems, 
/ indeed^ that he and M. De Guignes f were the tmly |Jersona 
\w/iO ke'ft a journal:— but, though M. Van Braam appeats to 
' .iiavc Seen his companion's memorandums, we do hot fihd that 
;^'he Was indebted to them for any of the matter exhibited in the 
present atCoUnt. We are told,^ likewise, tlat Ihe authot't 
^' jourhal lay constantly open for the inspection of the^geiitle- 
** men composifag the Dutch embassy, ' and that it even waff 
^'copied for the u^e of the ambassador himself. Froni these 
' circumstances^ M. Mor^au de Saint-Mery, the French cditt)r, 
\ (no doubt, on the authority of the author,) would haVe this ac- 

* -CbUiit considered as demi-official : a claim to which, probably, 
^ there will be no exception. ^ * 

* . We shall now present the reader with some extracts fron^ 
"this Work. arid, reserve pur general observations on' it for an- 

* Other article, which will proba'bly appear in' our next Number, 

Somcf part of the journey was made on the fivers ; and M^ 
',^V^n Braam could not behold without astonishment the indc- 
" latigable zeal which the bargemen manifested night and day| 
' and ahiiost withiout taking rest, for its farther acceleraHon : 

♦ This gentleman iV mentioned m a note, p. idz, t6 have been for 
tome time resident at the court of Japan* It oUr lAfbtOMtiba be cor- 
- Tect« he is now settled at Bath. 

f We understand that thia gentleman,, a. son of the celebrated 
^ French Orientalist of that name, resides ^t MacaOf for the purpose of 
pursuing his favourite study of AaiatJc'litesatiire* 


Van ^raam*/ '4^f^^'}f of the Butch JEmiasfj to Chiwi. 243 

^ Three times iji the four-and-twenty ^ours they make a meal, 
■which bxtt httle mote (htinf •a quarter of ati hout, iirft ^t b!it:V§y 
lktle^eej[^. ' Tte^'dd'tteir bu!>tne«s tteTertheless ilrkh ^dor^ ^d 
- w&h a degree of gaieiy^y which in ixhtt pans of -the World 16 
..bemet with vpon^pacties ofpleassre* No being od eaitkiaittter 
: thail the Chinese to ctiduse (atigao, and to support ai long 'Coni)fu-< 
ance of labour.-, Provided pare betaken to ensure him a,fi^Sici^nt 
re&ction at stated periods, there is no doubt of his always finding 
Bew strength for wliatever laborious task be may be re<juired to un- 

At San-ehan'tong^ ^e author observed se^veral mx7/r, which 
\raise the water of the river above the banks *, whence it runs 
into reservoirs, to be afterward diffused by means of canals, and 
aqueducts over the fields which require irrigation. From M« 
. VanBraam's description qf them, we are led to suspect that the 
term iti/V/ is. misapplied. The machine appears to us to be nothing . 
but a water vuBeei. By referring to Sir G. Staunton's account 
of the British embassy, vol. iii. p. 335, octavo edit, we meet 
with a description of a machine exactly similar : h is there called 
a large and durable wheel, consisting of two unequal' rims, 
&c* and is illustrated in the 4to edition by a neat engraving. M« 
Van Braam has however made some additional observations : 

• To increase the velocity bf the stream, separations are made in 
the river, so shaped and disposed, that they form a channel or water- 
course in the direction df the wheel. By means of this channel, the 
water when It approaches the wheel is a foot and even more above 
the level of the river, the consequence of which is a fall that in- 
creases the momentum of the fluid uppn the flat bamboos, or ladles- 
boards of the wheel, to which they give greater rapidity of motibn. 

- But foi^ this cail^e of acceleration-, the wheel would bnng the joints, 

• filli bf watef, but slowly upward, especially as they have nothing to 
counterbalance their Weight on the other side. 
.' ' ^ « By this contrrvaiicr,' the mill answers the intended purpose as 
completely ats the most (Complicated European machine could do \ and 

' I will answer for it, that in China it does not occasion an expence of 
ten. dollars. It seems to mc, that the mere putting tocher of the 

' "pieces of which it is composed, is a new proof of the industry and^ 

""intelligence of the Chinese.' 

At Nan-bang^heni M. Van Braam saw a handsome temple* 
dedicated to Confucius. The hall in which the Cbap * of- the 
philosopher is exposed %o view (for there is no image to repre- 
sent him) b surmounted by ^ noSle octagonal dome^ such as 
,M. Van Braam had never before remarked in any other pa- 

* Chop is said in .the notes to be a gcnerical word which indicates 
f j>iece of* bdard, or. tablet, inscribed with the name of any one, or 

. ^ith some .title designating him ; and to which the same ho^q^rsare 
paTd that he wouUl nkve a right to expect in per^pm . 

.' . S a goda. 

244 ^^° BraamV Accwint of the Dutch Etnhasij to China. 

goda. The cupola of the dome is covered with gilding and 
paintings -, and the divisions of the tx>rder| which correspond 
with the eight walla. of the octagon, bear inscriptions that are 
aekaowleged to be the most antient of any preserved in China. 
Bjr a singular oversight, no -translation of them is inserted, but 
their place is left open with blanks. In another- apartment, ad- 
joining to the former, are sixty-two tablets inscribed with letters 
of gold, and containing the names of the most Celebrated dis- 
ciples of Confucius. 

The Chinese never scatter the seeds of vegetables with the 
hand, but sow them in furrows, and use a dibble. This regu- 
larity gives ^ plcafing symmetrical appearance to the fields, 

• when they are in a state of vegetation. 

Among the carriages employed in this country, is a wheel- 

. barrow, singularly constructed, and employed alike for the 
conveyance of persons and goods : 

* According as it is more or less heavily loaded, it is directed by 
one or two persons, the one dragging it after him, while the other 
pushes it forward by the shafts. The wheel, which is very large in 
proportion to the barrow, is placed in tjie centre of the part dn 
which the load is laid ; so that the weight bears upon the atle, 
and the harrow- men support no part of it, but serve merely to move 
it forward, and to keep it in equilibrium. The wheel is as it were 
cased up in a frame, made of laths, and covered over with a thin 
plank, four or five inches wide.- Qn each side of the barrow i$ a 
projection, on which the goods are put, or which serves as a seat for 
passengers. A Chinese traveller sits on one side, and thus serves to 
counterbalance his baggage, which is placed on the other. If this 
baggage be heavier than nimself, it is balanced equally on the two 
sides, and he seats himself on the board over the wheel, the barrow 
being purposely contrived to suit such occasions.* 

As the rivers soon froze up, the embassy was obliged to 
proceed by land, and to be forwarded in palanquins carried by 
6Wz/*, or labourtrs ; who, from extreme fatigue, sometimes 
set the Dutch gentlemen down in thehiiddle of* the road, and 
refused to carry tliem any farther. They even behaved so dis- 
respectfully to M. Van Braam, as to let him fall several times, 
and obliged him to proceed on foot (p. 155). When the se- 
cond in the embassy was treated in this manner, it may be 
easily conceived what usage the inferior persons must have ex- 
^pericnced. Indeed, we find that a Malay boy, in the ambas- 

* * This name, which is borrowed from India, is applied to* all 
sorts of labourers, but particularly to tho5C who carry persons, mer- 
chandlce, &jc. an occupation which is considered as the lowest of all, 
because it is that of such individuals as can get nothing else to do. 
Almosjt all of them go with their head and feet naked*' 

3 ^ ' sador's 


Van BraamV Account of the Dtiich Embassy to China. 245; 

sador's service, became delirious, and died at Pekin, in con- 
sequence of the fatigue undergone in the voyage. Of the 
wretched and half-naked labourers, who carried both passengers 
and baggage, not fewer than eight are said to have died, during 
two very severe nights and days in December. 

The capital of Kianghan, M. Van Braam informs us, ought 
properly to be called Con-ding-fou \ though Europeans generally 
substitute for it the name of Nan-kifig^ z word signifying only 
the court of the souths because the Chinese Empetors formerly 
resided m that city. 

The laborious mountain-culturey which is perhaps nowhere 
carried to a higher* pitch than in China, is thus accurately 

* The eye of an European ie delighted at beholding the industri- 
ous application of the Chipese, who, rating difficulties at nothing, 
convert mountains into fertile fields, and change their inclined surface 
into level ground, by means of terraces of four or five feet elevation, 
which descend by steps fi-om the top of the declivity to the bottom 
of the valley. But for their exertions, , it is evident that those 
regions must remain for ever uncultivated, on account of the ravages 
committed by the Hoods during the heavy rains, which would not 
fail to carry both the soil and the seed deposited in it into the ra- 
vines below. The precautions of which I am speaking render such 
a mischief impossible by levelling every thing. Each terrace is be- 
sides secured with a parapet, and a little ditch to drain off the super* 
6uoU8 water. On the other hand, as elevated grounds are in their 
very nature subject to drought, the Chinese, to remedy this evil, ju- 
diciously place on the summits of the highest mountains ample re» 
servoirs, in which the rain water is received and preserved. As soon 
as the drought begins to be felt, the reviving stream descends, *and 
saves the corn, grass, and vegetables, from its pernicious effects. 
The aspect of a slope so disposed, when seen from a commanding 
situation, was highly agreeable, although the ground was how entirely 
stripped and naked. How delightful must it be when wheat em- 
bellishes the surface, and covers it with a verdant carpet.' 

Throughout China, numerous triumphal or honorary arches, 
built either of wood or stone, perpetuate the memory of per-^ 
sons of both sexes, whose virtues have deserved celebratioii 
and the homage of the public. The Emperor takes care to 
preserve whatever may transmit to posterity an idea of the 
glory of those celebrated persons v while inscriptions indicate 
their names, and the noble actions by which they gained re- 
nown* Sir G. Staunton (vol. ii. p. ^89) says that they arc 
.- — ■"■■■'■■• ■■ ' ■ ■ I, ■ ■ ■ ' . I ■> . ■ I " • " ■ I ■ "" 

* The reader, it is hoped, will not suppose that by the use of 
this \yord we arc fiumblj disposed to amuse him, or ourselves, with 

'^' S3 calW 

2^6 Van BraamV Account of ike Dutch Embassy to China* 

Called hy the Chinese. Pai-hq^ and mistranslated by * triumphal 
arches,* as nothing like an arch is to be se^n In any nart of it ; 
» the whole being built of wood, and consisting of three hand- 
some gateways, of which tlic middle is the highest and largest. 
With respect to the design of them, M. Van Braam is more 
explicit and satisfactory than Sir George :-r-he thus parti* 
cularize^ the classes of men in favour of whom this usage has' 
been adopted : 

* I. Persons who have lived a century ; the Chinese thinking, that: 
'vuthout a sober and virtuous life it. is impossible to attain so great an 
age* t* Children who have given proofs of great filial affection., 
3. Women remarkable for their chastity. The finest of the tn- 
umphal arches \^e saw this day, which is composed of a very hard 
kind of white marble called Samchh^ was erected in honour or three 
m'sters. According to the Chinese custom they had been betrothed 
from their infancy ^ but their three intended husbands dii^d before 
rtey were marriageable. In vain did other men desire their company- 
through life; faithful to their first engagements, thpy considered 
them as binding till their death, after which this hiark of honour was 
Awarded them;. 4. The Mandarins who have governed in the dis- 
trict subject to their authority with fidelity and justice, so as to 
gain the love and esteem of the people. 5* And lastly, the persona 
iVho have distinguished themselves by rendering signal services to 
the state ; or who have made or invented any thing conducive to 
the advantage of the public* 

Many learned Chinese have, fropi time imm^ipprial, writtet^ 
a great number of trdattses concerning agriculture, &c* ojf 
tvliith Grammont, a French missionary at Fekin, spoke to 
M. Van Braam in high terms of praise. The missionary even 
^eems them worthy of translation into the European languages j 
particularly as many things occur in them which are entirely 
unknown among us. , . 

The Chinese custody of applying sails tp Iand*carrlages^ 
though mentioned by Milton, and by several travellers, has 
t)ften been questioned. M. Van Braam, however, places it 

f)eyond all doubt. 

• . ■- 

' '*• How great was my surprise (he says) when I this day saw a 
9vhok fleet of wheel-barrows, all of the same. size. I h^ve good 
reason to call them a fleet, for they veere all under sail : having a 
little- mast very i^eatly inserted in a hole or step ciit in the forepart 
pf the barrow. To this maSt is attached a sail made of matting, or 
more commonly of canvas, five or sfx feet high, and three or four 
wide, with reefs, yards, and braces -Uk« those -^f the Chinese boats« 
fThe braces lead to the shafts of the barrow, and by means of them 
^hecond^lctor; trims his sail. , ,.-,.... .... . 

« It was easy to perceive by this apparatus, that it was riot a mere 
nomentary nmtter, but an additional contrivance in the carriage, and 




i V^n .Bi^a|nV-4rf«f/tf of^^Dvtch Brassy to. C^ina* 247 

meant to giv^ relief to the harrdw-meQ when the wiad is fair ; for^ 
otherwise, cohsidering the nion^y it must cost, dud the trouble of 
carrying it, it would be but a very ridiculous whim.' ' ' " " - 

Sir G. Staupton (vol. ii, p. 243] has also 0)&^tio^ied^thc6C^ 
sailing barrows, though the English embassy do not appear ta 
have been gratified with a sight qf them. 

An extraordinary instance of subordination among the Man^, 
darins is noticed at p. 167* The seqond conductor of th^ 
embassy Wa^ so much offended at the governoir of a city^ 
where they were delayed for some hours, that he thougnt 
proper to pay him publicly nvith a fnv cuffs ; which foreboded 
that he woiidd lose his place into the bargain. 

Though the embassy looked forwards to Pekin for better ac« 
commodations than they experienced in their route to th^ ca- 
pital, they had the mortification, on their arrival, of finding 
them worse. They were carried on the first day to a public 
house, generally frequented by carmen. ' This disappointment, 
however, they bore with patience on peeing t;^e Mandarins 
placed in the same situation with themselves \ though M. VaQ 
Braam cannot conceal the vexation which he felt* < Thus,' h^ 
exclaims, < on our arrival at the celebrated residence of the 
Smperor, were we lodged in a hind of stable i who could have 
' expe<fted such an adventure ?* — Did this mode of behaving to 

foreigners of distinction prove, what the Chinese so frequently 
! asserted, and what is repeatedly mentioned by M. Van Braam, 

\ (^'^* P" ^^S>) ^^^t ^!^ Dutch embassy was better fiked and 

better treated in China, than the English had been ? 

Of' the Chinese metropolis, the author gives the following 
description : ' ' . . » 

* In general, the houses in the city have 3 respectability of ap- 
l pearance of which those in the suburbs cannot boast, and there arc 

' even shops of which the fronts are decorated with carvings or aculp- 

j . ture in wood or stone, and gilt or varnished from top to bottom. 

The street even in tlie parts that were not paved, was covered with 
tents, under which the shopkeepers displayed all that the loom can 
produce, as well as provisions and goods of evei-y other kind, \yhicli 
gave it, to us, exactly the appearance of a fair; and the great con- 
course of people, issembled in European towns on such occasions, is 
an additional trait of resemblance. This spectacle, the noise of car- 
riages, horses, mules, and dromedaries ; the asstmblage of so many 
men and animals ; the appearance of new dresses, mannrcrs, and faces; 
every thing, in short, put in its claim Upon my curiosity, and cupii- » 
vated my atterttion.' 

The embassy was one day addressed by the old Eoaperor's 
geveuteenth son, then about thirty years of age, and of ;t ple4s- 
ine countenance i and the same prince who was <^«cUTi»d 

S 4 Emperor 

148 Van BraimV Account tfthe Dutch Emhassj to China. 

Emperor of China on the 8th of February 1796, by his father 

Among the amusements at court, the feats of activity ex- 
hibited in the presence of the Emperor and of the Dutch em- 
bassy are remarkable : 

* A man, lyiag down on his back, held up his legs vertically iri 
the air. Upon the sole of his feet was next placed a ladder of six 
long steps, with a flat board at the bottom. A child of seven or 
eight years of age then climbed up the steps, and sitting upon the 
upper one, played a number of monkey-tricks, while the man kept 
turning the ladder first one way and then another. The child after- 
wards descended and ascended, twisting his body in such a way be» 
tween the stejps, that the different parts of it were alternately on the 
opposite aides of the ladde^ This diversion lasted at least a quarter 
01 an hour. 

* When the exhibition of the ladder was over, two men brought an 
enormous earthen vessel, which must certainly have weighed more 
than a hundred and twenty-five pounds, and which they laid sideways 
upon the feet of the strong man, who turned it round and round and 
over and over with astonishing rapidity. The child was then put 
into the vessel at the moment the mouth of it w^s tunied fron^ the 
£mpcror, towards whom it was immediately brought round again by 
the mao» The boy then made signs of respect, and climbing over 
the edge, got ppon the top of the vessel, seated himself there, and 
assumed a variety of attitudes, letting himself han? down over the 
edge, by^ which he held with his hands^ and enlivenmg the perform- 
since by a thousand playful tricks,^ 

M.Van Braam's remarks concerning the Emperor Kien-Long 
Itre somewhat different from the description given in the ac- 
count of the British embassy i^^^he says : 

* His ei^temal appearance exhibits all the marks of old agCt par- 
ticularly his eyes. They are watery, and so weak, that it is with dif* 
ficulty he raises his eyelids, which hang dowp in folds, especially that 
of the left eye. He is, in consequence, obliged, whenever he wishes 
to look at any thing that is not very close to him, to raise his head 
and even to throw it a little back. His cheeks are shrivcUcd and 
pendant. His beard, which is short, is ^ry grey. These are the 
only particulars I can give of thi? monarch's person, never having 
been very near to him, but when he was sitting, — His dress consists 
of clothes lined with fur, which appeared to me to be that of the 
sea-otter ; and round his cap, which is sometimes ornamented with a 
large pearl, was a horder of the same kind. In this season, as well 

. lis in all others, the Emperor's dress is very plain, although he is 
served and honoured like a god. He does" not, indeed, enjoy tl^e 
tenth part pf the pleasure and amusements, which are at the com- 
mand of the meanest prince in Europe. ~ His recreations consist of 
tricks and buffooneries, with which it would be difficult to divert the 
common peojile pf an European country at a fair ; but as he is un- 
{^cmiaio(ed with more refined enjoyments^ and unable to form s^ idt^ 



Letter: wi Cerrespondenee of Lord Bolingbroke. 249 

of dieiHy he cannot be said to miffer any privation. It is not then 
anrpming that the diversionfi of children should be an amusement to 
the Empieror ia hts old age.' 

The aothor seems to discredit the reputed number of Chinese 
troops, which were stated to him by a person who had belonged 
to the English embassy, to be 1,800,000. In the appendix to 
Sir G. Staunton's account, Number IV. we meet with the same 
statement. It is impossible for us to divine whether or not the 
Chinese army amounts to a number which, indeed, staggers 
belief : but Sir G, S. (vol. iii. p. 391-93.) mentions the above 
calculation as resting on the testimony of a dutinguisbed military 
officer ; and he adduces some circumstances which render it 
less incredible : yet he candidly adds : ** if the number men- 
tioned really do exist, a great proportion of them must be iki 
Tartary^ or on some service distant from the route of the em» 
bassy." We here see nothing like credulity or wilful exaggera- 
tion ; and the. apparent tendency of M. Van Braam's ob^rva* 
tion ^ will most probably be defeated. 

{To he continued,^ 

AiT. IL Letters /and Correspondence^ Public and Private^ of the Right 
Hon- Henry St. Johut Lord Vise. BoUnghrokey during the Time he 
was Secretary of State to Queen Anne : with State Papers, ex* 
planatory Notes, and a Translation of the Foreign Letters, &c. 
By Gilbert Parke, Wadh. Coll. Oxon. Chaplain to his R. H. 
the Prince of Wales. 8vo. Four large Vols. iL las. Boards. 
Robinsons. 1798. 

^T^H^N we consider the importance of the treaty of Utrecht 
^^ to the interests of this country^ and the splendid abilities 
of those men who were employed in promoting or in resisting 
its ratification ; — calline to our recollection the names of Marl- 
borough and Bolingbrokcy who were both engaged, though on 
different sides and with different views, in this calamitous and 
disgraceful transaction, which originated in the machinationa 
and dissensions of two of the Queen's waiting-women ;— we 
receive with pleasure, and we read with avidity, every produc- 
tion which promises to throw new light on the events of that 

When Mr. St. John made his first public appearance, the 
Whig and Tory parties were strongly opposed to each other, and 
their interests were nearly balanced. Though he ha4 beeq 
educated among the Dissenters, and had imbibed such political 
sentiments as should have attached him to the cause of free- 
dom, he united himself with Harley, and «was in 1704 ap^ 

^ * f^baps it is requisite tp go to Tartary to 9(c theoi.' p. 264. 


2 j^o LeiUn anJf Qotrispomknce of Lord B^^gbfc^ 

poimed^Seofcury at, War, and of tlic marities.— r'WhDe h/eT|s^ 
taMicft this appqannn^nt, h^ manifest^ hlms^f 8q ht^p^ 
llaenced by petty, motives of jealousy, thai he suppU^^tbtf. 
Diifceof Mavlbofougby w2^9 might be.con9id^r^4 ^ th^ hcpA 
of the opposite p$Hrty> wkli aAl the neceseade^ i^ carrying of^i 
the waiwkh vigour; and several of the,mpMfgh)rious and re^- 
inavkahle. evems of t\i» war (viz. th^ battle^ of Blenheim an4i 
Ramillies^ &c.) happened during bis administration ^. In the,. 
ye»r i7o8,.be experfepc.ed;a ch^i^e of fortune; and op the. 
ekficinn of a new ps^rliaiiient, he ^as not rpmvf\^r This^ 
period he^ d^icatsd to the^ severest st^dy^ s^nd he declared that, 
htf coasidered it as the most ^rvicc^le of his whole life. ]^e% 
in hift yoiUfay and wb^n his thoughts and his tin^e appeared: to. 
feff devoted to esiravag^t and disgraqeful pleasure^i he had hi% 
Ittctd intef^alsy and observed that <( The Iovq of study and der 
site of knowlege were what I felt siU ipy life \ and though myr 
genitis, unliiue the. dvmon of Socrates^ whispered $p. sQfjdy^ 
that very often I heard hiixi not in tht h^rry. of thpse p^issipM 
with which I was transported^ yet ^pe calmer hours there 
were, and in them I hearkened to him.** 

With such feelings in the midst of his dissipation, it is 
not WMiderM that, when arrived at a matnrer age, and having 
in some degree realized his ambitious projects, (though still 
with much to hope,) he should devote himself to incessant 
stndy. — The fruits of' that application soon becan;ie apparenty 
and In the vear 1 710 he was appointed Secretary pf Stat^. At 
this time, the correspondence contained m t^e present wprk 
commei»:ed ;— and here we cannot 6ut lan^cnt that the period^ 
to which these volumes are confined, seems to have precluded 
the insertion of some letter^ addressed by Lord Boltngbjx>i:e 
to Sir William Wyndbam, now in the possession of the Ear! 
6f Egremont, with a perusal of which we were soipe time since 
favoured and much gratified, 

We shall transcribe, for the 5ari$fection of our readers, the 
account given by the editor of the manner in whiqh the letters 
here printed came into his possession, [Vol. I. p. vii, and p. x.] 

* When Bolingbroke was dismissed from bi^ oiSc^» ^nd fled t^ 
France, hie Under-secretary, Thomas Hare, Esq. who is often men- 
tioned in his Lordship's tetters, secured these Papers. At that 
time, Mr. Hare resided in London, and being a younger brother, 
was possessed of a very small fortune, beside the place of Cliief 
Oxrky Sole Examiner and Register in Chancery, and Clerk of the 

* He w»8 always a sincere admirer of fltat gr^at General, and op 
every occasion avowed his opinioiii of his exalted merits, and boasted 
of being instrumental in giving effect and lustre to triumphs^ 
br «liioh ins «wb power wa« eventually ovezthrovrn* 


llfttert atii C^rhpdfidence of Lori%6Yitt^ af^r , 

Grown and Peice in Bafbado^fs, which offieei h^c hMl biit ithcthior 
for life, or during pleasure^ is not oiiite ceitain ; one och^y of the- apA- 
pointment, in the hands ot the Editor, specifying for hfie, the other 
during pleasui'e; the latter is dated June i8, 17 14^ the former har 
no date, and, perhaps, was never executed, as ttie Ouetn died on tlie 
i^t of August following, and it was not probable tEat the frietido^ 
the proscribed Secretary would experience any favour- from the snc- 
ceeding administration. Independent of this place, whatever fortune 
he possessed was lost in the general calamity originating in the Souths 
Sea Scheme. 

« His elder brother dying unmarried, he, in fj^if 8UCGCed(!d tw 
the noble estate and seat of his familjr at StoW-Hatt, in NovfbttE^ 
and to the Baronetage granted to Sir Ralph Hare, in 1641. Thither 
he then retired, and the Bolingbroke manuscript^ were deposited in 
the Evidence-house belonging to the estate, where they remained ; 
and, from the time of his deaths in 1760, were little known or 

• To the present worthy possessor of the estate, Thomas Hare^ 
Esq. and the descendant of the Under-sccretary, die Editor, thcil 
residing in the neighbourhood of Stow, expressed his wishes te per^ 
use the Papers, and upon stating his inclination to publish thenfi, Mn 
Hare, in the most liberal and polite manner, sent him the whole of 
the Bolingbroke Papers in his possession.' — 

* Upon an exaniination of the Manuscripts, many.app6ired to ht 
autographs, and the remainder in the hand-writing ot Sir Thothas 
Hate, or of his colleagues in office. They consisted of four volumet 
of Letters, and very many detached Papers. The first volume con* 
tained the Pubh'c Dispatcnes to the Earl of Strafford ; the second^ 
the PubKc and Private Letters to the Marquis de Tofcy, with these 
to and from Mr. Prior ; the other two, his Public s^rid Private Let* 
ters to Correspondents in general. The detached Papers consisted 
of the Letters from the Marquis de Torcy, and the entire Corre* 
gpofidence with the I>uke of Shrewsbury, together with Mcmo^ 
rials, &c.. 

« The Editor has endeavoured to arrange all these in a regular te* 
ries, and to supply such explanatory Notes as seemei neceissary M 
render characters and occurences more familiar to the Reader. A 
Translation of the Foreign Letters was hot intended, when the b6ok 
was ready for the press, from a fear of swelling the work to an inor- 
dinate size ; but, at the suggestion of a friend, whose JudgiActat 
the JSditor has ever respected, he was induced to alter his phm i affd» 
by printing the work in a smaller letter than that used in the other 
volumes of Bolingbroke, and fcy extending the page 6f Ifetter-^resfli^ 
to giyj^ room at the end of each volume for the Translation of the 
preceding Letters. ' 

« Extracts from the ptihftc Letters of the Secretary appeared ih 
the Report of the Secret Committee of the Hoii^e bf Cofnmotis th 
17 15, which formed the ground-work of the impeaehment 6f Oxford, 
"feoiingbrbk^ Strafford, and prmofjd. Uut these seem to be oT no 
fariTier use tKan as'tKcy served the purgode qf o^'e party in effecting ' 
ihe ovefth^'^ "bf aribther j in'th^iir mutifateil'state they.are of ^littte 


252 Letters and Correspondence of Lord BoUngbroke. 

service to the history of our country^ -and remain only to record the 
violence and the prejudice of faction » 

< The late Earl of liardwlcke inserted in his State Papers four of 
the official Letters of Lord Bolingbroke and Mr. Prior : these, so far 
as the Editor has been able to learn, are all the Papers in the follow* 
mg Collection that have hitherto appeared in print. 

* The present Publication consists not only of official, but of pri* 
rate Letters of the Secretary ; the general business of that Admi* 
nistration» and his particular sentiments on that business ; the orders 
and instructions of the Minister, and the confidential communication 
of the motives for them; In a word, it seems to record the poli- 
tical occurrences and history of Great Britain, from the time Boling-- 
broke came into office until his superces&ion by the Regents ; and the 
reader is not to learn the importance of that period.' 

There can be little doubt that at thi^ period Mr. St. John's 
friendship for Harley was warm and sincere : but, unhappily 
for themselves^ and unluckily for their party, this intimacy 
soon declined, and coldness and suspicion assumed its place. 
In a letter addressed to the Earl of Orrery so early as May 1 7 1 1, 
we observe the following passage, from which it is evident 
that the writer was dissatisfied with his colleague's reserve x 
[Vol. L p. 216.] 

* Do you not remember, my Lord, a certain time last . summer^ 
when for several weeks I avoided writing to you, although I knew 

' how uneasy the pangs of expectation were to the Duke of Argyle 
and yourself, in that crisis of domestic affairs ? We are now m a 
state not very unlike to that which we were then in. Mr. Harley, 
since his recovery, has not appeared at the Council, or at the Trea- 
sury at all, and very seldom in the House of Commons. We, who 
are reputed to be in his intimacy, have few opportunities of seeing 
him, and none of talking freely with him* As he is the only true 
channel through which the (^een's pleasure is conveyed ; so there is, 
and must be a perfect stagnation till he is pleased to open himself, aiid 
set the water flowing.' 

In another letter to this Nobleman, written in the same 
year, he speaks of Harley with more kindness, but still alludes 
to his want of openness and candour. Here also he gives an 
account of a club just then established : [Vol. L p. 244.] 

< Our friend, Mr. Harley, is now Earl of Oxford, and High 

« This great advancement is, what the labour he has gone through J 
the danger he has run, and the services he has. performed, seem to de» 
serve. But he stands on slippery ground, and envy is always near 
the great, to fling up their heels on the least trip which they make. 
The companions of his evil fortune are most likely to be the sup- 
porters of \\k good ; and I dare say he makes this a maxim to him- 
self ; for tliough he oftcd wants that g;race and openness which en- 


Lettert and Correspondence ofLcra^xiVixx^ioVt. ii^j 

gages tlie affection, yet I must own, I never knew that he wanted 
cither thic constancy or the friendship which engages the esteem. 

* The Peerage * which you expect, will be declared ; atad yoti 
wiU have a companion, whom I am confident you cannot but Uke^ 
my Lord Keeper Harcourt, 

■ * Many changes have been made at the rising of the parlianlcnt, 

which was this day prorogued to the loth of July 5 and although 
they are such as 6ught to satisfy our friends, yet the number of the 
discontented must dways exceed that of the contented, as the num- 
ber of pretenders does that of employments. I confess to you, my 
Xiord, that it made me melancholy to observe the eagerness with 
which places were solicited for ; and though interest has at all times 
been the principal spring of action, yet I never saw men so openly 
claim their hire, or offer themselves to sale You see the eifectsr pf 
frequent {Parliaments, and of lo4)g wars, of departing from our old 
constitution, and from our true interest. 

< I musty before I send this letter, give youf Lordship an account 
of a club which I am forming ; and which, as light as the design 
may seem to be, I believe wilL prove of real service f . We shall 
begin to meet in a small nun^ber, and that will be composed of some 
who have wit and learning to recommend them ; 01 others who^ 
from their own situations, or from their relations, have power and 
influence, and of others who, frqm accidental reasons, may properly 
be *taken in. . The fir^t regulation proposed, and that which must 
be inviolably kept, is decency. None of the extravagance of the 
kit-cat \y none of the drunkenness of the beef-steak is to be endured* 
The improvement of friendship, and the encouragement of lcttci%, 
I arc to be the two great ends of our society. :A number of valuable 

I people will be kepjt in the same mind, and others. wiU be ma^e co«* 

verts to their opinions. . . , ■ ^ 

* Mr. Fentou^ and those who, like him, have genius, will have a 
corporation of patrons to protect and advance tliem in the world. 

, The folly of our party will be ridiculed and checked ; the oppositlia 

\ of another will be better resisted ; a multitude of other good uses 

1 will follow, which I am sure do not escape you^ ; and I hope in the 

^ winter to ballot for the honour of your company amongst us. 

- , • I am ever, my dear Lord, 3cc.^ 

* * Baron Boyle, of Marston, in the county of Somerset.* 

* f The members were. Earl of Arran, Lord Harley, Duke of 
Ormond, Swift, Sir Robert Raymond, Arbuthnot, Duke of Shrews- 
bury, Lord Duplin, Sir William Wyndham, George Granvilk» 
Masham, Earl 01 Jersey, Bathurst, Orrery, Coloiiel Hill, Colooel 
Desney, BoJingbroke, Duke of Beaufort, Prior, Dr. Friend, &c. 
Their meetings were first at their several houses, but afterwards, they 
hired a room near St. James's.' 

* j'This kit-cat was instituted in 1699. Con^reve, Prior, Sir 
John Vanburgh, the Earl of Orrer)', and Lord Soqders wtfr^ 
oncmbers*' • ' 

?|4 .-tif^/f^' ^A'^T^!^^P*^f?^,. j/'X^rf^lipgbrokc. 

Jn. a, letter .addressed to Prior, in 1713, he docs not conceal 
Ims disgust at the Treasurer's reluctance to oblige him ; [Vol. IV. 

• * I cannot conchide this letter, without desiring you to try at a 
matter which. I have yery much at heart, and which I would have 
writ to the Dnke of Shrewsbury upon, had I not apprehended that 
he might take it ill, if I should apply to him upon a supposition of 
what he doc's not own. In a word, we imagine he goes to Ireland 5 
in that case might not Mr. Hare be secretary there ? Addison went 
from the office at Whitehall to that post. Mr. Hare has served so very- 
well, that whatever becomes of mc, I should be under the last con- 
cern if he was not provided for. My Lord Treasurer's provisions 
. coipe too slow, and are so uncertain, that I expect httle trom him. 
1 have solicited for an uncle of my wife's, these three years ; aU I 
pretended to was an employment of 200I. a-year, which has been 
vacant above half tjhe time, :and I have not succeeded. Judge you, 
whether I am likely to trouble my Lord for any other person. If 
, you find that easy moment, which should be watched for in our ap« 
' plications to great men, use it for Mr. Hare's service. 

^ Adieu, dear Matt, in my friendship to you I can never alter. 
' * Seroetrtr a^itnum quaUs ah incepio frocesseriif £*f ftbl constat ; com* 
pliments as you see good. 

* Lord Treasurer is extremely ill ; if he was well, I should know 
nothing of your destination. Once more, yours evdr, BoliKgbroke. 

With such .sensations respecting Lord Oxford, and with un- 

■ limited confidence in liis own abilities, and possessing a superior 
influence over the mind of his sovereign, it is not wonderful 
that he should effect the overthrow of the Treasurer: but this 
lupture, however it might'in some respects be flattering to the 
ambition of Bolingbroke, was fatal to his interests as Veil as to 

, those of his (ormer friend. ' , 

In the negotiations at [Tjfr^'^i/ he experienced jthe assistance 

. of Prior,, whose abilities on similar t^cca^i9ns ha^ l^efpre been 
tried,, and whose authority in this, instaoc^ ..^as yery laconic ; 
Consisting, only of the following words, signed by the Queen. — 

^**.I^&ieur. Prior est pUinement instruit et auiorise de commumquer 
a la France pos 4<tnandes prelhmnairesy et de^ pous, en rapporter la 


• The correspondence between these two eminent men, in a 
« busiliess so full of difficulty and hazard, and i^hich evetituaHy 

• threatened the lives of both, is full of pleasa'nti'y And 'inkercst. 
Boliogbroke always lays aside his state when he addresses bis 

'friend, assuring him tnat his long scrawls are only from Harry 

. to Matt, and pot from the secretary to (he minister ; and 

..P^idf aecms to (eel himself on a perfect equality :— at th^ close 

of a letter, in which he states that he had a llttlq d^^^arted 

jS JEcooa 

' froYa tlic ^ti^ht tfiM Mrfow #dad of truth, bei signs bifMclf 
"^ Ahmal^regt^ miMm ad mentienAnn R. P. cautA!^ 

It does not appear from these letters that the poet 'was sa- 
tisfied cither with his precise sitnatioiii or with his establish- 
ment at Paris. Though his services were so important at this 

' tcealjr, as to exehide his name in the following Teign from an 
act 0f gnrac^ yet we find him frequently complainings and 
^iesimg Bolingbvoke tN> interfere in his favour. [Vol. IV. p. 239 


• Prmn Mr* Prior* 

^ My Lord> Pans, ApnlSth, f^t^• 

* "The Duke of Shrcwsbtiry sends your Lordship the «tatc ^f mir 
'^jJtirs in Spain, to' ^hich I hope our own in England will «o- fer 

correspond, ad tor open soon to U8 the scenes of an honourable peace 
* :u^ a good Parlfteient : I hope I shMl have my 'Lord TreastirePs 
' Otders, and yo.ui* opinion, as to my own particular or -public figure 
' These people, who you know are curious and impertinent enough 
' upon such headtf, begin to question me so closely, that I sometfmes 
wish I knew how to turn the discourse: upon the whale, I am 
aifaamed to tfOtlbleyou,* my dear Lord, any farther, and I will write 
of it more to Dartmoiith. I have again interested^ all our frieitds. 
Monsieur de Torcy particularly, in behalf of poor Monsieur Calen- 
<irini ; I Hope I shaa do him service ; and, in every tiling that can 
relate to you; 'apj[)rove myself most truly, ic. M. Paioa. 

^. Ta iu Grace the Duke of Shrewsbury, • 

(With MoBtaigne's Essays ; inclosed in the above letter.) 

* DfcoTATE, O mighty Judge, what thou hast seen 
Of (titles and of courts, or books an4 men. 
And dipgn to let thy servant hold the pen. 

« Thrt>tigh ages thus I might presume to Uve, . 
Aad fwtai the^ transcript of thy prose receive 
Wfcat my owrf ^ort-liv'd verse can nevei- ^st, 

* 'Thus' should fair Brtain, with a gracious smile. 
Receive the work ; the venerable isle, 

' Fgr more than treaties made, should bless my toiL 

* Nor longer hence the Gallic style preferrM, * 
W'sdom in English idiom should be heard, 

While Shrewsbury told the world where Montaigne err^J, 

"■■I I . A re yhey good ? .... * 

-* What think you of an oak,' which is Britain ; a trophy of ajcms 
' .^ the bottom of it ; a wreath of palm, hung on the tree ; over the 
' ' 'Uophy-i-//ijf wMr// potior. ' — 

* From Mr. Prior *. 
< M¥ Dbar Lord and Faibkd, 

Paris, i6t-i2thMay, 1714* 

* MatthcW had nerfcr so great oceasion to write a word to Hiory 
' ' as now ; it is noised here, that I am soon to return. The questioa 

■ ■ ' 1 ■ i» w iiw. ■ ■■ <>m ..< ..■■ > u -. 

• * private, by Mr. Bartoa.* 


15^ Leilirs anJ Cotres/iMkttce (jfLotJ'Botmf^rtlk 

that I wish I could aniwer to the many |hat ask, and to our fncnd 
Colbert de Torcy (to whom I made your compliments in the manner 
vou commanded) is, what h done for me, and to what I am recalled ? 
It may look like a bagatelle^ what is to become of a philosopl^er 
like me ; bnt it is not such, what is u> become of a person who had 
the honour to be chosen, and <tent hfth;!r as fntrustea, in the midst 
of a war, with what the Qneen designed should make the peace ; 
returning with the Lord BoHngbroke, one of the greatest men in 
England, and one of the Rnest heads in Europe (as they say here^ 
if true or not, • n^importe) having been left by him in the greatest 
character, (that of her Majesty's Plenipotentiary,) exercising that 
power conjointly with the Duke of Shrewsbury, and solely af&r hi» 
departure ; having here- received more distinguished honours thaq any 
Minister, eiccept an Ambassador, ever did, and some which were 
never given to any, but who had that character ; baving had all the 
success that could be expected ; having (.God be thanked ! ) spared 
no pains ; at a time when at home the peace is vpted safe and ho- 
nourable ; at a time wIkju the Earl of Oxford is Lord Treasurer, 
and Lord Bolingbroke i\^^\. Secretary of State, this unfortunate 
person, I say, neglected, forgot, unnamed to any thing that may 
speak the Queen satisfied with his services, or his friends concerned 
as to his fortune. 

* Monsieur de Torcy put me quite out of countenance, the other 
day, by a pity that wounded me deeper tlxan ever did the cruelty of 
the late Lord Godolphin ; he said he would write to Robin and 
Harry about me : God forbid, my Lord) that I should' need any 
foreign intercession, or owe the least to any Frencliman living, be- 
sides decency of behaviour, and the returns of common civility. 
Some say I am to go to Baden, others that I am to be added to 
the Comn-.issioiKrs for settling the commerce v in. all citses I am 
ready, but in the mean time, die aliquid lU irilmr capelBs : .neither of 
these two are, I presume, honours or rewards, of them (let 
me say. to my dear Lord Bolingbroke, and let him not be smgry with 
jne) are what Drift may aspire to, and what Mr. Wbitworth, who 
was his fellow-clerk, has or may possess. I am far from desiring to 
lessen the great merit of the gentleman I named, for I heartily esteem 
and kive him : but in this trade of ours, my Lord, in which you are 
the General, as in that of the soldiery, there is a certain right ac- 
xjuired by time and long service. You would do any thing for your 
•Queen's service, but you would not be contented to descend, and be 
degraded to a charge no way proportioned to that of Secretary of 
State, any more than Mr. Ross, though he would charge a pwty 
vrith a halberd in his hand, would be content all his life a?ter to be 
a Serjeant ; was my Lord Dartmouth from Secretary tetamed again 
to be Commissioner of trade ; or from Secretary of War, woidd 
Frank Gwin think himself kindly used to be returned again to be 
Commissioner ? In short, my Lord, you have put me above myself, 
and if X am to return to myself, I shall return to something very 
discontented and uneasy ; I am sure, my Lord, you will make the 
best use you can of this hint for my good. If I am to have any 
thingi it will certainly be for her Majesty's service^ and the credit of 


. Letters and Correspondence of Lord Bolingbroke. 257 

my friends in the Ministry, that it be done before I am recalled 
from hence^ lest the world may think either that I have merited to 
. be disgraced, or that ye dare not stand by mc ; if nothing is to be 
d^tity fat voluntas Deu 

• I have writ to Lord Treasurer upon this subject, and having 
implored your kind intercession, I promise you, it is the last remon- 
strance of this kind, that I wiU ever make. Adieu, my Lord, all 
honour, health, and pleasure to you. Yours ever. Matt. 

• P. S. X-ady Jersy is just gone from me ; we drank your health 
together in Usquebaugh, after our tea : we arc the greatest friends 
alive. Once more adieu. There la no such thing as the books of 
Travels you mentioned, if there be, let friend Tilson send us a more 
I>articular account of them, for neither I nor Jacob Tonson can find 
them. Pray send Barton back to me, and I hope with some Com- 
fortable tidings.' . 

These volumes wilt be f^nd particularly useful in detailing 
the progress of this important negotiation, and the circum<> 
stances which obstructed its completion : but we do not think 
that they bring to light any thing very essential, which was 
before unknown. The state of Lord Bolingbroke's mind, 
harassed by disappointment, and disconcerted by opposition, 
frequently discovers itself \ — in a letter to Mr. Watkins, he 
9aySy [Vol. 11. p. 159.] 

« And now, good Judge, let me ask you whether you believe that 
my situation in the world is perfectly as I could wish it ; whether . 
•«yoa imagine that I meet with no shock from my superiors, no per-' 
verseness from my equals, no impertinence fk)m my mferiors ? If you 
fancy me, or any one else, in such a state of bliss, you are wide 
from the mark. . 

< I desire you to do for a while, no more than what I have done^ 
ever since I trod the stage of public business ; bear with the hard- 
ness of the temper you complain of, and the prejudice will soon decay, 
f «r if it does not, tlie true" reason of your leaving the post which you . 
are in, will be manifest to the world, and no false, no malicious 
Uim taji be then given to your removal. 

* I use this liberty, because I persuade myself you are convinced 
of the. true value which I have for your merit, and that you will 
belic^ve I Judge in your case as I should do in niiy own. 

^ We have stoiggled this winter through inconceivable difficulties, 
, in opposition to a powerful faction at home, to all our allies, and 

even the successor himself abroad; and, I may say, we have com- 
. bated an habit of ^ thinking falsely, which men have been used to for 

twenty years. 

* If we finish our work, as 1 do not fear but we shall, the; success 
must be ascribed to the unshaken firmness of the Queen's servants, 

; and to the loyalty of the church interest, which even ill usage could 
. not ah'enatc.' 

In illustration of this point, we shall transcribe the letter to 
' the Earl of Peterborough, and with it wc shall close our ex- 
f tracts : [Vol. 11. p. 302.] 

Rbt. March, 1799* T To 

« T§ tie Earl of PeUrborwgh. 

« My Lord, Whitehall, May 2d, 17 if. 

^ Several of your Lordsh^'ft letters are come» almost at the same 
. time, to my hands, some of them are ivithout any date, the freshest 
is of the !S3d last month, from Venice* 

< It would be a real and a very great mortification to me, if I 
imagined your LordsHip had entertained the least doubt of tha( 
friendship which I profess to have for you ; my habits at Court haye 
neither taught me to show what I do not feid^ nor to hide what I 
do ; and my love and my hate are so far from not appearing in my 
words and actions, that they generally sit in my very face. 

* As I endeavour to do this justice to my own heart, so, my Lordy 
rou must give me leave to do the. same to those friends whom you 
left behind you : and who, I dare answer for them, have the same 
esteem for your merit > the same affection for your person, and the 
came zeal for your service, which they ever had. But, my Lord» 
in all your experience, I may venture to affirm, you never pasted 
through such a scene of confusion and dxfiicultj, as this winter has 
afforded us ; and though we have kept one pomt of view steadily in ^ 
sight, and worked towards h, yet have been forced to shift our course^ ' 
and try different measures, almost every day, 

* Faction can invent nothing more ruinous to the public, the rage 
of Woman nothing more barbarous towavd^.particuliur men, than somo 
of the intrigues which have been lately carried on. At the same 
time, a nice negociation has been on foot, wherein not Britain alonc» 
but all Europe, not the present age alone, but posterity are deeply 
concerned ; and this with an enemy, who wantd no inclination to take 
advantages, nor skill to manage them. 

< To these causes, and to others of a near resemblance to thettt 
be pleased, my Lord, to attribute the state of darkness and uncer* 

' tainty, which you complain you have been left in. The Queen has, 
from week to week, expected the moment when her affairs, and the 
great business now in agitation, would require the employing you 
m a post worthy of your talents, and, I believe, agreeable* to 
your wishes. That moment is* not very far off, and I take it for 

£ -anted, that the Earl of Dartmouth has already hinted to yottr 
ordship, what you are to expect. 

* The Duke of Savoy will find the Queen is the best friend he and 
his family have, and therefore, ' that more confidence in her, and lest 
nheasfness of temper, would have become his character better. 

* The alarm which we had concerning the Prince Ekctoral *, 
made a great impression upon her Majesty, and under these first ter- 
rors, the resolution was taken, of giving your Lordship a conmiission* 
which, I perceive, you do not very much relish. Mackenzie waa 

'pitched upon by the Electoress Dowager, and trusted with her let- 
ters^ and with tho§e of the Protestant ministers ; so that jf he had 
1>een goSty of any indiscretion, we should not be answerable for it i 
but, I hope, before this time, your Lordship has received another 
account of the adventure with his servant. 

» fc .-. . w T '-'*- 1 ... ,-■»■■■ - ■ , fc - y ■ I ■■ ■ » - 

• ♦ Of Saxony, renouncing Protestantism.^ 


Ph$bscpiu:al Trafuadhns efthe R. S. Part ILftr 1798. %%9 

< As t(i my own part» tny Lord/ ui Paiikuncnt, or out of it, aa I 
mil always deserve your friendship, so I flatter myself, I sbaH always 
liave it. But, my Lord, as to my conduct in the negociation for a 

GK:e, I shall want no justification. I have, it is true, acted aa 
dly in the promoting that good work, as your Lordship used to 
do» where you thought the intereft of your country at stakes and I 
tell you, without any Gasconade, that I had rather be banished for 
my whole life, because I have helped to make the peace, than be 
raised to the hiVhest honours, for having contributed to obstruct it*$ 
however, God be praised ! we run no nsque of this kind ; the eyes 
of mankind are opened, ^ and they begin to see the falsehood of that 
system of politics, on which we have acted so many years together. 

« I inclose this letter to Mr. Cole, who will convey it to .your 
Lordship, wherever you may happen to be. No man loves you bct» 
ter, or honours you more than Yours, &c.' 

Whatever opinion we may entertain of the motives in which 
the treaty of Utrecht originated, or of the consequences to this 
country of that negotiation, it is impossible not to admire the 
talents and perseverance of him by whom it was planned, con« 
ducted, and completed. When we review the many ^nd rari* 
ous difficulties which Bolingbroke had to encounter, we reflect 
with astonishment on the patience, the spirit, and the address 
with which he overcame all opposition, and at length accom- 
plished his favourite object. 

Wc-cannot dismiss this article without recommending the 
^ork to those readers, who wbh to have a circumstantial aci* 
count of a transaction which was. so sedulously forwarded by 
one party, and so uniformly opposed by the other; and which, 
AS it was the cause of aggrandizement to the Whigs, nearly 
proved fatal to the lives of its supporters* 
'. The letters are chiefly addressed to the Duke of $brew6bnry 
and the Earl of StraflTord, formerly Lord kaby. 

Art. III. PhUotopLscal Trantiutitms of the RovalSodety qfLgndimt 
Pari IL forijgS. 

[4rt. twdudedfrqmf. 128.3 


An Ac€Oimi rfthe Orifice oftbi Rrtina of the Ifymptf fy, fis' 
€^vered hf Professor Soemmering. 9p wich are^ei^ Prmfs 

< * This fassage \a remarkable, ofi account of t^e event vcrSlying 
the a|sertioo. Upon tfaie return of the Whig ^dpni^jsti^^tjon^ a^ t]be 
Bocession of jQeotge I. BoUogbroke was impcache4 (or hdpi^ to 
oake the p^9^t« rad actually went into a voluntary qcik.* 

T a ^ 

a6o Philosophical Transactions of the R. S. Part ILJor 1 798, 

df this Appearance being epctrnd^d to the Eyes of other Animais. 
By Evcrard Home, Esq. F. R,S. 

'TpHE following account of this new discovery in the anatomj 
-* of the human eye was communicated by M. Maunoir, an 
^ eminent surgeon at Geneva, in a letter to Mr Home : 

** Professor Soemmering was dissecting; in the bottom of a vessel 
filled with a transparent liquid, the eyes of a young man who had 
been drowned, and was struck on seeing, near the insertion of the 
optic nerve on the retina, a yellow round spot, and a small hole in 
the middle, through which he could see the dark choroides^ (looking 
at the surface of the retina which covers the vitreous humour.) 

" He dissected other human eyes; and constantly, when the dissec- 
tion was carefully made, found the hole of the retina seemingly at the 
posterior end of the visual radius, nearly two lines on the temporal 
side of the optic nerve, and the hole surrounded by the yellow zone, 
©f above three Unes in diameter. The hole of the retina is not df- 
rectly seen, being covered with a fold of the retina itself. An anato* 
mist of Paris dissected many eyes of quadrupeds and birds, and found 
the yellow spot and hole in no animal but the human kind," 

The best way of seeing the spot, the ruga which conceals it, 
and the yellow Yone, is, according to M. Maunoir, 

" To take off the half postenor part of the sclerotica, then the cor- 
respondent part of the choroid ; both must be cut round the insertioa 
of the optic nerv^. The retina is to remain bare and untouched, 
sustaining alone the vitreous humour ; then you may see the round 
•pot, which reaches the optic nerve, and a fold of the retina, mari- 
ing a diameter of the spoL Then, if you press the ball a little witJi 
your finger, so as to push the vitreous humour rather near the bottom 
of the eye, the ruga is unfolded, and you will see the hole perfectly 
round, of { of a line in diameter, and its edges very thin. All thw 
can he seen in the inside of the eye, but not so perfectly; and, ia 
that case, yoU must make your observations in water." 

Mr. Home's mode of examining the retina was 
< By removing the transparent cornea ; then taking away the ins, 
and wounding the capsule of the cryataUine lens, so as to disengage 
the lens, without removing that part of the capsule which adheres to 
the vitreous huniour j by which means,, the rcstina remained undis- 
turbed, and could be accurately examined, when a strong light was 
thrown into the eye. The aperture in the retina, surrounded by a 
aone with a radiated appearance, was distinctly seen, on the temporal . 
iide of the insertion ofthe optic nerve, and about J of an inch distant 
from it,, apparently a little below the posterior end of the visual ra- 
dius. The aperture itself, in this view, was very small.' 

Mr. H. at first thought that a fresh eye was necessary for 
demonstrating this aperture : but he has since found that it fa 
more readily seen in an eye two days after death) * the zone, 
which is the most conspicuous part, being of a lighter colour the 


Phiksophical Transactions of the R. S. Part ILfor 1 798. %6i . 

first day^ than it is upon tlie second.' He has succeeded in pre- 
serving the posterior part of the eye in spirits, without destroy- 
ing the appearance of the aperture^ 

In Dr. Duncan's Annals of Medicine for the year 1797, is an • 
account of a publication concerning this singular appearance, by 
f'rofessor Reil, intitled. The plait ^ the yellow spot, and the trans^ 
parent portion of the retina of the eye ; and Mt. H. informs us 
that thie Professor'i> mode of dissecting the eye, in order to 
shew the aperture and plait, is exactly similar to that men- 
tioned in M. Maunoir's letter. 

Having ascertained the appearance of the aperture above de- 
scribed in the human eye, Mr. Home determined to investigate 
it in the eyes of other animals ; and he found that it is not pe- 
culiar to the retina of the human eye. Its situation in man 
and in the monkey (the latter was the animal in which he first 
explored. It) is the same. In them it is placed at some distance 
from the optic nerve : but in some pther animals, as in the 
bullock and shctfp, its situation is close to that nerve, and it 
puts on the appearance of a tube, instead of an orifice, 

Mr. H. observes that the yellow zojie, found in the human 
eye and in that of the monkey, does not exist in any other ani- 
mal which he has had an opportunity of examining. As to the 
use of this aperture in the eye, he conjectures that it is theori-' 
fice of a lyniphatic vessel, intended to carry off the vitiated parts 
of the vitreous humour and crystalline lens ; and he offers se- 
veral reasons in support of this opinion. — Tlie several appear- 
ances described in this paper, as they were observed in the hu- 
man eye and in those of the monkey, bullock, and sbeep^ are 
exhibited by figures. 

A Description of a very unusual Formation of the Human Heart. 
By Mr* James Wilson, Surgeon. 

The heart described in this paper consisted of a single auricle 
and ventricle, each of which was of a large size.' A large arte- 
rial trunk arose from the ventricle, and ascepded into the tho- 
rax, between the pleufse, immediately behind the thymus gland. 
This soon divided into two large branches, one of which con- 
tinued to ascend, constituting tlie aorta ; which, from .the place 
where it began to form the usual arch, was in no respect dif- 
ferent from the aorta of any other infant, except that no bron- 
chial artery was sent to the lungs from it or any of its ramifi« 
cations. The other branch passed backward, and proved, on' 
examination,* to be the puhnooary artery ; which divided into 
two branches, one going to the lungs of the left, the other to 
the lungs of the right side; The circumference of the aort^t 
where it separated from the original truQk, was fQun4 to ipea« 

X 'i sure 

afc Philosophical Transactions of the R. S. Part 11. fir 1 798. 

sttre li inch; and that of the pulmonary ahery fifteeii*stz« 
teenths of an inch. 

For other particulars, and corresponding remarks, «re must 
Ttfer to the author^s account. He has illustrated the se- 
veral circumstances in which this infant difiered from others 
by suitable figures.— It had arrived at its full time, and lived 
seven days after its birth. ' ' 

Jiccount of a Tumour found in the Substance of the Human Pla* 
centa. By John Clarke, M. D. 

It uppears, by this account, that very considerable deviation's 
from the ordinary structure of the placenta may exist, and be 
perfectly compatible with the life and health of the foetus* 
The tumour here described was situated behind the chorion^ 
and lay imbedded in the fcetal portion of the placenta. Its 
general form wafr oval, it was about 4!^ inches long, 3 inches 
broad, and about 3 inches thick. Its weight was upwards of 
'7 ounces ; its shape resembled that of a human kidney \ its 
surface was convex, with slight indentations ; and it was in« 
closed in a firm capsule, the substance of which contained large 
vessels. The blood-vessels, branching oiF from the funis to, 
supply the tumour, went partly to one side and partly to the 
t>ther } ramifying in their progress, till, meeting at the convex 
edge of the tumour, they anastomosed very freely. From the 
large trunks on the surface, small branches were given off, 
which penetrated into the substance, and supplied the whole, 
tumour with blood. Its consistence, on cutting it, was found 
to be uniform, firm, and fleshy. Some parts appeared to be 
highly vascular, while others were white and uninjected. 

The ingenious author inclines to think that the existence of 
such a tumour is not to be considered as a disease, because no 
part of it exhibited any appearance of a morbid tendency. He- 
observes that 

* The whole structure seemed to consist of a regularly organized' 
matter throughout, supplied with vessels exclusively belonging to it- 
s'elf, and not passing to it from the surrounding parts, as is generaOy 
the case in diseased masses.' — 'All the compion and known nmctions 
of the placenta Were performed, notwithstanding the existence of this 
substance $ and the child had been as well nourished, and the benefits- 
arising fion) thie application of vital air or oxygen to its blood just as 
well supplied, as if the tumour had not existed.' 

Dr. C. is disposed to consider * this fleshy substance, as a so-* 
litary instance of a forn^ative property in thfe ttssels of the pla- 
centa, ^hich they have not been hitherto generally known to 
possess.' The extraordinary quantity of liquor amnii, dis- 
charged previously to the birth of the child^ attd Which amounted 

4 t«> 


PUIoiQphicalTraMsactiomofthe R. S. Part It fir 1798. ^3 

to two gallons, is % circumstance in this case that is worthy 
of notice. What connection subsisted between this liquor and 
the tumour, and how such a quantity of secreted fluid was con^, 
ireyed from the tumour mto the general cavity of die OTum> the 
author professes himself unable to explain. 


An Inquiry concerning the Chemical Properties that have kiH 
Mributed to Light. By Benjamin Count of Rumford, F. JS. 5. 

The indefatigable author of this paper, haying, in an Essay 
en the Propagation of Heat in Fluids, (see M. Rev. N. S. roi. ' 
xxvii. p. 1 68.) expressed a doubt concerning the existence of 
diose cnemical properties^ which have been ascribed to light | 
and having also mentioned his reasons for concluding that 
all the visible changes, produced in bodies by exposure to 
the action of the sun's rays, are eflFected merely by the 
heat which is generated or excited bv the light which they ab-« 
aorby and not by any chemical combination of the matter of 
lig&t with such bodies ; has since directed particular attention 
to this subject; In consequence, he here presents the Socittv 
with an account of those experiments which he has made witb 
a view of investigating and determining how far his opinion 
was well founded. He modestly acknowleges that he has not 
been so successful as he could have wished : but none who artf 
acquainted with his sagacity and assiduity, in prosecuting ro* 
searches of this kind, will think any apology necessary on hii 
part for submitting the resulf of his reflections and experimeota 
to the public inspection. 

^ Having found, on a former occasion, that gold or silver 
might be melted by the heat which exists in the air, at the 
distance of more than an inch above the point of the flame of % 
wax-candle, the Count was curious to know what effect thi# 
heat would product on the oxyds of these metals. For ^ia . 
purpose, he evaporated to dryness a solution of fine gold in 
aquaregia^ and dissolved the residuum in distilled water, til} 
the solution became disposed to crystallize ; and wetting th# 
middle of a piece of white tafleta ribband in the solution, h^ 
held it horizontally over the clear bright flame of a wax^candle^ 
at th^ distance of li inch above the point of the flame. Tht 
part of die ribband, which was directly over the flame, almost 
immediately emitted steam in dense clouds ; and, in about ten 
seconds, a circular spot of a fine purple colour, approaching ta 
crimton, appeared in the middle of it, and rapidly spred from 
)tt fint tfze of ^bout tbfce-fourths of vx inch ia diameteri to the 

T 4 c»t«pl 

164 Philosophical Transactions of the R.S. Part IL for 179'^*. 

extent of nearly an inch. By movitig the ribband, all the pahs 
of it which had been wetted, and which were exposed to the hot 
vapours of the candle, were tinged with the same bcautif^il- 
purple colour. This colour, which was uncommonly brilliant, 
penetrated the ribband, and the stain was perfectly indelible.. 
Though there waS no appearance of gilding on the ribband, 
, and no traces of revived gold could be discerned, it seemed to 
be covered with a thin coating of the most beautiful purple ena- 
mel, which, in the sun, had a degree of brilliancy that wa$ 
sometimes quite dazzling. The moistened part of the ribband 
was afterward dried in a dark closet, and then exposed to the 
flame of the candle ', when the same effect was produced.— The. 
experiment was varied in several ways with paper, fine Uneut 
and fine cotton cloths ; and a similar tinge was produced, 
whatever the substance was which imbibed the aqueous solution 
of the metallic oxyd. The samis substances, tinged with a si- 
milar solution of nitrate of silver, and treated in the like 
macnner, exhibited a very dark orange colour, or rather a yel- 
lowish brown. 

In order to determine whether the purple tinge in the first 
instance was occasioned by the heat or by the light of the candle^ 
the author made the following experiment, which he conceives 
. tb have been decisive. Having wetted a piece of ribband as 
before, he held it vertically by the side of the clear flame of a 
burning wax-candle, at the distance of less than half an inch 
from the flame. In this case, the ribband was dried, but with- 
out the least change of colour. When it was held for a few 
seconds within abput -^th of an inch from the flame, a tinge of 
a very beautiful crimson colour, in the form of a narrow ver- 
tical stripe, was produced. The heat, which existed a^thlS 
distance, was sufliciently intense, as he found by trial, to mel^ 
.Tcry fine silver wire, flatted ^ such as is used in making ^ilver- 
lace. ,. , 

In another experiment, which was repeated several times, a 
piece of white ribband, wetted with the aqueous solution of the 
oxyd of gold, and thoroughly dried in the dark, was suspended 
in a phial of fine transparent glass; and the phial, b^ing well 
stopped with a cork, was exposed to the strong light of a bright 
sun. After having been thus exposed for about half an hour, 
here and there some faint appearances of a change of colour 
were visible : but no disposition to take that deep purple hue^ 
which the ribband had acquh-ed in the former experiments^ 
(Cpuld be perceived. When, however, the same ribband was 
>vetted with distilled water and exposed in its- wet state to th^ 
sun's rays, it almost instantly began to change colour andsooi^ 
bec<i(9C of a deep puiple tiQ,(. With the most accurate exal 

— ' ^ mina^tioHi 


PhibsaphlcalTransaetknsofthiR.S. Part IL for i*j^i. 16^ 

niinatioriy the author could not perceive the stnalFett particle of 
revived gold. — From this experiment, he concluded 
* • That light has little effect in changing the colour of metallic 
oxides, as long as they are in a state of crystall'ixation. The heat wbicU 
18- generated by the absorption of the rays of light must .necessarily^ 
St the moment of its generation at least, exist in almost infinitely small 
spaces ; and consen^uently, it is only in bodies that are inconceivably 
small that it can produce durable effects^ in any degree indicative of 
its extreme intensity. Perhaps the particles of the oxide of gold, 
dissolved in water, are of such dimensions ; and it is very remarkablcy 
that the colours produced in some of my experiments on white ribl 
bands^ by means of an aqueous solution of the oxide of gold, are 
precisely the same as are produced from the oxide of that metal, by 
enamellers, in the intense heat of their furnaces. As the colotirin|f 
substance is the same, and as the colours produced are the same, why' 
should we not conclude that the effects are produced in both these cases 
by the same means, that is to say, by the agency of heat f or, in othet 
words, and to be more explioit, by exposing the oxide' in a ceftafn tenur 
, |>erature,at which it becomes disposed to vitrify, or'to undergo a change 
lu regard to the quantity of oxygen with which it is combined ?* \ 

The Count recites some other experiments, which evince 
the intensity of heat generated in all cases when light is ab^ 
sorbedi and the striking effects which, under certain circum- 
stances, it is capable of producing. ^ Concluding that gold 
might be revived in tin moist way ^ by means of charcoal, from 
a solution of its oxyd in water,— -provided that it were possible 
to comipunicate to the charcoal, and to the oxyd at the same 
time, A sufficient degree pf heat,—- he was desirous of ascertain? 
ing whether this might not be done by means of light. Th; 
mode pursued for determining this fact, and the success which 
attended his experiments, are particularly described :— but wf 
must refer to the sequel of his paper, which, in this and ia 
other respects, is curious and interesting. ^ ^^ 

On the Corundum Stone from Asia* By the Right Hon. Charles 
Grevillc, F.R.S. 

The mineral subslance described in this paper has been ge- 
nerally denominated, on account of its hardness, Adamantine 
Spar. Some specimens of it were transmitted from India, 
about the year 1767 or 1768, to an eminent engraver in stone 
at Edinburgh, together with information that it was the mate- 
rial used by the natives for polishing crystal, and all gems, ex- 
cept diamonds. lo 1784, Mr. Greville obtained its native 
name, Corundum : and he soon discovered that Woodward had 
mentioned it in hi^ catalogue of foreign fossils, published in 
1 7 19, and also in an additional catalogue published in 1725 ; 
togethcgr with the purposes to which it was applied in India. 
Jb^tx several iruitlesd inquiries cbnceruing this stone, Mr. G. 

. in 

266 PiiUrcpUca/ Tramactkmi 2f the R». 5. ParilL fir ijgM. 

in 1793 ftfiekcd a satisfactory account of it, conraiii^d in a 
letter toStr Charles Oakley, then governor of Madras^ from Mr. 
CSarrow 1 ^bo^ after some diiBcuity in his researches, discovered 
the pits in which ft is dug, at some distance fr6m Pefmetty^ 
and who was thus enabled minutely to describe the manner in' 
%lMch it is procured by the miners. They descend into a pit 
above 14 feet from the level of die ground, and with an iroa 
ttdW fo^c through the strata which cover it ; and havmg 
fefdfeen to pieces the substance by which it is inclosed, they 
iftttd the Corundum among the broken lumps. The salQ of it, 
h^ tWoSe who are employed ip procuring it, is confined solely ' 
to the glass-sellers; and they vend it through the whole 
Country for the use of the stone-catters, to whom it is e$sen« 
ikBy requisite. The specimens which the author obtained 
were of a greyish colour, with a shade of green. By the na* 
tivf^ of Bengal it is called Corme, and they use it for polishing 
•IMes, and for all the purposes of emery. The specific gra- 
irify of a lump of this stone is 3,871s. Mr. Greville describes 
' aeveral varieties which he obtained from India and from China^ 
tdgethcr with the strata in which they were found, and the 
dfcumstances which distinguish them from one another,' and 
limn other substances of a similar kind. 

Under circumstances favourable to its crystallization, Co* 
timdurn becomes glassy in its fracture, and of various coloura. 
In crystals of it, Mr. G. has not only observed specks of a fine 
ftiby colour, but he lias fragments of crystals in texture and iii 
c^ry respect like the colourless Corundum, of a fine red co- 
lour ; and* he says that we obtain, from India, Corundum 
which may pass for rubies. The specific gravity of this sub* , 
, ttance has Ixen found to vary from 3,876 to 4,166 ; and Mr* 
G. supposes it to be subject to a variation from 3,300 to 4,300. 
T^j an analysis of Mr. Kluproth, this stone consists ojf 

Corundum earth «• 68 o 
Siliceous earth - 31 50 

Iron ax>d nichul • o 50 

100 o 

By another analysis, the Corundum of the Penin§ula of India 
tttisisted 6f The Corundum of China. 

Afgillaeeous earth 8^ 50 - 84 o 
Silit^oiis earth ' 5 5*^ - 6 5© 

Oxydofiton ' ^5 * 7 S® 

ton 3 75 - 4 .0 ■ 

100 o 100 o' 

Philosophical Tramactlont of the R. S. Part IL for 1798. z6j 

Mr. GfCTilIe thinks it probable that Cotundttm may be found 
in Great Britatni and on the Continent of Europe, as well as in: 
Asia. — He terminates his account of this substance .with some 
Suable obseivations on crystallographyj and on the importance 
of combintng intrinsic and extrmsic characters in the arrange* 
ment of those ^specimens which belong to this class of sab* 
stances* He has also subjoined the translation of a paper by 
the Cpant de Boumon, intitledi An Analytical Description ^ 
the Crystallim Forms of Corundum^ from tie East Indies and. 
from China^ with a Table of the specific Gravity of the Corundum^. 
Sapphire^ Topaz, Ruty, and Diamond, oh dijferent Aulhoritiesm 
The following general observation closes this last paper : 

* The generic name Corundum I am in the habit of giving to those 
4brts whidi 1|ave a sparry or a granulated fratrture. , When Conindutn 
has a Titreous cross fracture, I call it sapphire ; and diftinguish its va« 
ncties by their colours, white, red^ blue, yellow, green, aad hy the, 
accideDtal Teflection of light from their .laminae : when in one direc*, 
tioo, I call the Sapphire ehatryant : when the reflection is compounded 
of rays which intersect each other, and appear to diverge from a com* 
mon centre, I call them star-stones, as red, blue, or greyish star* 
stones* or star-sapphires.' 

Account of a Substance found in a Clay-pii ; and of the Effect of 
the Merorf DisSi upon various Substances immersed in it. ' By* 
Mr. Benjamin Wrseman, of Diss in Norfolk. With an Analysis 
' of iU Water of the said Mere, by Charles Hatchett, Esq. 

From the observations and analysis contained in this paper* 
it appeats that martial pyrites is the only substance deposited 
CO bodies immersed in the water of Diss-Mere } and that this 
Water does not hold in solution ^ny sulphur, and. scarcely any 

< It has not, therefore, been c6ncemed (says Mr. H.) in forming 
the pyrites ; but it appears to me> that the pyritical matter is formed 
in the mud and filth of the Mere ; for Mr. Wiseman Fays in his letter, 
that the Mere has received the silt of the streeU for ages. Now, it is 
a well known fact, that sulphur is continually formed, or rather h% 
berated, from putrefyincr animal and vegetable matter, in commoq 
sewers, public ditches, houses of office, &c. &c.; and this most 
nrobably has been the case at Diss. Moreover, if sulphur, thus 
termed, should meet with silver, copper, or iron, it will combine with 
them, unless the latter should be previously oxidated. The sulphur 
, has, therefbre, in the present case, met with iron, in, or approachiog» 
the metallic state, and has formed pyrites.'—* Similar effects, en a 
hirger scale, have been, and are now, daily prodnced in many places. The 
pyrites in coal-mines have, pfobably, in great measure thus originated. 
Toe pyritical wood also may have been thus produced ; and, by the 
subsequent loss of sulphur, and oxidation of the iron, this pyritical 
wood spears to have tbnntd the woodJike itoft ort» which: is found 

268 Fawcctt / Poems. 

f . . .•.,.•. 

in many parts, and particularly \tk the mines in the river Jenigel, in 


The last article m this volume is A Catalogue of Sanscrita 
Manuscripts presented to the Royal Socitty by Sir William and 
Lady Jones. By Charles Wilkins, Esq. F. R. S. ' 

Mr. W. has not only recited the titles of the several manu- 
scripts in this catalogue, but has annexed to each a particulat 
account of its subject and contents. 

Art. IV. PoemSf by Joseph Fawcctt. To which is added " Civi- 
lized War," before published under the Title of ♦* The Au.of 
War/' with considerable Alterations : and " The Art of Poetry,'* 
according to the latest Improvements, with Additions. 8vo. 
pp. 277. , 4s. Boards. Johnson. 1798. 

'TPhe poet usually represents himself as supremely West in thcr 
-* favours of the Muse, but his happiness is generally as 
much a fiction as the subject of his verse. He becomes the 
inhabitant of an ideal worlds 

* And oft in Fancy's light-whccl'd chariot climbs, 
To spheres where woes nor errors e'er have been *.' 

To descend hence to the low business, stupid cares, and vicious 
pursuits of men, is extreme degradation 5 and the sublime ge- 
nius, ** smit with the love of sacred song,'* turns away with 
disgust, courting solitude and despising riches. In proportion 
to his enthusiasm is the vividness of his imagination j and he 
raises on it splendid visions, hopes^ and expectations, which 
time and experience invariably disappoint. Hence poetry be- 
comeft plaintive, and this happy art is employed to paint un- 
happiness. The gravity of elegy then seems most congenial with • 
its feelings. The bright colours, in which its gay illusions are 
dressed, fade like the rich tints of summer clouds with the set- 
ting sun, and gloomy shadows obtrude to darken its horizon, 
h may be asked, then, is poetry a blessing or a curse ? Is it 
a felicity or a misfortune, to have ** the spirit finely touched 
to this fine issue ?" In Arcadia, or in the Golden Age, there 
would be no difficulty in answering the question : but in this 
Iron Age, so much alloy is mixed with its sacred pleasures, 
that it may be doubted whether it be an enviable endowment. 
Prudence, however, being very rarely a poetic virtue, this con- . 
sideration does not abate poetic ardor; and the poet, though 
h^ be often reminded Maonides nullas ipse reliquit opes'; will per- 
severe to court the Muse. Yet^ with his elegant, serious, mo- 

m '■ ■ - ■ • ■ ■ ' I ■ . I. " 1 I 1 1 I « I 

. * See Mr. Fawcett's Elegy on Solitude. 

Fawcett^j Pocmn atfj 

ralizing gravity, few are delighted, Tht Muse must be 
sprightly, witty, and gay, to have many readers. 

' Mr. Fawcett appears to be in the number of those who have 
pictured the' world to their imaginations much brighter than they 
have found it ; whdhave been disgusted by its follies, and.sbocked 
by its vices j who have no wish to conciliate the esteem either 
of the great or little vulgar^ nor to seek fame in the approba- 
tion of the multitude. He writes for the few, and must pro- 
bably be satisfied with the applause of the few. He is a plain- 
tive, philosophic^ and moral poet ; and such an one will have 
reason enough to complain that << No smiles from Majnmon 
bless the Muse's train.*' In point of vigour of imagination, 
splendor of imagery, and force of expression, he has not many 
superiors among modern poets ; as his ** Art of War** (now, 
at our suggestion, called « Civilised War") has sufficiently 
dewn. Most of the ^lorter pieces in this volume manifest 
the same energy of mind and power of description ; though 
we must add that, especially in the Elegies, he has often wire- 
drawn a thought, and has fatigued us by forming stanza after 
stanza only to repeat the same idea. That he possesses feeling 
and sentiment will be evident to our readers, when they have 
perused the 6th Elegy, 


* Hail, loveliest scene these eyes have e'er surveyed 1 
Where my gay childhood innocently grew ; 
Where oft my feet with truant pastime play'd. 
And my warm youth life's freshest pleasures knew! 

* Roll back, ye hasty suns, and bring again 
Those days of gold, then stand for ever still ! 

Ere thro' my frame had pierc'd the shafts of pain ; ^ ^ 
Ere my warm spirits care had learn'd to chill. 

* Delightful Hope ! gay, laughing prophetess ! 
The flattering painter of Futurity ! 

- That told'st me I should feel unmingled bliss ; 
Come, tell me o'er again the charming He ! 

* Repeat that talc I heard of days to come ; 
, . All rich with bright impossibilities ! 

Walkd always smooth, and flowers of lasting bloom, 
Ani thomless roses, and unclouded skies! 

* Wild, wanton promiser ! that told'st this breast. 
This trusting breast, it ne'er should taste of pain ; 
By smiling Fates with boundless love carestl 
The charming lie, come, tcU me o'er again! 

« Return that health which bloom'd without my care ; 
Came uuinvok'd, and, though ucglccted, staid : 

, Which 

t7* Ptwcett*/ Ppetns: 

Whieh ask'd nor lenient herb) nor fount nor luv 
Contemned all danger, and dcspis'd all aid. 

*. Aj?ainy my bosom glow as then it glow'd; 
When round I look'd, and felt that all was fair! 
When high on rapture's eagle- wing I rode; 
Towcr'd to the sun, and spum'd the douds of cm ! 

< Those slumbers sound again my senses bind. 
That made but one sweet instant all my ni^ht; 
That heard' nor barking cur, nor howling wrody 
Nor Time's deep, solemn toU proclaim his flight. 

« And, oh! the fervours, ;Heav'n, renew, that ran 
Through mv young nerves, (sensation all divine!) 
Ere broke that golden dream which showM me maA> 
Mot fairer in his form, than pure within. 

■ Ere yet Surprise had made her fearful start, s j 

As heU-bom Villainy iirst meets the view ! \ 

That sipoothest smiles oft mask a frowning hearty 
Ere yet my blissful inexperience knew. 

< Give me again in all men to confide ; 
Again suspicion from my breast be driv'n ; 
Still would I view my kmd with gcn'rous pride. 
And deem the word of man the word of Heav'n, 

* And take once more your turn, ecstatic days! 
When life's vast curtain rose, and bless'd my view! 
Lo ! the gay plumes, the spangles and the blaze! 
All wond'rous bright, enchanting all and new! 

. * Move my still breast, sweet Novelty again ! 
Again with wild delight my passions dance ! 
Return the bounding heart, the fever'd brain. 
Return the years of transport and romance 1 

« But, chief, that sweet surprise restore me, Fat^ 
Young Fancy felt in Acadcmia's haU ; 
The Muse of Rome and Greece as first she met. 
And each quick passion own'd her mighty caH! 

* On the bfight plains when Feah first l>ent her gazCa' 
Where, back'd by gods, immortal heroes strove ! 
At dead of night, view'd Ilium's funeral blaze, 
And shook, with heav'n, beneath the nod of Jove ! 

* When first young Pity wept with Hector's wife. 
As her fall'n hero to her sight appears ; 
Saw Ajax' sword ease it's gricv'd lord of life j 
And swell'd the flood of exU'd Ovid's tears ; 

^ And trac'd that flagging jav'Hns languid flight. 
An old man's trembUng anger faintly threw ; 
Mock'd by the foe, wou», in a father's sight. 
The flying son, wi^ barfo'sous fuiy, ekv : 


* Saw him, o'er tcepter^d sabjecU, that had r^ign'df 
Of all vast Asia that had worn the crowi). 

An headkss corse^ unburied on the sand> 
^7 no one honoured, and to no one known 1 

^ And shared his si^h, who* in the myrtle grovr^ 
The unforgiying fair obscurely knew ; 
From him (too late retjim'd) who Aed her love, 
Cold| in her turn, the scornful shadow flew 3 

« Tho* woo'd with tears, the phantom shot away« 
Nor injured Beauty's stately silence broke; 
Heedless of all he now would idly say, 
T*^ excuse the sails that her kiod shore forsook* 

* And giTC me. Nature, once a^ain to prove^ 
Those dear, delirious, agitated days, 

When woke within me first the throb of feve^ 
And radiant Beaiity dazzled first my gaae 1 

* Soft idle hours 1 when Reason sat retir'd. 
And Fancy o*er me all her influence threw! 
When, save what Laura's changeful eyes inspir'd, . 
No hopes I cherish'd, and no fears I ^new ! 

* Resume, blest Lunacy, thy pleasing sway! 
Return the wild delighty*^-the pensive sigh,^*-* 
The airy sonnet, — and the plaintive lay^— 

The moonlight walk,«-*^nd sweetly sleepless eye! 

* Enchlmted grounds ! o'er which I vacant stray'd, 
In bowers of fragrance where I careless sat. 
While more than earthly music round me play'd. 
To a sad outcast ope again your gate 1 

* Ah I swifl-wing'd joys ! for ever, ever, flown ! 
f Ah, fruitless revocation, fond and vain ! 

Adieu, blest days, that must but once be known I 
Farewel, delights, I may not taste again \ . 

* Come, Virtue, when all other joys retreat. 

Still constant found ! and, smiling Friendship, come! 
And beauteous Truth !-^now gaudier beams have set^ 
Gild, with your mild and lunar rays, my gloom/ 

Sometimes, in the Elegies, Mr. F. is obscure; and some* 
times the nerve of poetry is relaxed by a feeble epithet** 
Speaking of the heart of the disappointed loveri he siys^ 
« The agitated tUnr has stopp'd at last f.' 


-^ ; . -■ ■ ■ ■■ " 

^ * Is that dejected bending figure liff 

' That nymph renowp'd for high vivacity V p. 75, 
A Mr* F. seems fond of this epithet. 7atK Shtur^ ia (he neem m« 
iWed^Chsmfc'Msgalkd ^ 

* A fonorn, neglected, withered /^m/.* p. 74* 


ijl Fa^ccttV Pomsi 

VTt do not approve of ieaping bells, and wintiowtfig wingsr; and 
«* lorn esteem," in p. 47, does not seem to convey the sense of 
the author. 

The Sonnetx which follow the Elegies are of the same com- 
plexion. They are elegant ;— -and ode line is beautiful :— • 

* Hope sweetly wipes the ^'e that wets the tomb/ 
Miscellanies • next follow j of which the first is intitled 

• Change, Of this long poem, perhaps, the perusal of Juvenal's 
10th Satire, or Dr. Johnson's imitation of it, («« The Vanity of 
Human Wishes/') may have suggested some of the thoughts* 
Mr. F. thus enters on his subject : 

* Nought, nought is found, wherein our search can sttay^ 
But fleet and baseless forms that gUde away ; 

One stream of visions that in endless flow. 
Appear and vanish, and but come to go** 

The last line is an instance of that vulgar tameness, and of 
ekeing out the metre line by the repetition of a thought in low 
terms, which the poet ought studiously to avoid. 

We do not mean to insinuate that Mr. F. has tamely copied 
cither Juvenal or Johnson. He has introduced many new 
thoughts and characters. That of the gamester is finely por- 
trayed : but, after Johnson's delineation of Wolsey and Swift, 
we wonder that he should have ventured to re>draw their 
pictures. . 

"•And Swift expires a drlv'Ier and a shew," 
is superior to Mr. Fawcett's line, 

* A fury bums or dies into a fool.' » 

In the conclusion, however, he rises into sublimity. After 
hiving described the various gloomyinstances of Change ex- 
hibited in this world, nvhose fashion passes aviajy he addresses 
the GREAT ENDURER, and then hails' that lasting biliss 
which is the noble object of enlightened man's faith and hope : 

* No dormant state I hall, of flat repose. 

Where pant no ardours, where no action glows ; 
No pool of standing life that always sleeps, 
O'er whose still sea no breeze of spirit sweeps ; 
,No scene, as priests describe the bliss above. 
Of heavy calmness, and of slumb'ring love ; 
Where useless saints on easy thrones redline. 
And tune their idle wires to songs divine, 
Relax'd in holy sloth, and piously supine : 
Nor pastoral scene, as bards past ages feign, 
' Who sing of dulness undisturbed by pain ; 


Again, p. 93, meteors are called ^ blazing fbings.' And again, p.. 13a, 
« human /^/V/^.* • . • 

14 Of 

, OF meads, and flocks, and flowers^ and brooksi tnd treost 
And lazV innocence^ and torpid ease. 
Whose torcdeps portrait of m-imag^d JiBif^ 
Displays alone, in its tame drowsy ^r^, 
A languid form, ail careless laid alOn^. 
By murmuring waters luli'd, or. warbling son^ j • 
As gifted inan were only made to sleep. 
To lie on violets, and to live with sheep K» 

* Not such, now beaming' on her ghstening eyes^ 
' l^ot such the scene thfexultmg Muse descries! 

JE'en ^lore than this, a stirring, wakeful state J 
Quick with yet livelier change, yet bjisyn* fate^ 
But happiest (;hange alone, thf t blissful proves, ^ 

Prom truth to trutti, from good to good; that ttioveg | 
-Whose lovely flux, admired of Reason^s eyes, ' 
Is only endless Duency of rise ; 
' Where direst scenes, from fettera wisely fireed^ 
Resign their p^cc to fairer thst succeed. 
Which, in their turti| ma)^ yf^j forye^ more fain 
And, beaut eou sly un^t^ble, disappear 1 
I^eh'ffhtful st^tel ip \yhich tV admiring Muae* 
The neavcnly form of true Fruition views i 
AU bosoms throbbing with a public zeal ; 
All minds at work t* advance tli^ geiierid wpal; 
In tttne&l chime, on one great aim intent, * 
Harmonious moving with a sweet consent ; 
Exploring Nature's mine, where H^av'n has ttgn^d 
The means of welfare in a boundless hoard ; 
Whatever chari;ns the social stale they lend. 
Still eager all, the beauteous piece to mend ; 
Content in no degree of bliss to rest, ' 
Studious to add new blessings to the Uest; 
All present excellence resolvM t'excel. 
Whatever its growth, the sum of good to s^ell, 
Awaken'd intellect yet more excite. 
To Truth's best lovers more endear her l:ght. 
Of minds thtf most eniai^'d expand the views, 
In breasts the most inspir'd new 6 res infuse, 
Bid joy sublime to loftier transport rise, 

* And breathe y^ more of heaven in pandise! 

* Suc^h the fair state, in which alone appears 
* The genuine smile a.puie clysium wears ! 

(TJie rc^ of strife, and wro?ig, and tumult o'^r^. 
And fall ^nd ruin mournful words no, more) 
iScrenely fervid ! busily at ease I 

* A scene of active rest, and glowing ^ace / 
■Whose gentle dove the eagle's force assiipjes. 
And with whose olive glory's laurel blooms ! 

* Hsuli radiant agesl hail, and haste along 1 

To reasonii^ man ypwr. splendid jfiM belong J . 

Ret, Marvih, 1799* ~ U '^ ' Unflpie 

•i74 F4#ccttV Poems.' 

Uildoseyoarlearcsoftrae, unfiMed^e^, ' 

That hidden lie in Fate's rich volmnc roU'd ! ' 

Not Fancy, Faith the Muse this vision gave % 

Of real scenes her sober raptures rave \ 

Prophetic fury what she sings inspires ; . 

Truth's living coal hath lent her lip its fires : 

Of moral science, lamp to love and peace» 

The lucid crescent shines, whose bright increase 

Shall lose its horns in plenitude of light. 

And reach a glorious full, that ne'er shall wane to night.* 

There is a great similarity, in this finale, to the animate^ 
conclusion of the ** Civilised War.'* 

To this poem succeed— Z.^^ Mansuetus Imp. or the En^peror's 
tame Lion, freely paraphrased from the second book of the Silva of 
S//3//C/X— Verses written on visiting the Gardens at Versailles 
—On visiting the Ganicns of Ermenonville, where a tribute it 
paid to poor Rousseau— On the general complacency wjth 
which infants arc contemplated — ^The Contrast, occasioned by 
seeing a gibbet deform a sylvan scene. The poet calls on the 
magistrate not to persist in a practice so disgraceful to civil and 
liumanised society^i as that of hanging felons in chains :— a 
practice which has never been known to do any good. It 
never terrifies the atrocious offender »«— it always disgusts the 
gentle and the reflecting traveller. \ 

* Ye who direct the social state. 
Which tauntingly ye civil call ! 
Who whip the crimes yourselves create, 
Yourselves most crinunal of all ! 

* Cannot the.r//y's ample room 
Your polity's dark frowns confine. 
That thus they spread their angry gloom. 
Where loveliest Nature smiles benign* 
^ Oh, violation most profane ! 
That thus disfigures scenes like these ; 
And fills each gentler breast with pain. 
Where all around conspires to please.' 

We come niext to— A Monody on the Death of x young 
Lady— The Nightingale— To a Robin^ whose nest had been 
taken out of the author's garden— Louisa, a song— To the . 
Sun, a frtgment, written in the Spring. This is in blank 
verse, and in the author's best manner : but, though a divine, 
he expresses himself concerning beauteous Nature in term^ 
which will not in these times be thought orthodox. He 
ter^ns her 

* Bible of ages ! boundless word of Grod 5 

Writ in. a language to all nations known r 

• Aad 

Fawc€ttV Poemi» fjg 

f And through all tinier with care divioC) pfeservM 
From all corrupt interpolations pure.' p- 152. 
After two short poems, we find An Ode on the commemo- 
ration of the French Revolution rn the Champ de Mars, July 
i4> i792> which Mr. F. introduces by an advertisement, de- 
siring • the reader to keep the date of it in his eye, that he may 
not imagine that that unmoderated admiration of the French 
Rerolution,. which runs through it, extends to any of the trans-* 
actions by which the cause of liberty in France was afterv ar Js^ 
disgraced.' This piece is highly poetical, but wc have no 
room for farther extracts. 

A new edition of " Cirilii^ed War," with considerable al- 
terations, follows ;— and a War Elegy forms an Appendix. The 
volume concludes with "The Art of Poetry, according to the 
latest Improvements^ By Sir Simon Swan, Baronet. With 
Additions." The meaning of the author in this satirical poem' 
having been missed by the dull reader, Mr. F. makes the foU 
lowing remarks in his preface, in order to ^ rectify absurd mis- 
apprehension :' 

* With regard to the bagatelle at the dose of this volume, the a^or 
takes this opportunity of rectifying a mistake respecting his meaning in 
the btginning of it, into which he has found one of his readers null- 
ing, and into which it is therefore possible that others may fall, a|*. 
though heshoidd previously have entertained no suspicion of the pos*. 
sibility of such a misconception. In the passage alluded to, he hai 
been erroneously conceived to make correctness in poetical com- 
position the object of his satire. He flatters himself, however, that 
an attentive reader (if such a trifle may be supposed entitled to an 
attentive pcrusaH will readily perceive, that it is not correctness 
which is there riaiculed, but productions of which correctness is the 
imlj or the ri^i^ excellence ; not correctness in the abstract, but cor- 
rect duloess. While he despises the notion, that negligence is among 
the features of Genius, he feels an equal contempt for that chilling 
system of criticism, most iDJurious to the n'ghts of Genius,, which 
bestows upon the page, where scarcely a fault can be detected, 
but where scarcely a beauty can^ be found, a degree of ap'p;x)ba^ . 
tion which it dcmes to the genuine spirit of poetry, when accom« 
panted with marks of carelessness. He has likewise been falsely 
supposed by the same individual, in the second branch of the 
«une poem, to ridicule plaintive poetry. Of that pensive strain 
which flows from a melancholy mood, and is founded in social and 
generous sensibility, he feels the charm as much as zxi^ of its ad« 
mirers ; and has indulged himself in it, as this volume will dis^ver, 
in no inconsiderable degree. What he aims to expose, is that egotism 
ofcomtplaint, of which self'n the incessant subject : and chiefly, that 
wail or private woe, which, as, in more instances than one, he has 
strong reason to suspect has been the case, is the mttt affectation of a 
sorrow that is not felt ; which, instead of being the vent and relief 
of sttifering nature, it the trick of art to produce pathetic effect ; 

U a which 

%)6 Cooiif^s History rf England. 

which either flews fron a writer whose real feelings are tpnglttly, ot^ 
if it take its gloomy hue £roin any» derives it from a far lainter shadtf 
of actiial sadiiess tbaa the deep one which it assumes. This species 
of pftaiDtive poetry, at OQce selfish, and, in a greater or smaller de« 
gree, i[L6incere> which he has met with, or imagines he has, in pro- 
ductions that, in other respects, have yielded him deh'ght, is, he 
thinks, a proper su^ect for satire : not so much with a view to d]»» 
parage the works of those who have already wntten in this spirit, a* 
to prevent their poetical merit from seducing others to follow thenr 
ejcampie, and thus introduce a mournful monotony amcmg the no* 
dem <prc>duotions of the muse, instead of that vanety of strain, wUdt 
variety of tsdent and temper should naturally prompt, and from wliich 
the lovers of poetry derive diversity of entertainment. In wnting 
that little piece, he can sincerely say, he was not actuated by the 
atnallest tincture ojf ill-will towards any one of the writers whom he 
bad iQ his eye, for the poetical talents of some of whom he entertains 
flie most lively respect. If his satire be found deficient in wit, he 
hopes it will not be thought to want good humour. Tliat was the 
feeing of his mind in penning every line of it ; a regard to the iitteres^^ 
0f poetry and taste was his sole indui:ement to undertake it ; it is the 
£rst composition of tde kind he has ever written, and, as his natural 
4i$l>Wtioti8 lead tnim a totally different way, will probably be t]ic 

* We diall «nly add that the satire cannot be very pointed an^l 
dbcrimiaatWei which requires so long an explanation \ and 
diat rcafl. genius is degraded by indulging in vague invecliv^ 
against die correcting band of criticism. 

AjtT. V. Dr. Coote'j History of Evgland. 
\ArUch tontlnmd from the Rev* for January^ /• 5'*3 
TTTTe Concluded our former article on the subject of tKi# 
^^ woA with an a£count of the third volume ; and Mre fhea- 
4?Xpr€sscdour.r€j[ret, which we have had frequent occasion o£ 
feeling, that the author's circvunscribed plan prevented him 
2)rom giving that a;ttention to various objects and periods which 
^ir.imfuortance demanded. HumeV History, which extend% 
iwiliy to the Revolution, and considers the Roman and the Saxon 
periods in little more than two hundred pages, occupioa. eight 
•volume \ apd the worfc of the present writer, which professes 
tP discuss his subject * from the earliest dawn of record to the* 
peace of 1783,' ist ponfincd to the limited and inadequate space 
cff nine octavos* We think that, while this plan is too com- 
prehensive for an abridgment, it is yet not sufficiently ample 
to give a sati$fa(CtOFy view of the events of the respective periodl 
in our history. 

The fouytfa volume begins with the wiga of Henry IV. w4 

proceeds to tbe'^a^riggc of Henr; VUL wi^kAime Boleyq*. 

S M 

Co6tc / Hishry Sf Enf^t. '^77 

ttid his divorce from Catharine of Arragoti, m the year f (fsj- 
TBfC History of the Reformation, the motires in which it ori- 
ginated, and the §teps by which it was completed, form 1 vfefy 
interesting topic in the reign of this arbitrary, violent, and san- 
guinary monarch : but they do pot appear tp us to be any wfaeipe 
«o well and so satisfactorily related as in Dr. Henry's very va- 
luable book. The death of Cardinal Beaton, which happened 
in the year 1547, and which was entirely occasioned by tfapt 
Scclesiastic's murder of Charles Wishart, a celebrated and en- 
thusiastic preacher, has been falsely attributed to a previous 
encouragement given by Henry to his assassins ; this mistake^ 
for a mistake it certainly is, was probably occasioned by the 
assistance which they received from the English monarch after 
^at event. 

In the fifth volume, is included the remainder of the reiga 
of Henry Vill. and the reigns of Edward VI. Mary, and 
Elizabeth. The whole account of Edward is interesting, and 
fills the mind with favourable ideas of a prince who cet- 
tainly nvmifested sense, moderation, and judgment beyond Ida 
years. Under his encouraging influence, the reformation <if 
religion was promoted, and by his advice the repeal of many 
rigorous laws was procured ; indeed, the whole tenor of his 
conduct was distinguished by vigilance and prudence. 

• Had this prince (says Dr. Coote) been permitted to live la 
years of maturity*, he would doubtless have proved an able and respect- 
able monarch. OF natural capacity he had a great share; add lie 
Beems to have had a genius for government. He reflected much on 
the concerns of his dignified station ; he was sedulous in his inquiries 
into the state of his kmgdom ; he was acute in discovering the abusft 
which prevailed ; lie planned schemes of improvement and i-eforma- 
lion ; he encouraged every measure which he considered as conducive 
to the interests and the happiness of his people. He cultivated fo- 
reign politics with eagerness, and astonished the ambassadors of Eu- 
rope by the variety of his knowledge and the sagacity of hk observm- 
4I0IIS. He patronised the arts, as well liberal as mechanical ; and he 
was a friend to merit of eyery denomination. The navy, tlfat bulwark 
of an insular situation, was improved under his auspices \ and on eom- 
fierce, that promoter of national aggrandisenient, he bestowed a high 
4£gree of attention. Among the writings which are attributed to 
him, we find the heads of a judicious scheme for the establishment of a 
general mart of European commerce in England. 

* He has been celebrated for the mildness and humanity of his dis^ 
position, for the modesty and humility of his deportment, for his re- 
gard to justice and equity, for his combination of liberality with ceco- 
nomy, and for his vigorous application to public business. His lite- 
nay character has also been the subject of extraordinar)'' panc;gyri(v 

. »,i ■* „ . 1 . ■ .1.. ■ • ; '~ 

* He died in the i6th year gf hi« age. 

Us At 

^7* CootcV History of England* 

At an eaily age, he distinguished himself by his acquisitions in philo* 

«. logy ; he was acquainted with the controversial points of divinity ; 
and he had made a gfcat proficiency in philosophical pursuits. Cardan, * 
the celebrated Ita&an physician^ passmg some time at his court, was 
surprised at the moltiiarious accomplishments which he observed in 
this princely youth ; and he has borne testimony to Edward's ac- 
quaintance with ancient and modem languages ; to his skill in Ipgic* 
musicy and natural philosophy; to his dignity of demeanor, and com- 
placency of temper * . 

< 'But, notwithstanding all the encomiums which have been passed 
on his character, some blemishes may be remarked. His early initia- 
tion in the doctrines of the reformers had given him so rooted a dis- 

' g;u8t ro whatever was repugnant to his own , religious ideas, tliat his 
devotion may justly be said to have been tinctured with bigotry ; aiid 
though he deserves our commendation for having testified such reluc- 
tance to the execution of two anabaptists who were the only persons 

' committed to the flames in his reign f , (and it is much to be regret- 
ted, for the honor of the protestanis, that even two should suffer 

.for opinions under their sway,) we should have been better' pleased if 
he had earned to a greater extent his opposition to such unjustifiable' 
cruelty. But the influence of Cranmer, whom he regarded as an 
oracle in points of religion, prevailed over the king's humanity. 

* In another instance, there seems to be sufficient reason for blam- 
ing his want of mental vigor. We allude to the death of his uncle, 
the duke of Somerset, a faithful servant of the crown, whom, from a 
facility in believing the insinuations of his enemies, and from an aprpa- 

•feat defect in manly firmness, he gave up to the malice of faction. 
The sacrifice of his other uncle was less reprchen'^lble, as the guilt of 

' that nobleman was less problematical :|:.' 

The miklness and humanity of Edward must hiive been 
•trongly contrasted in the minds of his subjects, as well as in 
the impartial opinion of posterity, with the horrible and un- 
mitigated cruelty of Mary's government. That such savage 
and sanguinary acts should have been endured in a country 
which had advanced any steps towards civilization, is astonish- 
ing ! but it nearly exceeds the bounds of belief, thht these acts 
should have been practised under the pretence of promoting the 
cause of a religion, of which the distinguishing characteristics . 
arc peace, forbearance, and good will towards men. From 
the contemplation of such enormities, we turn away with 

- ■ — ' ' ; ' ■*- • ' ir ■ 

* * Hieronym. Cardan, de Genituiis, lib. xii.' 

* f These were Joan Bochcr, commonly called Joan of Kent, flu\d 
Van Paris, a Hollander.* 

* X This monarch was never married, though an alliance had been 
projected between him and one of the daughters of Henry II. of 
France. He was the founder of some valuable institutions. Chnst*s 
Hospital in London, that of St. Thomas in Southwark, and several 
frce-schools in different parts of the re^lm, owe their establishment tu 
lug bounty.' 


CooteV History rf England^ 279 

lu>nror and disgust— Tet, in justice to Mary, it must be ac* 
knowleged that the execrable example was afibrded her by 
the prottstants, in the time of her predecessor, in the horrid 
instance which has been noticed in the preceding extracts 

Queen Elizabeth was rendered deservedly popular, and ob- 
tained much admiration, by many of the events of k long and 
splendid reign : but still, in some instances of her conduct, wc 
discover strong marks of a resemblance to the arbitmry, unre- 
lenting, and cruel dispositions of her father and her sister. 
The whole course of her behaviour to the lovely and unfor- 
tunate Queen of Scotland, is marked by female jealousy, dissi- 
mnlation, perfidy, and the most unfeminine severity.— *What* 
ever might have been the errors of Mary's government, and of 
her private and personal conduct,— and we by no means deny 
that there were faults in both, — they were not subject to 
the jurisdiction of her rival. Elizabeth, in depriving the 
Queen of Scots of her life, acted in as open a violation of the 
law of nations, as of every principle of justice and every sug- 
gestion of humanity. We are inclined to believe, with the 
present author, that Macy was not guilty of Darnley's murder | 
and we think that what he urges in support of his opinion is 
|>owerful and satisfactory : 

* The partisans of Murray immediately propagated reports to the 
prejudice of the queen's character, insinuating that she had been 
concerned in the murder of a husband whom she hated. But more 
satisfactory evidence than has yet been produced is necessary to jus- 
tify those who have imputed to her so horrible a crime. However 
great was the aversion which she. had conceived for Daniley, the hu* 
manity of her disposition was too stronc^ to suffer her to concur in his 
destruction. Had she been desirous of his death, she might have 
procured the judicial condemnation of one who was so generally de- 
spised, that the nobles would not have interposed to rescue him from 
justice. She might have brought him to trial for the united crimes 
pf murder and treason ; of murder, in having abetted the assassination 
of her secretary ; of treason, jn having directed his agents to commit 
that deed in the queen's apartment, to the manifest hazard of her life. 

. She might, with equal facility, have procured a legal separation from 
him, without injuring her son's legitimacy, which could not have been 
affected by a divorce groui'ded on his adulterous commerce with other 
women : or, even if there had been a risque of destroying the son's 
right of inheritance, an act which exposed that right to dispute would 
•have been far less criminal than the murder of the father. 

* From the character of the chief accusers of Mary, we may form 
» strong presumption of her innocence. These were the earls of Mur- 
ray and Morton, who were men of such depraved hearts, and such un- 
principled minds, that no crime which might gratify their irrcguUtr 
passions would appear too enormous for thenri to perpetrate. Tnc 
former was confident that, by his hypocritic^ pretences to piety, and 

U4 by 

^%6 tb6U'j tiisiirj ^ £ngUH}. 

hj hit arlfiH inode 6f throwing off hia dwn eullt Qfi xht fields tq^ 
ether8) he could retain the good opinion of the v^ote presbytenaft 
|>iaty» whose shemcs of reformation he had warmly patronisedl All 
cmineat historiau observes, that Murray could have no motive for the 
o^mmisiuon of the murder ; but» without judging from the event (a 
practice which that wnter justly represents as absurd) 9 we may Infci^ 
from his conduct preceding the king's deaths that he aimed at the 
possession of the government ; and) as he retained a strong resent- 
ment against his sister for her final resolution of punishing him, which 
Slothing biit the situation bf her affairs, on the assassination of Ric-* 
Cio, had induced her to Relinquish, he ,was ready to contrive anr 
scheme which might at once be subservient to his animosity and his 
•mbition. . We also find that he had been apprehensive of the exectw 
lion pf parnley's menaces against his life *; a circumstance which» 
^cording to the frequent practice of that age, would prompt him tO 
|inticipate the blow. -Under these circumstances, cau it be justly said 
ihat he had no motive for the crime ? On the contrary, he seems to 
iiaye had every motive which, however repugnant to humrtnity, and 
justice, could urge a vindictive and aspiring nobleman, who foresaw. 
In the event of the conspiracy, the indulgence not only of his revenge 
igainst Damley, but likewise against the queen, whom, by calumniea 
consequent on the murder, and by such advice as might contribute tb 
iocrease the elTect of his malicious fabrications, he might render so 
unpopular that her deposition might easily be procured by his influ- 
ence over a people who had long been impatient of the government oT 
a Cc^tholic princess. The carl of Morton, the friend and confederate 
bf Murray, was infli:enced by similar views. He was exasperated 
against the kw^ for having deserted him after the murJtrof Riccio, 
Jn violation of his solemn engagements for the protection of the au^ 
thors of that deed. Besides the desire of vengeance, the hopes of 
recovering his influence in the government, and the dignified omce of 
chancellor, inclined him to promntc, wiiii great eagerness, the iniqui- 
tous schemes of the queen's brother. 

* When Mary bad received intelligence of her husband's sudden 
dissoliitron, she isi^ued a proclamation, offering rewards for the disco- 
very of tli.c murderers. Bothwtll being accused of the cnme by the 
public voice, the carl of Lenox urged tlic queen to bring him to trial, 
as well as all otlier persons who were suspected of a concern in it. 
■^Tary, without hesitation, gave directions for that purpose } and Lc- 
410X was desfred to repair to Edinburgh, that he might be present at 
the judicial proceedings. He had dcolred that Dothwcll might be 
taken into custody ; hut the queen did not grant that request, as the 
^^usatiqn against hi:Ti re. ted at present only on the evidence of ano- 
nymous bills fixed up in different uarts of tlie city. When the day 
pf trial arrived, the arts of Boihwell, and the influence of Mortoaand 
the other partisans of Murray (hv this nobleman himself, to avoid 
Suspicion, had lately rctirtd into FranceJ, deterred the earl of Lenox 
from appeariiig as an accuser j and no evidence being adduced against 
JBothwcll, the jury thought proper to acquit him. This verdict re^ 
■■ I ' • ^ I . , - 

• ♦ Camd. p.iio.' 


CooteV liistorj of EnglanS. 28t 

ffeivcd the sanction of a parliament which met two days afterwards % 
and the diseolution of this assembly was followed by a remarkable as* 
BOCtation of many of the nobles for promoting the marriage of Both- 
well with the quee^n. They signed a bond, expressing their convic- 
tion of his innocence of the king's murder, and promising to hazard 
their lives and fortunes in defending him against all who should pre- 
sume to charge him with that crime. He had lately been extremely- 
assiduous in his endeavours to obtain the favor of Mary ; but, when 
he tnade^proposals of marriage to her, she signified her dissent. Un- 
willing to submit to a refusal, he resolved to make use of compulsive 
measures ; and, by a daring violation of her chastfty, to render a 
piarriage with him necessary for the reparation of herwounded honor. 
He assembled a party of 800 horse, under the pretence of making aft 
excursion against banditti ; and meeting the queen in her return from 
a visit to her infant son^ he dispersed her small guard, and seiding her 
horse by the bridle, conveyed her to the castle of Dunbar. He there 
conjured, in the most persuasive terms, to forgive that vehemence of 
passion which bad humed him into this outrageous behaviour ; calle$l 
to Ucr mind the loyal services which he had performed \ represented 
in strong terms the inveterate malignity of his enemies ; and declared 
that nothing but the queen's favor, exemplified in her acceptance o£ 
his band, could secure him from the effects of their hatred. Her re- 
luctance not being overcome by his artful insinuations, he produced 
the bond which the associated nobility had signed. Finding his ad* 
dresses so strongly sanctioned, and not being aware of the perfidious 
views of the chief subscribers of the bond, she began to relax in 
her opposition to his proposals, and promised to gratify him with 
the matrimonial union. A mere promise not being so valid a Secu- 
rity as he wished, he had recourse to ** extraordinary and unlawful 
means*' (acfcording^to the account of those who afterwards rebelled 
against her) for the completion of his wishes. Partly by artifice^ 
and partly by force, ffor the latter circumstance is mentioned 
by ihe rebels, in addition to the extraordinary means^ by which, 

ferhaps, philtres are alluded to), he triumphed over her chastity, 
fe soon after procured a divorce from his wife ; and when Mary had 
promoted him to the dukedom of Orkney, the nuptials between hin^ 
and his sovereign were solemnised at Edinburgh*.' — 

* BothwcU, in the mean time, though an undoubted agent in this 
murder, was suffered by the rebellious nobles to remain at Dunbaf| 
unmolested, near a fortnight 5 a circumstance which may be consi- 
dered as corroborative of the opinion of those who have attributed the 
contrivance of that deed to Murray and Morton. The latter, who, 
Jn the absence of the former, directed the motions of the insurgents^ 
dreaded the regular condemnation of Bothwell, lest he shoul4 disclose 
such particulars as might injure the reputation of his secret accom* 
plices. He therefore qonnived at the retreat of this obnoxious noble- 
man, who, apprehensive of the stroke of assassination, put to s^ 
with a few vessels, and commenced the practice of naval depredation. 
Being pursued by Kirkaldy of Grange, he escaped to Norway, where 

■ ' ■' . ' — — - — ■■■■*■ n 1 ' ■ *■ 

* * Mclvii's Memoirs,— Anderson/ 

. 2B2 CooteV History of England. 

^ he was thrown into prison for an act of piracy. He died in confiac* 
* irtent some years afterwards j and, on his death-bed, made a solemn 
'declaration of queen Mary's innocence of the murder of Damley, in 
'vhich, he affirmed, the earls of IVTiiiTay and Morton,' secretary Mait- 
land, and other persons of distinction, were concerned with him *.' 

The prejudices entertained by Elizabeth against her unhappf 
kinswoman were evident in her conduct in the appoiDtment cc 
commissioners, and in the testimony which she admitted or re- 
jected on those occasions. 

* When the different commissions had been read, Mary's , repre- 
sentatives entered a protest, importing, that, though she had con- 
sented to refer the disputes between herself and her rebellious subjects 
to the arbitration of the queen of England, she had no idea of ac- 
knowledging any superiority in that princess, but was herself an in- 
dependent sovereign. The English commissioners, on the other 
hand, declared that, though they received this protest, they would 
not suffer it to prejudice that right of feudal superiority which the 
sovtreigns of England had formerly claimed over Scotland. A paper 
was afterwards urtsented to the court by Mary's deputies, containing 

, a statement of the acts of treason and rebellion committed against her 
by her brother's faction, and of the successive injuries which had 

.teen heaped upon her. The regent, in his turn, accused Mary of 
having countenanced the iniquitous schemes of the earl of Bothwelt, 

"so as to render it necessary for her nobles to insist on his dismission 

*from her society ; mentioned the steps which had been taken against 
the earl, as well as against the queen, whose partiality fqr hxm justi- 
fied them in depriving her of her liberty ; and affirmed that she had 
voluntarily resigned her crown to her son, from the disgust which the 
fatigues and inquietudes of royalty had excited in her mind ; that the 
parliament had sanctioned her resignation ; and that the national af- 
fairs had been coiiducted with order and tranquillity, till some tur- 
bulent individuals had released her from her confinement, and takes 
arms against the young king f . 

* The omission of the charg,^ of murder against the Scottish queen* 
which the regent had before industriously propagated, gave great 
surprise to many. But, exclusive of the supposition that he way 
scrupulous of advancing an accusation which he knew to be inca- 
pable of proof, he had lately had secret conferences with the duke 
of Norfolk, which m^y account for his present silence on thid head. 
The duke, commintrat ing the fate of Mary, of whose restoration he 
>vassinccnly desirous, iukI whose person he wished to possess, remon- 
•tratcd vvitli the regent on the infamy to which he would subject him- 
self by a public accusation of his sister and his sovereign; assured him 
t?!at Eli/.abeth had resolved not to give a definitive sentence in the 
cause, wliatevcr evidence might be adduced on either side 5 and hinted 
the danger not only of being deserted by that queen, but of being 
exposed to the severest vengeance of Mary, if she should ever regain 

• ♦ Appendix to Keith's Hist.' 

« t Anderson, vol. iv.- Camd. p. 138—141/ 


CooteV TJisicrj ofEtiglaHJk aS| 

fccr crown*. The earl listened to these, observations, ard gave the 
duke a promise that he would not produce thofe documents wiuchf 
he pretended, would convict Mary of adultery and murder *. . 

* The documents here alluded to consisted of letters and soRnctfit 
supposed to have been written by Mary to BothweU. If these were 
.genuine, little doubt would remain of the guilt gf that princess. A 
controversy has long subsisted on this subject ; and authors of 
eminence have appeared on both sides of the question. Some have 
maintained, that the letters and poems are the real compositions of 
Mary ; while others, after a very accurate examination, have proved 

. to the general satisfaction, that they were forged under the auepice^ 
of the earls of Murray and Morton, whom not only the most rcr 
spectable friends of the injured queen, but many. of the criminal^ 
who suffered death for their agency in the murder of Darnley, ao«> 
cused of having planned that nefarious deed. 

* These pretended productions of Mary were shown by the regent 
to Elizabeth's commissioners, in a private interview ; a circumstance 
'which does not give us a very high opinion of the candor of the earl 
and his colleagues, who thus clandestinely tampered with the English 
delegates in the consideration of that important evidence which ought 
to have been first produced in open court. They had before expressed 
an unwillingness to exhibit in form this grand head of accusation, t31 
they had received an explicit answer on the following pomts ; whe- 
ther the commissioners were authorised to give a final decree in the 
cause ; and whether Elizabeth would protect the acaisers of Maiy 
from that resentment which the latter princess would naturally fed 
against her adversaries. To these interroffatories an evasive reply wan 
.given by the English deputies, who, at the desire of the regent, sent 
.to Elizabeth for further instructions. It was in this iptervalof delay^ 
that Murray had privately opened to them his budget of evidence, that 
they might communicate their opinion of it to their sovereign, who 
would then see how far they were disposed to concur in the plan which 
^he and the earl appear to have concerted for obstructing the vindica- 
tion of Mary's character. From the account which they gave Eliza* 
beth of the papers, she was inclined to think that they considered 
them as forgeries ; a circumstance which did not coincide with her 
views* Hence she was induced to recall th^ commission which siie 
had granted, and to evoke the cause to Westminster^ where the pro- 
ceedings would be more immediately under her eye. A new com-' 
mission was then issued, in which, though the duke of Norfolk and 
his two coUeagues were re-appointed, five other delegates were named 
in whose subserviency Elizabeth, placed greater confidence^ These 
were the lord-keeper Bacon, the earls of Arundel and JLeicester, Clin- 
ton the high admiral, and secretary Cecil f.' 

In the interval between the sentem:e of the Scottish queen 
and its execution, Elizabeth acted a part remarkable for dis- 
simulation and hypocrisy : 

* ♦ MelviPs Memoirs. — Burghley's State Papers, vol. i. p. 574.* 
' t Anderson, vol.iv.-rBurghky's Papers, vol, i^-^Camd. Ann. 



JtS4 Co6tt's Hijf&ty ^ JEhglaffi. 

* When EKzabeth foand that the tide of pubb'c prejudice contmnel 
Co ran strongly agahnct Mary,, and that the people were as ea^er a» 
herself for the execution of that prificess, she commanded secretary 
Davison to prepare tlie warrant for her signature- As soon as it was 
Moiduced before her^ she signed it with as much cheerfuhiess and self- 
complacency as if it had contained the grant of a pardon. Sht CKp 
insuYted the misfortunes of the injured queen by unseasonable jocoki* 
tity. Having desired the secretary to inform hjs colleague Waising*- 
luim (then indisposed) of what she had done, she added, with an air 
^lentYt that she was apprehensive of his dying of grief at the intel- 
l^ence. But, after she had thus given her sanction to the public 
CxecutioD of Mary, her fe^r of the censures of mankind suggested to 
kcr an expedient by which she hoped to remove the odiiim of her 
death oh her keepers. She wished them to murder her in private, 
on pretence of the association by which they had bound themselves to 
revenge any attempt against the life of their own sovereign. This 
^ontnvance, she flatteied herself, would tend to the propagation of 
«in opinion that »he liad not consented to Mary's death, and tliat the 
officious zeal of private individuals had perpetrated the deed without 
her knowledge. Flcascd with the suggestion, she ordered the two 
secretaries of state to write a letter to raulet and Drury, , reproaching 
them with their want of- loyalty and public spirit, in not having re- 
iifcved her, by some violent and decisive means, from the danger to 
i|i4iich she was hourly exposed by the life of Mary ; urging the bond 
t[ Bssociation as a sufficient justification of such a measure, to their 
^tt^n conscienee as well as to the world ; and reprobating their un- 
kiiidncss in wishing to throw the odium upon her, acquainted as they 
Were with the humanity of her disposition, which rendered it so un- 
pkasrng to her to order the execution even of the lowest criminal, 
that they might easily suppose her to be peculiarly averse to the idea 
ef issuing a warrant fot the delivery of a princess of her own fanultr 
into the hands of the executioner *• Paulct and his associate, thoagQ 
tiot remarkable for their tenderness to Mary, had too much honor to 
perpetrate the infamous de^d in which their unprincipled sovereigft 
!^6 desirous of employing them. She might command, they said^ 
their honorable services ) but they scorned to act the part of assassins. 
Mortified at their refusal, which she ridiculed as the offspriiiff of pre- 
cise delicacy and idle scrupulosity, Elizabeth resolved to mstigate 
Some less conscientious persons to the secret murder of the Scottish 
iqneci^. But, being at length dissuaded from that resolution by the 
remonstrances of Davison, she thought proper to have recourse to the 
regular execution of the sentence. That minister having commurvi- 
Irated the warrant to the chancellor for the application of the great 
peal to it, Elizabeth sent a messenger to countermand that operation ; 
|ind finding that it was already performed, she reprimanded Davison 
for. his precipitation* Wishing to draw him into a. snare, that she 
might have a pretence for imputing Mary's execution to him, she 
neither ordered him to issue the warrant, nor to with-hold it f. Con* 

* • C^tnd. p. 502 • — Strype, vol. iii. — Biogiaphia Bntannicat art. 
Davison,* * ' • I SttypCi vol. iii,* 


■ \ 

- \ 

CooteV Hutorj cf EnglanJi lX| \ 

cciying it to be his duty to expedite a writ wbich had passed thfbjsgfi \ 

the necessary forms, and which he knew the queen to be extretncl|' 
desirous of cxeaiting, he produced it before the privy council ; an^ 
as Burghleyy Hatton, and other experienced courtiers, penetrate^ 
her schemes against Davison, of which indeed he himsdf had soRif 
suspicion, they resolved to gratify her wish, ami easily persuaded ^iQ 
whole assembly to coDcur in sending off the warrant, without furtl^ 
commiUMcatioQ with their mistress. To allay the apprehensions dF 
Davison, all the counsellors engaged to bear an equal shar^ of tbp 
blame that might attend this mtasure *•' 

'After the execution of the unfortunate Mary, vvhich Dr.Coote 
has narrated in terms of simple eloquence and pathos, the Eng^ 
lish sovereign still maintained an appearance of kindness and 
regret : 

* When the execution of Mary was notified to Elizabeth, another 
4ceae of hypocrisy appeared. She affected the utmost grief awf 
astonishment, and threatened her ministers with her severest displea- 
sure, for having pui her dear sister to death not only without her. 
knowledge or consent, but even in opposition to her declared will. 
She wrote a letter to the king of Scotland, asserting her innocence of 
his mother's death, and professing an* inviolable attachment to hi«^ 
interests. James was so incensed at Mary's fate, that he resolveci 
not >.only to renounce his alliance with Elizajjcth^ but to avenge, by 
hostilities, the cause of the murdered princess. His nobles appUiudcd 
the justness of his resentment, and promised to act with vigor against 
a queen who had insuhed and degraded their nation. He refused tg^ 
admit Sir Robert Caiy, the bearer of Elizabeth's letter, within his 
frontiers ; though he afterwards consented that the epistle should be 
received, as well as a memorial written by Cary, in which the blame* 
of M^ary's execution was imputed to secretary Davison, whom the 
4jueen intented to punish severely for liis presumption. These dis- 
patches did not tend to allay the wrath of James, who easily disfc: 
cerned the falsehoods which they contained. He continued to think. - 
of revenge ; and, as his own kingdom was too weak to give hisK 
hopes ofsuccess in a war with England, he looked out for a po\veiv. 
fttl ally, by whose aid he might effectually punish (he injustice, aa|I 
iiumble the arrogance of EHiabeth f . . 

^ In the mean time, Davison was prosecuted in the star-chamber 
for a misdemeanor, in having produced thc^wanant before the privj' 
couAcil without the orders oT the queen, who affirmed that she hadi 
^rictly en}oiued him not to communicate it. to any one till he had re- 
ceived further directions from her. Though Davison denied that she 
^d given him such a charge, he was coralenfined by an arbitrary; 
court to pay a fine of 10,0001. and to suffer imprisonment during the 
Queen's pleasure. This iniquitous sentence reduced. the secretary t*]^ 
Indigence and misery. He lingered some years in conftnemcnt^ 
during, which the queen, by whose tyranny he had been ruined, oqr 
ca^ionally relieved his necessities %,' 

* * Gamd. p.502. * f Spotswocd's Hist, of Scotland.— Camd. Ana.' 
♦J Pamd^p.496— 5oi..'^Str)'pe, volJiL' ' "" - • ^ * 

iS6 CootcV Hij/ory 6f England. 

' We shall contrast tTic characters of these two cxtraord!narf 
female sovereignsi as drawn by the present historian^ that the 
feader may be enabled to form an estimate of his judgment 
shd impartiality : 

' Thus fell Mary Stuart, queen of Scotland in her own right, 
dowager of France, and heiress of the crowns of England and Ire-' 
land,; a victim to the malip^nity of female jealousy, and to the rage 
of puritanical Mgotry, Having sufficiently spoken of the contro- 
verted parts of her conduct, we shall now dismiss this illustnous fe» 
Xfoit with a sketch of her general character. Her personal accom* 
plishments were brilliant and Cciptivating. By beauty of countenance, 
•j'mmetry. of form, and dignity of stature, she was eminently distin* 
guished. The natural elegance of htr address, improved by the polish 
of Gallic education, heigotened the attractions of her person ; and 
her engaging affability, vivacity, and case, delighted all who had the 
honor of con\ersing with her. She possessed very respectable talents; 
and her mind was cultivated by literature and erudition. In the pro- 
found knowledge of policy and government, she was inferior to Eli- 
zabeth ; but, in generosity, magnanimity, and other royal virtues, she 
excelled her celebrated rival. Of the crimes of murder and adultery, 
of which she has been so peremptorily accused, we have endeavoured 
to acquit her, not only on the ground of insufficiency of evidence, but 
on the consideration of the flagitious characters of her chief accusers. 
Into acts of indiscretfon, however, she was sometimes hurried, by the 
warmth of her feelings, and the suddenness of her resolutions. Her at- 
tachment to her religion was so strong as to expose her to the imputation 
of bigotry ; and though she made no opj'n attempts to overturn that 
theological system which her subjects had established during her ab- 
seucc on the continent, her forbearance was less the result of inclina- 
tion than of the weakness of female authority over a bold and turbu- 
lent people. Being naturally frank and open (though she was not 
unskiUed in diiisimulaaon), she was inclined to entertain too favorable 
an opinion of those who concealed their vices ; and her occasional 
credulity, and unseasonable clemency, afTorded the ambitious hypo- 
crites of her court an opportunity of effecting her ruin. Her deport- 
ment had too great an appearance of levity, to please those fanatics 
^*ho, luider the auspices of the earl of Murray, and the instructions 
of Knox, endeavoured to throw a gloom over the innocent cheeiful- 
ness of life. She did not perhaps take the most proper steps for re- 
pressing the factioi|S spirit of her nobles, or the seditious excesses of 
ner clergy ; and, by deviating, in some instances, from the paths of 

Srudence and judgment, she was less able to avert the ^torm which" 
lovc her from her throne. Her weakness in trusting to the profes- 
sions of Elizabi th cannot be mentioned without censure ; but her be- 
haviour in that long series of adversity which she sustained after she 
had put Herself into the power of the Engh'sh queen, demands our ad- 
miration of her patience, fortitude, and constancy. In her prison^ 
and on the scaffold, she appears a greater woman tlntn Elizabeth on 
b«;r throne, trembling, like a jealous tyrant, with mean suspicions 
and degrading fcafs«*— 


Coott*s JTssUrj of England, 287- 

« Th« length of a reign in which the sovereign, far from being* 
the puppet or tool of a mintscrj) was the animating spirit of every 

_ J)Ubli6 measare» has given the reader so many oppottunities of dis- 
cerning the genius and character of Elizabeth, that a very sligUt 
sketch will here suffice. Her mascuh'ne turn of mind^ her firmnesa^ 
her penetration, and her judgment, qualified her for the goyernooenH 
of an empire. Leained> intelligent, and enlightened;, vigty 
lant, and circumspect ; studious of the honor of her country, and of 
the general w'elfarc of her subjects; she acquired a reputation and ^ 
populatity which greatly contributed to tbc sutcess of her en- 
terprises, and the prosperity of her sway. Though menaced with 
rain by the cathohc powers of the contment, she baffled all their 
scheme^ by her consummate, pinidence and. distinguished address^ 
•he despised the thunders of the Vatican, and the more, formi- 
dable artillery of Philip ; And, by the efforts of a brave people who 
cheerfully risqued their lives in the service of their, admired princess, 

, fhc wals enabled to triumph over the persevering malignity and the 
tremendous preparations of her foreign enemies. Her domestic foe» 
the sometimes overawed by severity, and sometimes conciliated by 
lenity ; but her disposition seemed more to incline her to the former 
conduct. She was of an imperious spirit, and was impatient of tht 
least opposition to her will ; and the storms (^f passion into which 
the was betrayed were frequent and violent. Her fruj^lity was car- 
ried to such an extremity as sometimes to obstruct the complete suc- 
cess of her schemes ; and her desire of treasure impelled her into ex- 
tortion and rapacity. Her courage and fortitude did not defend her 
from jealousies and sujJpicions, which, in the case of the Scottish 
queen, she indulged to a disgraceful excess. Indeed, het whol© 
conduct towards that princess was a series of dissimulation, perfidy, 
injustice, and barbarily. Though her general government was just and 
moderate, she was guilty of many acts of oppression ; but even these 
abuses of power did not extiniruish that popular regard which she hdd 
jM-ocured by the splendor of her talents, by the great qualities which 
catered into her composition, by her winning aflTiibility and courtesy 
, to the lower ranks of the community, by her indefatigable attention 
to public affairs, and by the great events and signal achievements of 
her jreign.' 

The influence which the Earl of E«;sex possessed over the 
mind of his royal mistress, and the effects of his miscondui^t 
in Ireland, arc not, in our opinion, suflTiciently detailed by 
Dr. Cootc ; and the same objection may be made with rcispect 
to other great and important events in this rcigrt. 

The Vlth volume contains the history of the Stuarts ; a fa- 

' jnily, we think, more undeserving than unfortunate j and / 

' though the fate of the first Charles was severe, and his trial 

and sentence were unconstitutional and ilkj^al, yet it must b^ 

allowed that he committed many unkingly faults, which perhapd 

* would have justified the depriving^ him of regal authority, 

9 ^hougb| 


4^8. Mar shall V Rural Eeaiwmy efthe Southern CouiitUsi 

though, according to our notions pf government, no'fftilu're of 
duty on his part could justify his execution. 

The events of the reign of James the First are related with 
•im^plicity and impartiality; and his conduct in many import*^ 
ant transactions receives the just tribute of censure or oiF praise, 
According to the respective qualities of his actions :*-but Dx« 
Cpote entertains a more favourable opinion of the character oif 
this prince, than we have ever been able to adopt. 

In a future articlci we shall consider the remaining volume^^ 
of this work. 

{To hi continued'^ 
■I'"* -- - - - . • • .. " , ' 

Art. VI. The Rural Economy qf the Southern Counties i com- 
' prizing Kent, Surry, Sussex 5 the Isle of Wight j the Chal): 
Hills of Wiltshire, Hampshire, &c : and including the Cultucp 
and Management of Hops, in the Districts of Maidstone, Canter- 
bury, and Farnham. By Mr. Marshall. Svo. 2 Vols. pp. 410. 
each. 15s. Boards. Nicol. 179S. 

•'tjr? E heartily congratulate this intelligent and indefatigable 
^^ professional! St, on having finished his Survey of English 
Agriculture ; which, though the extent, variety, and magnitude 
of the objects which it embraces will necessarily prevent it from 
heing perfect, is yet highly instructive and useful to the reader, 
.as well as honorable to the author. His Notitia Rustics in 
these volumes discover, as on former occasions, the mind of 
.science, the eye of experience, and the heart of philan- 
thropy. No one will doubt his ability to report the state 
of agriculture in any province, and to suggest hints for im« 
jprovmg any particular custom or practice. By comparing dif- 
ferent usages, and noticing every variety of management, he 
may be instrumental in promoting the most beneficial refoirma- 
tions. The country-gentleman and the intelligent farmer, of 
every district, will probably pronounce Mr. M.'s Survey to 1|« 
defective in some particulars : but they will rarely peruse his 
clear statements, and his acute remarks and hints for improve- 
fnent, without acknowleging his genius and expressing their 

We read with concern, in some places, that Mr. M. « had 
here few opportunities of examining ;'— that he ^.was not pre- 
pared for detail i* — that he *had not time for Collecting inform- 
atton ;' — and that his * information is confined.' We think tliat, 
in these cases, Mr. M.. should have applied by letter to th« 
most able per-sons of the district in question, and should have 
followed the plan-of some other writers on rural affairs j who, 
to their own experience and observation; have added the cxp'e- 
^ricBcc and obdcrvattonof many other intelligent country gentle^* 

^ ovea 

MarshaQV Rural JSctmmy ef tU Smtthim CwniUt. aS^ 

Men Aid agricaltifrisfs. Individual ffciiius. endowed and im« 
ptoved to the utmost extent^ can neither be omnipresent not 

^ * .Mr. M. has divided, the spiidiern counties of England intp 
^lie following departments ;— The District of Maidstone— Th^ 
Weald ot Kent--Romney Marsh--The District of Canterbury 
^Thc Isle of Thanct— .The VaUey of Farnham^The Heithg 
of Surrey, &c.— The Weald of Sussex— The District of Pet* 
worth— The Sfa-coast, oJF Sussex— The Isle of Wight— The 
^ Wc^tiftn an^ Eastern Chalk Hills. 

[. To the first of .these districts, the author appears to have 
paid much attention, and his description of it i3 the most detailed 
and j^obably the most perfect of anf in the volumes. 

The account of this portion of Itent is not given witjiout 
proper notice of the eood law of gavelkifid^ still prevalent vtt 
iK-it county, aad whidi was confirmed to the men of Kent by 

* William tjie Normani as their custom, on surrendering to 

him. After having mentioned this law, by which the lands 
descendi^ not to the eldest, youngest, or any one son only, bu^ 
tgf all the ^ons together, — and, in default of male issue, (ia 

^ conformity with the common law, though Mr. M, does not sf^tc 

this,) cquaDy among the females,;-? jw^r,li5, remarks .re 

jn the district of Maidstone, landed estates of considerable .size ; 
which (he says) is good evidence to shew tliat, while this law 
Isc^mableby its operation of multiplying landed proprietbjfS^ 
« and of producing, the mojt valuable pr/der of men which any 
country can possess,— men who occupy then own estates, and 
who are at once tnest calculated to defend and to cultivs^te theif 
country i —It docs not obstruct th^ accumulation of property^ 
- 410 much as to prevent those distinctions in society which ap- 
jpear to be necessary to the lasting welfare of a nation; and tbjp 
siqppression ojT t}ii$ antl^pt law may well be considered as thf 
greatest evil, which the I^orman coqquest entailed on this 
country.' Again in p. 54, the subject recurs in. pacing .his 
respects to that truly respectable class of British subjectsi-— 
^ the Yeomanry of Kent. 

' Out' of the law of gaveUitiJ, this valuable order of men ham - 
pfincipidly rieen. And seeing thc^ present flourishing: state of their 
jcanfitry, afur seven hundred, years of experience, the. wisdom of that 
law appears in a sUroDg light. '-r-* . 

* The rightful tendency of the principle of tliis laar was cxepaph- 
fiedy some years ago, in the district under view. A person, who 
died possessed of considerable property; left five sons, and a will ^ 
in which, partiality to individuals was of course expected. Neverth^* 
^ejTS, the brothers, hannoftifud by the infiuence of equal la*w^ agreed, 
"befdre^lie wtU-wM broken open,, to inheriti according^ to the natiirat 
h^ of tfie country ; and the will was burnt with its leal unfrroken. ' 
^ Key. March, 1799. X *The 


ap© M^shalF/. Rural Economy i^ the Southern Countks* 

/ The operation of this equitable law in the instance under tiotice# 
lias been highly favorable to society ; which has thereby rained fiv* 
tncalthy, resptetable, productvoe menibers : yeomen of the higher 
class. Whereas, had the whole property devolved on one of them; 
'even this one, probably, would have ,becn rendered unprofitable to 
'sofciety : while the rest mtist have been thrown upon the world;— to 
tcrambk for property, in trader or the professions.' 

• The author now proceeds to the subjects of-^worh-people^ 
itasfs oflabbur — implements of husbandry ^ &c. Urider the last of 
these heads, he minutely describes the plow of Kent, called 
• the Kentish turn-wrest plow; and concludes the section with 
urging the utility of a public repository of instruments of has* 
tandry ; since the attempts which have been made to realize 
the representations, and even the drawings, of complex instru* 
merits,' have proved abortive. To this hint we will add that 
it rtiay not be improper, nor unwise in a public view, for agri* 
Cultural societies to offer premiums for the exhibition and us« 
of implements not common to their district; which would pro- 
voke con\parison, and enable gentlemen to decide on the fitneat 
iof adopting or encouraging, on their own estates, any foreigi^ 
^stom or machine. Indeed, as Mr.'M. suggests in the sub* 
sequent section, not only the construction of instruments but 
their ready use requires to be taught. 

Anxious to collect all the minutiae which relate to rural eco« 
nomy, the author do€s not suffer even a bird-trap or a rat-trap 
to pass unobserved* Experience has taught him that rats arc 
more destructive animals than moles', and he wonders that 
farmers are not more attentive in securing themselves against 
their ravages. Towards the conclusion of the second volume, 
'he recommends the erection of tarns on piles, for this purpose; 
and in the first volume he states it to be his opinion that their 
destruction is so important, that it should be the object of s| 
^county rate> The quantity of corn which these animals destroy 
is immense ; and if it be impossible absolutely to extirpate 
them, it should be remembered by farmers that, a9 rat$ 
"icanlnot. live without drinking, those places will be most 
free from them which are cut off from communication with 
water. As we are convinced that every method ought to be 
pursued to diminish the number of these vermin, we shall relate 
•in Mr. M.'s own words, a curious fact which he collected 
during his examination of the farm-yard-managemcnt prevalent; 
^n the Maidstone districts : 

* A respectable yeoman, and most ingenious husbandmaqi, in the 
Jveighbourhood of Maidstone, * has, for some years past, been- po^ 

^— — . . , ^^ — — ■ . r 

« * Mr. FowLE of Fani J lo whom I am indebted for mnph' v»- 


ManhallV ^ural EMmftftie $om£^n C^UnHiJ; ^$ t 

WtMtA of a method of drafwiH^ them togeth^, m number* ; md ettn , 
of rendering them» in a degree^ Umc and familitr ; noti howeVier^ 
hj any charm or fascinating lurej l>^t by ptinuing. obvious and ra- 
tional n^ans ; and on principles aimilar to those employed* in taking 
nice* in the instance noticed^ in, YoaksHikB. 

^ The season^ best adapted to the purpose^ is that of summer ; 
when the bams are empty^, and their allowance of provisions short. 
At this time, such food is provided,' as is fourfd, hy experience, fo 
be most agreeable to them. Wheat flour and sugar, scented witH 
the oil of caraway, and formed into paste with water, has been foun# 
to be a favorite food. The chief difficulty of preparation iies in com* 
Jnunicaring the scent, evenly to the whole, so as not to give pun- 
gency to any part. This is done, by. rubbing the oil into tUe palrAa 
of the hands* and then rubbing the flour between them ; afterwards 
rubbing the flour and sugar together, in a similar manner*. 

* A recluse part of the farm buildings, near their favorite haunt ^ 
being pitched on, and darkened, they are continued to be fed, with 
balls or bits of this palatable, wholesome paste, at stated times, or 
Irgolar meals ; until the whole, or a considerable number, of thosQ 
that inhabit the premises, are drawn together, and feed ffeelj, «ii 
the food prepared for them ; when they are either concentratea on a 
^atfbrm» over which a falling tiap is suspended, so as to drop instan- 
,taneous1y, and inclose the whole collection ; or, which requires much 
lett time and attention, a sufficient quantity of arsenic is added to the 
l^aste, to operate as a poison* 

* In adding this, as in givine the scent, much caution is required^ 
The least gritticess offends, or alarms them ; so that the arsenic cannot 
be pounded too fine ; it ought to be elutriated, or washed over ; by 
.which means no particle, that is not capable of bein? momentarily 

^fuspended in water, can enter the composition ; whioa is made up, 
with this poisonous liquor, instead of pure water.' 

To this must be added another, invention of the same per- 
aon^' called A Vermin Trap^ on a 'new principle. 

* It consistsof a wooden box, <a^ hutch, resembling the do^ hutck 
or kennel, which is usually provided for, the yard dog, to hide* and 
aleep in ; its form being that of the barn. It is divided, in the 
middle, by an open wire partition, running from end to end, and 
.Teaching from the ridge of the roof to the floor. One side of this 
partition is agiain divided j into two parts, or cages ; one of chem for 
a tame rabbit, the other for a live fowl, to allure the vermin. The 
other half of the hutch being formed into a falling box trap, t^.take 
them I Great numbers of weasels, stoats, and polecats (as well as 
domestic cats) have been caught, in coppices and hedgerows, by this 
most simple and ingrenious, yet, when known, most obvious deviae.' 

The Maidstone district being celebrated for its Hop culture, 
Mr. M. particularly enters into the natural history of this vege- 
table) noticing its varieties^^the soil and subsoil most suitable 
%o it,**— time o( planting,---- method of manuring,-^ trainings 
yoUngy picking, during, packing, marketing expences^ and^^ 

X. % duett 

JkM ; die lattery in^Kotf) he cstimttcs H lem thoOaaiid aciie^«<ir 
bearing, cm an average of years, five thousand tons of hops. 

hi giving the tidtural history of the Hop, Mr. Marshall relatrt 
acircuthstanice which, thoagh ht, that he received it from 
the largest and most successful hop plafiter that the island ever 
lyicw, we can Scarcely credit j viz. that cultivated or female hops 
are llaile tp change into seed hops or males. Mr. M- is disppscd 
to think 'that it may belong to the nature^ of diacious pUnti^ 
^bpse r§oU are perewiial and stems afiftu/fl^ to do it occ^asipnally*' 
The subject is intf^re^ting. to the botanist, who ought io invear 
tigi^e the matter attentively, in order to ascertain the factb 
Then, we may reason on it. 

TTie Hop harvest of 'England resembles , the cheerful season 
qf the vintage in warmer countries. It is not only a scene of 
labour, but of fireedom^ mirth, and pleasure. Mt. M. thus de» 
scribes it : 

* The hop picking is a sort of jubilee $ during which a Ikefioe 
of speech, and relaxation of manners, are authorised by custom .; 
any thing may be said^ afid many thtngtf done, which wouljd not paias 
ttiicensared, at another season. What strikes a stranger the inos^ 
as bein^ himself concerned, is the homage with whidi he is receffoc^ 
on' joimng one of those licenced groups. The fairest, or the ^m^ 
wardest, of the female pickers, having selected the finest hunch of 
liops in her view, approaches him, with great respect,— and •^ 4vipes 
his shoes'^— or rather touches them with it ; and then oflcrs xt to 

»■ * Wliatever m*ght be the origin of this singular custom, itsmoden 
intention is too evident to be mistaken, by those who attract it^ nA 
ticc. It is that oF collecting silver : which either goes towards the 
MOP si7PP£K, tliat is always. given^. oi^ the evening of the last o^y of 
picking ; or is e^^ended, iu fulfalUng another custom of the hop 
narvest, whose origin might be round equally difficult to be traced. 

* This may. be termed the decohatiox of hats. A hw days 
before the picking is compleated^ by any particular planter, the ooao- 
pany of pickers, belonging to such individual, decorate a hat, at 
their joint expence, with a haikdkerchief of gaudy hue, a^d with 
ribbons and gilded omameats» This is the hat of the h^d binman. 
Another is adorned with nbfoons, only. This is the carter's. These 
hats are exposed to public view, before tht day of finishing, are dis- 
played at the hop supper, and afterwards worn in public $ each com- 
pany endeavouring to outvie the other, in.finery. 

* These rustic feats, and the ncvelry which attends them, -are the 
more excusable, as they close- the labours of the yeai ; aud maf 
serve, by leafing £avOrable impressions of the past, to aHevialc tlie 
jwffcrings of toils to come.* 

To the long discussion ofhops^ ;ac subjoined, 'genefal x^ 
Bvarks. on this article, as a species •of faras*produ€(s/ which 
are not unworthy of the b4p-£row^*s notice 

-3 After. 


lyiarshairj Rurhl Ec^mj sfihe Southern Xoimties. agj 

Ahti the Hdp^grouAd^, the orchards of Kent to^geofiir an* 
thorns attention. .Here he mentions a preservative for the stcftis 
of treee, whidh is in use ; and he tec^mmends a home mantrfec- 
ture called gazit wine, made from the black curlrant, as no 
contemptible substitute iox Pert-Wine. The receipt for making 
this British Port, he unfortunately does not give a but the pre- 
servative for guarding the stems of fruit trees from being in- 
jured by sheep .^nd hares, he tells us, is simply a white- wash^ 
composed of lime, night soil, and water, of such a consistency 
as to be put on with a brush. Any good chemist, we imagine^ 
would form a more elegant recipe from this hint. 

We believe that the observations made by Mr. M. on the 
Isle of Thanet are, on the whole^ just^-^though he appears 
to have explored that spot rapidly : butj when he proposed t^ 
inclose it, we question the wisdom of his advice. It is nO# 
extremely fertile, and its cultivators are rich ; it is of a poroui 
soil, and does not want ditches. By inclosing tt, much ground 
would be lost ; the fences would harbour birds, which would 
prevent the Thanet-farmer from growing some crops whidt 
are now raised with ease : much corn under the hedges would 
be stained, if not spoiled ; and this islet might lose its character 
for the bright samples of barley which it now sends to market. 

There is one circumstance respecting farmers in the Isle of 
Thanet which our author has not ' mentioned, but which has 
,been communicated to us as fact, viz. that they never admk 
strangers even to help them to get in their harvest, — which, in 
this open, elevated, uninclosed country, is not liable soon to 
spoiKoii the ground. By this regulation, they a^oid the risk of 
increasing thehr poor's rate. 

To Mr.M.'s hints for the improvement of Romney Mafsh, 
we can subscribe ; and probably the farmers of thaX district, if 
th6y can, will avail themselves of them. 

When Mr. Marshall proceeds to the Valley of Farnharfi, he 
condemns the practice of the hop-growers, in this celebrated 
district ; viewing it in a national light. } The really *' fine 
samples" of Farnham (he says) are in reality no other than 
hops gathered under ripe s^ and he Is of opinion that they are 

* They have, certainly, one very powerful recommendation. They 
ane dear ; bear the best price ; are ever at the top of ibe market. 
And although this may not always be a sufficient recommendation to 
geittiemen (by whom, T understand, the Farnham ho^ are chiefly 
consumed) it doubtless faks its weight with their butlers. 

« Upon the whole, however, iT through the- name of Farnham 
ho]^, such a liquor can be produced, as will render *ttlalt Hquer 
fashionable, and thereby lessen the present inordinate miport or 

X 3 ' forcigi* 

t94 Dc Lillc"/ Gtfriwi/, a PoetHy translateJU 

foreign fruit liquors, it will be of less concerp to the public, whether 
^heir estimated ix^eriu, in producing it^ be r^eal or imaginary/ 

Wc have with pleasure followed Mr. M. into the Wealds of 
Kent and Sussex, and'over the heaths of Surrey, and into the 
Isle of Wight : but into these districts we must not think of 
conducting our readers. ^ 

In exploring the district of Pctworth, he experienced the 
politeness of the Earl of Egremont, which he gratefully 
acknowleges. An interesting experiment made by this noble 
£arl| on fatting porkers at grass, is here recorded ; and Mr. 
M. assures us that this grass-pork was j^rm / finely flavoured, 
and the colour peculiarly delicate. 

It wilt however be of more importance to farmers, particu* 
larly those who cultivate stroilg soils, to attend to a hint which 
Mr. M. throws out to prevent the expensive process of lime* 
burning. As the eflPect of chalk as a manure on stiff «oiU 
depends on its being pulverized, and as it is burnt into lime 
6olely for this purpose, he recommends, where fuel is scarce, 
the substitution of a mill, turned either by wind or water^ to 
bruise it to the state of powder. ' 

We could extract many other instances, to prove the auttior*9 
jSOlicitude to aid the farmer in his important business, and to 
jperfect the rural economy of the kingdom : but this article i« 
already of sufficient extent, and the agricultural works of Mr, 
Marshall do not require ifur recommendation. 

Art. VII. The Gardenif a Poem. Translated from the French 
of the Abbe de Lille, ^o. pp. i2Q. 15s. ^oards. IJdwards. 

"O ESPpcT for this poena has increased with the celebrity of 
^ the autl^or, who is stjll living, and who is regarded by his 
pountrymen as the first poet of the present age ♦. He con- 
fesses, in his text and notes^ that the style of gardening which 
he describes * was first attempted with success in England, bv 
Kent, a fanious architect, and desigper of the landscape garden 
?vhich now begins to prevail all over Europe :'— but the Abbe, 
supposing that the Chinese were the original inventors of this 
style, quotes Sir William Chambers's Dissertation on Oriental 
Gardening, an4 mentions not Mr. Mason's English Garden, nor 

• Weai^ounced this poen^, in the original, jn oui- bixUi volume, 

I>. 72. An English version of it, also^ wa^ mentioned in ourvth vo. 
y^t^Pt ^ew Series, p. 154. but whether from inferiority of tranala- 
^on, or from whatever cause, we did not th^n experience that plea* 
sure in (he perusal of it which we have now derived. 

De Ltile^r Gardens^ a Poem^ iranslatei. QjNf 

Mr. Walpole's (late Lord Orford) Essay on Modern Gardening, , 
though both must have appeared before this jpoem was pub- 

The truth is that the English taste in gardens, and laying 
out the grounds surrounding villas and great provincial man- 
'ftionS) wa3 suggested by Milton, (in his description of the 
garden of Eden,} by Addison, and by Pope, and was pursued, 
find reduced to practice by Kent and Brown, a considerable 
time before even tradition had carried it to the continent. W6 
irerc certainly the first Irr Europe who quitted the regular 
#tyle, and destroyed parterres, straight lines, vegetable sculpture, 
ftjmmetry, and unnatural regularity, to give place to open plrok 
spects and inequalities of ground ; in order to catch a view of 
distant hills, w/>ods, and flowing (not stagnant) waters : imitate 
ifig rivers at least, by concealing the beginning and termination 
of lakes and pieces of standing water, and giving to the whole 
the semblance of Nature's tvotk.- 

From what we read in Sir William Chambers's Dissertation, 
in Fere du Halde, and otbir missionaries, and travellersi'lnd 
^om what we hear related concerning the magntficenotv 
splendour, art, and refinement of the Chinese in* imitating na^- 
^ture, en grand^ we are unable, (and, let us hope, unwilling,) 
from the enormous expence and occupation of soil, to copy their 
extravagance in gardening. Yet, though the' simplicity, free- 
dom, and unaflFectCfi imitation of nature in laying out pleasure 
grounds, on a small scaU^ may perhaps have been. practised by 
the Chinese in much higher antiquity than by ourselves, we 
rather think that this method was invented a second' timt in 
England, and came on progressively from the precepts of Bacon, 
Wotton, Milton, Addison, and Pope, than that- it was stolen* 
ofr servilely imitated from the practice of any other countryi 
Lord Orford and Mr. Mason are offended . with the French 
writfrs on the present irregular style of gardening, for as^ert^ 
ing tl^at we had it from China \ ascribing to envy their un«> 
willingness to allow us the merit of invention :— but however 
they may wish to rob us of this sprig of laurel, there is English 
authority for the supposition : for Sir William Temple, when 
describing Moor Park (which was entirely in the^old geometric 
style) as the sweetest place that he had ever seen in his life at 
home or abroad, adds : " What I have said of the l)est forms of - 
gardens is meant only of such as are in some sprt regular; for 
there may be other forms wholly irregular, that may, for aught 
I know, have mare beauty than any of the others; some- 
thing of this kind I have seen, in some plaoe^, but heard more 
of itirom others Vfho have lived among the Cbineses/' 

X 4 Though 

Though we were at^war with France ^elbre du#.w09tc wif 
first published (1782), yet, from the urbanity of the?u/tbor 
towiards us, the poein was thought by some to spring frpm the 
remains of the Anglomania which was paid to have raged in 
that country prpviously to this war. Not a hostile nor an i^ 
yidiQus reflection against this nation escapes him throughout the 
whole work ; and though, in civility to hi? countrymen, Jie 
is obliged to say that he doe^ not venture to decide between 
idle merit of \it Notre and Kent, 

^ Bach to our choice presents a separate claim, 
Sut both aire equal candidates for fame,' 
yet he abandons the works of the one to destruction, and 
ftdopts for imitation those of the other. He recomm^dt 
Milton's description of Paradise as a model for gardens, and 
pwns that England taught his countrymen how to cover and 
cmbeUiflh the tarth : 

— — ** Mms enfiu AngUlerre 

Now af^Part isomer n tPfs^iUer la ierre.** 

He also recommends Wheatley^a description of the wild and 

grand features of Middleton^dale, and Dove^dale, andtetv 

IDinates his poern with an Eloge on Captain Cook, otir celebrated 

curcumnarigator. Exclusively of the&e civilities, the doctrine 

vhich he endeavours X6 instil into the taste of his countrymen 

in laying out garden grounds is so entirely English, though the 

poetical dress is his own, that our taste ought to be flattered 

py this adoption, as much as by good translations of our best 

classical writers into the language of a foreign learned country^ 

This is << breaking ground at a great distance:'' but we 

thought it necessary to say thus much respecting the original, 

in the way s)f preface to the present translation, before we 

filtered on a discussion of its merits. 

We have now to observe that this version, which is avowed fy 
fsecttted by a Lady, does great honour tb her sex : for we 
fcarcely ;remember to have seen, since the establishment of our 
ptuH ofin^iry, poetry translated with such exactness, facility, 
^irit, and elegance. 

' Wc canno^ resist the pleasure of presenting to our rea^ler!^ 
* THft Translator's Prologue. 
f Wbije Genius smiles in deathless wreaths attired, 
And points the model Taste herself inspired. 
My timid numbers uree rto boasting claim, 
- Nor ask one laurel of mimdrtal ¥«me ; 
X)e9t{ni^d alvne to ckarm the curk^us e^r 
Of you^h^ auditors, who pressed to hear 
Of ^enes congenial with their artless age, 
^ .^h^xnsipfyea unskilled to ken the foreign page, 


.. Yet thaU my cold, intcvpr^tatlve lays. 

Be viewed wjth rapture, and be crowned with pnu^c $ 
Oft wheo this heart no more shall joy, t)r giievey 
A grateful tribute from their lipj* receive ; 
Bid life's gay hopes a tear to Feeling spare, 
In tender n^emory of a mother's .care. 
Tin the wild flowers they place around my tomb^ 
Till they, so lovely now, no more shall bioom^ 
Oh Nature ! guardian of maternal love. 
Protect the^e numbers which thy influence prove j 
No Muse from me, alas ! her pride receives ; 
ibeign Thou j^ith myrtles to adorp my leayes.' 
In our extracts from the poem itself, if we could afford suf^r 
ficient space, it would be but just to insert the original of each 
passage with the English version : as, by comparison, tho 
reader would perceive that a translation of prose into prose 
could hardly be more close and literal} — and that this 14 
achieved without being either prosaic or labouredt " 
For instance, Chant i. French, 4to. edit. p. 9. . 

f * % ^rai cmoment Part dam defrau tatsages 
Dinger tm^ htJUurs^ lej gazontf Its omirages/* 
Epglzsh, p. I. 

* 1 sing how art the imperfect landscape aids, 
Directs the flowers, trie water, lawns, and shades** 

f rencji, p. lo. 

*• N*emfruntons folni id d'ornement etr anger ; 

f^ieiUf de mts propres JUurs mon front va s*ombrager^ 
Etf comme un rayon pur colore un beau nttagej 
Dei cmdeurs du sujetje teindriU mon latigageJ^ 
English^ p. 2. 

* Here let nci borrowed ornaments be found. 
With my own garlands be my temples bound ; 
As summer clouds are tinged by glowing rays, 
The colours of my theme shall paint my lays,* 

French, p. 21. 

** Et quandUf iReux^ offroient utf Ely see aux sages^ 

Etoii-ce des palais f c*etoH de verds hocagu ; 

(Tetoit des pres Jleuris^ sgour des doux lotsirs^ 

Ou d^me iongue pass 'ds ga&toient les phisirsJ** 

Pnglish, p. 3* 

* And, when the good implored immortal powers, 
They asked not grandeur, but Elysian bowers. 
Free in cool shades and flowery meads to rove, . 
Eternal peace, and eii41ess joys to prove.' 

Ko pains were taken in selecting these passages; thev 
were the first which we compared with the original ; and^ 
98 w% fin4 tb& iHft^sion equally correct and happy through all 


jgpt ^^ LilleV Gardens, a Foefn\ transhieJ, 

the four cantos of the poem, we shall now only citfe the 

We think that the English taste in gardens is accurately de^ 
scribed in the following passage : 

* Insuk not Nature with absurd expense, • ' 

Nor spoil her simple charms by vain pretence. 
• Weigh well the subject » be with caution bbld. 

Profuse of genius, not profuse of gold. 
X»es8 grand ihan lovely, decked with modest care, 
A Garden one vast picture should appear. 
See with a painter's eye. The fields array. 
The numerous tints their varying hues display. 
The gleams of light, the masses of the shade. 
The changes by the hours and seasons made. 
The bright enamel of the grass-clad ground, 
The laughing hills with golden harvests crowned. 
The rocks, the streams, the flowers, each varying tree. 
These should your colours, canvas, pencils be ; 
Nature is yours, and your prolific hand 
Must, to create, her elements command.' 
The next ten lines, after having considered the genius vfiht 
>fiou to be embellishedi supply an adn)irable precept : 
' But, ere you plant, ere your adventurous spade 
In the matern^ soil a wound has made. 
To form your gardens with unerring taste, - 
Observe how Nature's choicest works are traced. 
Oft as through unfrequented paths you rove» 
^^hat magic views your admiration move ! 
What fascinating scenes your steps arrest. 
And with a pensive pleasure fill your breast ! 
From the most strikmg be your models drawn. 
And learn of landscape, landscape to adorn.' 
^Jie following verses are an expansion of Pope's admirable 
coDDsel : 

* On Imitation ills unnumbered wait 
How to surmouut or shun them. Muse i relate. 
This rage too oft engenders forced effects. 
Aim not at beauties which the soil rejects. 
First to your site judiciously attend. 
Consult Its God, and to its Genius bend ; 
Their laws despised, how oft are scenes misplace^ 
Disfigured, changed, by artists void of taste, 
Who, b}j thp beauties they absurdly choose, 
&etum to. spoil in France Italian views.' 
The sul)6cquent passage, in which the author advises us to 
take lessons from painters, merit insertioa equally for the 
original sentiment and its English dress: 

« Aptly discover, boldly daring, seize • 

Whate'er your $oil admits with grateful ease \ 

A fit9^ 

De IdtleV Gardens f a Poem^ tramlat^ tgi§ 

A grace adopted thus with happy skOl, 

Surpasses Nature, .yet 'tis Natur? still. 

This choice made ^crghem and L^ Poussin shine ^ 

Study, and emulate their works divine. 

What landscape freely to the pencil Ittit, 

Let Art pay Nature to its full extent.' 

The sacceeding beautiful linea and sentiments are translate 
almost verbatim,, and are equal, if not superior^ to tht ort- 
jginal : 

' There are more pleasing cares, a happier art : 
Charm not the eye alone, but touch the heart. 
Have you the hidden sympathies between 
Still life and animated beings seen ? 
Have you not heard, when fields and woods rejoicCi. 
Their silent eloquence, their secret voice ? 
Give the effect. Mark too, from grave to gay. 
From grand to simple, how we love to stray s 
To please each taste, combine each varying style, 
iSpread gloom around, or bid the hindscape smile ; 
There let the painter's touch new channs acquire 
Let Inspiration's breath the poet fire ; 
The sage in shades a calm retirement find. 
And faithful Memory bless the happy miud ; 
There Love's pale votaries their vigiU keep, 
And there the wretched unmolested weep/ 

At p« 17. we find old-fashioned French and Dutch gvdeo^ 
log well 9tigmatized and discarded : 

* Go to your antique mansions, there survey 
Those studied nothings, those expensive toys, 
Gay arbours, basons, runnels, naKed boys ; 
The sums by Artifice there thrown away, « 

To gild a spot which pleases but a day, 
Would dress a country if employed with sense : 
Yield then to Genius false magnificence 3 
And tp a garden changed let France one day 

> A second Eden to the world display.* 

We dare not venture any farther into this more beatttlM 
garden than that of Alcinous, from the allurepients of which ' 
we already find it difficult to retreat : yet, during our captiyilj 
in these enchanted bowers, we have made a discovery whica 
is not unpleasant to our feelings ; and which is that, often at 
it has been insinuated (by authors whose works we have oeiu 
9ured) that we have a malignant joy in condemning, we can 
^sacn per /;ontrif with the utmost truth, that our pleasure in 
)>estowing praise, when clearly and indisputably due, as' itt . 
fhe present case, affords us a delight which the c^tigaiion of 
duliicss ^ud absurdity sever produced, 


f6<T 0« JLHlc*/ tSardenry a fioem, iranilatidi '^ 

After all the 'wcll-mcriteij encomiums whidi i«rc have 
bestowed on this translationi we haYe a few slight defects to 
point out ; which we cannot do wkhout expressing our wonder 
that their number is so inconsiderable, 

P. 67. Speaking of. springs, and the circulation of water 
througn a. pleasure-ground^ wp find a line which is somewhat 
pro^aiCf and which might easily be amended : 

• New life, new frcshncssi every where dispense/ 
Suppose the disttch were to run thus : 

* And ye streams, rivers, kkes, and fountain, thenoe 
New life, new freshness, at all points dispense V 
P. 73, 2d period, still speaking of water, a Kttlc prosaic 
harshness occurs in the four following lines : 

* Such nagic influence thy soft miirmurB boast. 
Kind stream, the benefit shall not be lost ; 
Preserving still the simple style I love. 

Let me, ifpossiblci thy charms improve.' 

Would not these lines admit of the following change ? 

^ • Such\m^ic influence thy soft murmurs boast, 
Kind stream, nor shall 7^^ enchanting boon be loit ; 
PreserviBg still the simple style I love. 
Each nerve PU strain thy bounty to improve.' 

P. 76. * hnportmaUs the ear'. We fear that" grammarians 
and philologers will not allow the adjective importunate to be^ 
converted into a verb. Perhaps the unwarrantable word may 
be avoided thus — 

* Offends the dainty ear of captious taste.' 

P. 77. Speaking of small projections of land breaking the 
strait line of a river* or piece of water, ' advance into the waves* 
is harsh and heavy : — suppose the couplet ran thus : 

* Now let the ground obtrusive check the waves, 
Now yield them cool recesses, rocky caves.' 

» P. 107. We could wish that the expressions— /A^ art of 
fardetiing^^and rich incidents, were a little ennobled by more 
poetic language. 

Pejhaps in a 2d edit, the fair translatrcss, whose ingenious 
labours have so nearly approached perfection, may not deem 
these minute defects unwprthy of a moment's consideration. 

We ought not to conclude this article without taking notice 
pf the beautiful manner in which this book is published : not 
Quly has the highest degree of excellence been attained as far 
IW papcrj types, and accuracy are concerned, but so exquisite 
9re the emt^ellisbments, said to be invented by Vieira and Bar.^ 
fo/ozzi, that ^c should have supposed them, if anonymt)Us, 


(like the tsaDslatiQii)) to^have. been de^igpedr bf .tbc degail 
m^ admirable pencil of Lady DL. Bcainj^rc. 

Tbc engnvvifig v^ by Bartoletai^ andia bi« beat mufliiiBr. i 

Art. VIIL ji4iaiie Ritearciesr Vol. IV. 4to« Pdfiiitd at Calp 
Gucta ; 8«c. Loodooi Vomor and- Hood* t 

[^AntuU emchided frmt p. 141.} 

On the Traces of, the Hindu J^anguage and Liieratur^fi ^^^^^ 
among tie Malays. By Wiliiam Marsdesf, Esq. 

. A i^L the late resfearches In India concur taprpve tbeeaelycnpiye^ 
^^ diiFuaion and, inAuence of the Sanscrk^ qir aotient languagf 
of the Hindus^ Mapy of the famiUar and elementary^ wqrcdi 
in the Malay se are clearly derived ' from that source. Thpiif 
term9f too^ are anterior to such as were iacrod^ced by, the 
MohiAmedan conq^esti and betray* their Arabic- origin. Itjf 
not dijQSycult to account for this^ since a. cocuB^ercial interq^uirif 
has, always subsisted between tlve. Spice Islands and the oaamir 
jFaptufing parts of Indiar The compositions of- the. Malaya UkCf 
^isebear evident marks of an acquaintance with the ppetcf 
^t mythology. p{ the Hindus. 

Of^ three nntnral Prsduetions 0/ Sumatra. By John SSiiedb» 
db^l^, Esqi . . i 

The fiifst of these h candor y vrhichrmi^ first stage \$^ an 
W8f€«tfal oil, and l^ecomes concreted only in the- maturity ot 
vco:etiition. The tree \^hich produces this valuable drxjtg ha* 
a thick trunk', and leaves resembling those of the bay ; k4» 
soft* and easily worked for domestic purposes. The meAiotl 
of collecting the camphor is thus accurately dAcfibed : ' 

* The Sumatransy previous to their setting out in quest of camphoi^ 
awemblc on the confines of the country they intend expldriAg, ana 
discharge a variety of religious duties and* ceremonies', cajcubrted }tt' 
their opinion, to promote the future success of their underttdbHi^* 
IThey enter the woods, and, from experience, soon distinguish suck 
trees as contain camphoa. They pierce them, and if they* yidd^oS 
plentifully, it is presumed they contain concreted camphor, .which is 
foi^nd in small whitish flakes, situated, perpendicularly, in irregjjlar 
teins, in and near the centres of the trees. The ttee is cet ddwo, 
divided into junks, and carefully divested of its camphor. When tfa# 
oil. has been drawn, off. from young trees, the camphor, whjab thef 
afterwards afford, is of a less valuable nature, and is termevi hlj» or 
faot{ camphor, in proportion to the degree of affinity it beaxB to^oMM^ 
or the best sort. When brought for sale, it is repeatedly soakfd 
and washed in soapy water to separate from it all heterogenous and 
sandy particles, that may have adhered to it. When clean it Wi^^ 
sink in water* and be of a white, glossy, smooth 'aj)pearance, tenditii 
to transparency. After it has been waehcd, k is passed tfaougn 
• - tbite 

^ Jsiaiic Rirearches, Vol, tV. 

Vbee Sferet of .differing' textures, so as to Be divided into h^i^ hetl^^ 
and foot camphor : certain proportions of each compose the chests 
madolip for the China market, where' they are sold for 350/. ster- 
ling, nearly. The capoor (a word of ^r^/f origin) mtUeey or dead 
camphor, is carefully separated from the three divisions, by an acute- 
iiess of distinction, acquired by the eye and hand from habit and at- 
tention, and, being mixed with the imperfect kind mentioned above, 
is pounded in a mortar and distributed among proportional quantitiei 
of foot camphor. This caboor-matee is sometimes procured by boiling 
down the thickest part 01 the oil, or by taking the sediment of the 
best oil, aJFter it has settled at least twenty- four hours.' 

The price of camphor must in time rise enormouslyi slnoe 
scarcely one tree in three hundted is found to contain it. The 
oi), %hich IS more easily procuredj would probably serve as % 

The next article is the Coral of Sumatra. The ' author, 
ttnmgely enough, adopts the exploded opinion that corals are 
a sort Of imperfect plants : — but, as Sir William Jones properly 
remarked, *< it seems at length to be settled among naturalists^ 
that eorals and corallines are the cretaceous habitations of ani- 
xnals.'^ In the Indian seas, as in the Pacific Ocean, there is ar 
continual and rapid formation of coral rocks and islands. Mr. 
Macdonald gives some convincing observations of his own,' re- 
specting the growth of the shelves near the coasts of Sumatra. 

The third production is tie C^per of Sumatra. The ore is 
found over a considerable extent of the hills of Mucchy^ near to 
the sea, and north of our extreme settlement of Tappamol;^» 
A considerable quantity is annually collected on the surface^ 
by the natives. Their mode of smelting is extremely simple : 
tney 'choose a level spot of clay, in which they cut holes for 
receiving the fused metal ; and having heated the ground in- 
tensely, ih order to render it very dry, they heap up the ore inter- 
mingled with wood, charcoal, and other inflammable matters. 
The metal requires several smeltings to render tt soft and duc- 
tile, and is found to contain a notable proportion of goldi 
^ich abounds so much in Sumatra. 

On the Andaman Islands. By Lieut. R. H. Colebrooke* 
We are sorry that our limits will not allow us to notice this 

E per so fully as ic deserves. The islands which it describes 
on the east side of the Bay of Bengal. The Great Anda« 
man is 140 miles in length and 20 in breadth} its coasts are» 
indented with deep bays, affording excellent harbours. The. 
interior of the cotmtry is covered with a variety of tall trees^ 
darkened hy the intermixture of creepers, parasite plants, ana 
underwood ; forming altogether a vast and almost impervious, 
forest. TtiiQ caverns on the shore ^ive sbelter tp t^ W^^.^hat. 
. 7 kmidk 

BqiH the edible nests, which fetch z very high price in th« ^ 
. China market. 

The inhabitants of these islands are but one degree removed 
from brutes. They ,go entirely naked, and live in huts the 
rudest and most wretched that can be imagined. Their colour 
is jet black, their stature small, and their aspect uncouth. 
They have slender mis-shapen limbs, prominent bellies, woolljf 
heads, thick lips, and flat noses. Their moral characteristics 
are as repulsive as their physical qualities. The men, crafty 
and revengeful, testify an unconquerable aversion to strangers. 
Sometimes they dart a look of contempt and defiance, accom* 
panied by every ferocious gesture. At other times, they will 
insidiously make a show of cordiality only to decoy their visit- 
ors to certain destruction. Absolutely without tillage, this 
savage race spend their days in the search of a scanty and 
wretched sustenance, and the heaviest part of the toil falls to 
the share of the women ; yet both sexes are active, loqua^tottjy 
and fond of singing and dancing.*— A specimen of their Voca* 
4>ulary is subjoined. 

On Barren Island, and its Volcano. By the same. 

This singular island, of which a dniwing is given, ^eems to 
#we its formation to a volcano which yet continues in a vio- 
lent state of eruption. 

On the Islands Nancowry and Comarty. By the satne» 
The Space between these small islands form^ an excellent 
and capacious harbour, of which the eastern entrance is pro- 
tected by an islet, called Trikut, on which the Danes hav^ 
long kept a petty garrison. These islands, which are nearly 
ccntrically situated among the Nicobar islands, are of rich 
soil, but mostly covered with woo^. The few inhabitants 
whom thev Contain have their low villages ranged along the 
shore, with tall beacons in front, and a little advanced into the 
water. The Nicobareans resemble the Malays in their colour 
and features. They are robust but indolent, devolving the 
greatest part of the toil on the women, who are of much smaller 
stature than the men, and have their hair shaved or closely 
CTopf. The most singular fact in the history of these people 
,is am extraordinary ceremony which they perform annually in 
honour of the dead \ and which we shall relate m the words 
p( the intelUgent author : 

' Oa the anniversary of this festival, if i( can be so called, theit 

houses are decorated with garland^ of flowers, fruits, and branches 

%t trees. • The people of each village assemble, drest in their best 

attire, at the pnocrgal house in the place, where tHey spend the day 

J^ ^ ^nvivSal manner ^ th^ jpen, sitting apart from the womeo', smoke ' 

, tobacgo. 

JP4 Jsmtk Jbseanhis^ Vol.tP'. 

tf>bs|cc^ vsA latpacicatc tbrnwielTpii while the latter «re imniag Adr 

ciiildren, and employed in preparations for tlie mournful fausineM of 
t^e night. At a certain liour of the afternoon^ announced by ttrik- 
ing the Goung *, the. women set up the most dismal howla and la- 
ifierftations, which they continue without intermission till about sua 
itt ; when the whole party gets up, and walks in procession to the 
bitrying ground; Arrived at the place, they form a circle around 
dKw of the prates, when a stake, planted exactly over the head of 
tlie iiorpie, le putted h^. The woman who ie nealieit of kin to thd 
droeaKd^ atsps bat from the crowd, die$ up^ the scull f , atid draWa 
ip up with her hands. At sight of the bonea,^ facr stl:ength Kcma td 
fjul ner i she shfieksf she sobs ; and t^ara af anguish abuadaatly &S 
Oa the mouldering object of her piQus care. She clears it from th^ 
eartbj scrapes oftthe festering flesh, and lavqs it plentifully with th^* 
milk of fresh cocoa nuts, supplied by the bystanders ; atcr which 
glie rubs it over with an infusion of saffron, and wraps it carefuDyin 
a pfiece of new cloth. It is then deposited again in the earth, and 
ec^efcd up ; the stake is replanted, and hung with the various trap- 
]pfnga and implements hdoiiging to the deceased. . They |)n*ceea 
. then to the other ^ves, and the whole" night is spent in repetitioii 6f 
these dismal and disgusting rites. 

* On the morning following, the ceremony is concluded by aa.of- 
fcring of many fat swine, when th^ sacrifice, made to the dead, .af- 
fords an ample ft?»st to the living ; they besmear themselves w^thc 
Uoodof the daughtercd hogs, and some, n^ore voracious thai othettiy 
eat the flesh raw. They have various ways however of dresnag theW 
meat, but always. eat it without salt. A kind of paste made of the 
mellort serves them for bread, and they finish their repast with copi- 
oiia potatioiia of tautj* 

■ Tilt? Nicobareans arc holiest, hospitable, anrf strictly* ob- 
itt^mt of truth. Their only vice (if what is accooi^med^ 
Vrith mirtfi and good-humour c^n deserve that nathe) is thcit 
fondness for intoxication. 

An Account of the present State of Delhi. By lieut. W* 

. ^The ruins of the city of Delhi^ the famed seat of Mussul^ 
^an sovereignty in Hindustan^ bi^speak its anttent opulenct: and 
splendour. They occupy a space of tweiUy miles ia c^cuit^ 
crowded with magnificent palaces and temples, w,ith. spacious 

gardens and country bouses -, and the whole had h^en wateied 

*_ ^ » 

* * An instrument of brass somewhat like the Guriy of BfOgoL Ic9 
sound is more hollow.' 

* f We were present at tHe ceremony on the ist of FeStuaryt 1790J 
when the first scuH we saw wtis that of a woman, whd llad b^cn 
buried but a few months before. It was then dug up for the first 
time by her daughter. This office, ^ we aye told, is always parfertosd 
by the women, which ever sex the scull belongs to. A man ia m 
fantastic garb officiate! as priest.* < • - * « 


By a nofak ddud. For tlie pottteulars) we mutt it£er lo die 
description } which appean to be aecaiate. 

. ^ Description rf the Cuttub Minar. By Emign Jamea T. 
Blunt, of the Engineers. 

' This superb column condsts of fine led granitei with flu* 
tings which correspond to a polygon base of twcnty^seren sides». 
and has f(mr balconies at different elevations* From the up* 
permost one> a pillar of white marble rises to the height of 40 
feet, crowned with a sjt>aptous cupola. The whole height of 
the Cottub Minar was found, by trig9nometri<:al measurement^ 
to W 242^ feet. This monument was erected by Cuttub 
Shaw, who reigned at Delhi between the years iao5 and 
1210 of the Christian «ra, and seenis to have been designed 
for the minaret of a stupendous mosque, wluch was never 

Some Account of the Cave in the Lland ofElephoflta. By J. 
Coldingham, Esq. 

^ Hie public already possess several accounts of this most 
imtient and stupendous monunaent of the arts and industry, 
the mythology and religion^ of the Hindus. Jhe gigantic 
figures, with multiplied heads or limbs, are here caretuUv de- 

' scribed \ and our conceptions are assisted by drawings of the 
plan of the cave, and of the principal sculptures on the wall. . 
For maxfy particulars, see the 3d vol. of our General Index. 

Rdract from a Diary of a Journey over the Great Desart^firom 
Aieppo to Bussora^ in April 1782. Communicated by Sir William 
Dunkin, and published with a Vienu to direct the Attention pf fu^ 
ture Travellers to the Ruins described in it. 

At the distance of forty miles from Palmyra and fifty from the 
Euphrates, the travellers came to a place called Castrohuoin or 
Calamy, and were astonished on observing the ruins of magnifi'* 
^eoc structures. They saw first a.square, each side of which was 
about 400 yards in length, and the walls 40 feet high, in many 
places entire. The front was composed of large blocks of 
oiaible exquisitely finished. The arches, columns, sculpture, 
afld the whole architecture, were of the most delicate propof» 
tions, and not inferior to those represented in Wood's plates of 
tbe rutins of Palmyra. 

-if Dissertation on Semiramis^ the Origin of Mecca^ tsf£. From 
tbe Hindu Sacred Books. By Lieut. Francis Wilford. 

We are here presented with a species of cosmogony wh)^ 

is not devoid of ingenuity and poetic fancy. The Phaiha or 

Linga^ the instrument and symbol of propagation, holds a con- 

^spicuous place in the piytbological tales of £e Hindttt. Satni-' 

I^ST. MiftCH, 1799. T Eama^ 

, RMnuti which from the derivations in.Sanscrit .signifies IiisidzU 
lying in the fir-tree^Js plaioly xh^Sftniramii of ^ntient "Emope^ 

Mocshesa or Mocsha^sthan is mentioned in the Puranas as a 
hiost holy place, and seems to have been no other than the 
present Mecca, The dove was worshipped in Arabia, Syria^ 
and India ; and it is related of Mohammed that, in the fervour 
bf his ^eal against idolatry, he raised^ Ali on his shoulders for 
Ac.piirpose of demolishing a wooden image of that bird, which 
.ftiood in the temple of Mecca. The Hindus insist that the 
$tach stone in the wall of the Caaba was the Linga of ^aha* 
'ifeva. Unable, however, to compress an abstract of this 

^ iearned paper, we recomniend it to the perusal of our curious 

' tcadets. 

♦. jl Treails^, of^ the Barometer. By Francis Balfour, Esq* 

Why a few desultory remarks on the variations of the ba- 
rometer are styled a treatise^ wc are at a loss to conceive. The 
lihthor, who is a physician, some years ago wrote a book to 
prove that fevers are marked with diurnal and septennial pe- 
riods * ; and though the notion of celestial influences has been 
long exploded, he was desirous, in pursuance of his hypothe- 
sis, to mquire whether analogous changes do not occur in the 
atmosphere. The result of a month's observations was, that, 
in the interval between ten at night and six in the morning^ 
and between ten in the morning and six in the evening, tne 
mercury in the barometer -falls somewhat; and that between 
six and ten in <he morning, and between the same hours in the 

. evening, there is generally a small rise. These are what the 
Doctor would call diurnal variations'; and he expresses a hope 
tliat, if the register was extended, septennial variations would 
likewise appear. The steady climate of India would certainly 
be favourable for such observations : but fluctuations similar 
to the above have been remarked in Europe by Cotte Toaldo, 
Vw Swinden, and others ; and it is not difficult to assign an 
ad<;quate caus^, without having recourse to any new agency. 
It is enough tq consider the heating and consequent rare factioa 

' qf the air during the progress of the day, modified by this cir- 
Gitnostanoe, that the heat is -principally excited at the surface^ 
^d is thence slowly communicated to the upper rrgions. The 
notion of the visible and immediate effect of thjc moon on the 
chances of the weather isj with few exception?, confined to the 
vuIgA. * 

* JJescription vf the Tak of Tartary^ called Soora-Goyy or the 
Busky^t^ed Bidl of Tibet. By Lieutenant Samuel Turner. 

' - • ■ * Sac^Rev/'voK Ixxvi. p. 158. 

' This 

AttaftcRis^^cieSy.Pvf. lit:- /^ '^ 3^7^ 

^ Hii« animal rcschibles the English bull In sitt and iGgui^V ^t 
!b covered with a thick co;^t of long hair/ which in the tairisex-. 
trcmely- bushy and flowing. It pastures on the short heHjag«5' 
of the coldest parts of Tibet, aflbrds rich milk and excellent^ 
butter, and is of vast importance to the Tartars. Its^ 
skin is made into caps and jackets ; its hair is manufaettnfeA' 
into tents and ropes \ and its profuse tail, under the name of 
€iowryt is deemed throughout the East an article. of luxciry . 
and parade.— -An engraving accompanies the description a.* * * 

On the LmSf or Slow-paced Lemur. By the Preindent. (Siir 
William Jones), 
We must here refer the naturalist to the article itself. , « 

On the Dhanisa^ 6r Indian Buceros. By Ueut* Charles Wbke^. 
communicated by Lieut, Frazer. . 

This very singular bird feeds on the nux vomica. Its fat is 
esteemed highly medicinal by the natives.. 

Addstioriai Remarks on the Spikenard of the Antienis. By tii 
President (Sir William Jones). 

We cannot, for want of room, enter into the merits of this, 
learned paper', which is chiefly a reply ta what 0r.' Biahe ha^ 
written on the subject. It maintains, with much appearance 
' af eridence, that the' true 'nard is not a fragrant grass; but it 
species of valerian, which grows in the remotest and hilly parts 
of India. 

Botanical Oiservations on the Spikenard of the Antients s f«- 
ttndedas a Supplement to the. late Sir William Jones'/ Po^r/ •». 
that St^bject. By William Roxburgh, M.D.' 

. Onthe Plant Morinda^apd its Uses. jSy William Hunter, JS/jf. 
This plant, of which the root affords a colouring matter used 
fqft dyeing in the £ast» .grows to a moderate^sized tree, called 
ALali It is extensively cultivated in Malava^ and is .exjported 
in large quantities to Guserat and the northern parts of Hin* ' 
dmtan. , It requires a rich black soil, and a sitiration rather 
humid. • In the third year after the seed is sown, the root is 
dug up. —Fixed with alum, it strikes a fine red, and^ Hrhh the 
addition of martial vitriol, affords a chocolate colour. ^ 

Proso^is AcuLiATA. KoENiG. Tshamic of the Hindus of 
fbc Northern Circars. By Dr. Roxburgh. 

A Description of the Jonesia. By the same. 

A Catalogue of Indian Plant Sj comprehending their Sanscrit emd 
as many of the Linnetan Generic Nam&sas could nvith any Degree 
af Precision be ascertained. By the late President (Sjr WUliam 

T a ' SatoMkat 

i0i. DoM*sR^^9Btlkpr^t^TuMil-0$ Grows 

Jhtamcai OhernuUions on tilict LfMon Planii. By the same. 
. T6e natu^ and extent of these papers oblige as to refer inf 
bottnicd readers to the articles theipselves. The last vnU be 
particularly acceptable to the c^riou$ in ftpwers, and indeed to 
i|l who have had the fortune of vicsiting the luxnriant cUisiatc> 

■■ " '■■'?■ 

We have now gone through the whole of this volume ; tnd 
after the detailed account which we have given of its contents, 
H is scarcely necessary for us to remark oxk it$ aggregate v^ae. 
Our readers will judge for themselves. 

Aar. IX. Repertff mtUh Plam^ SecHont^ lie. cf the prtfosed Jbry 
Ttumeh wr Postage^ from Gravacnd^ m Ketttf to Ttfiufjy in Essex f* 
decoonstratipg its Praeticabiltty^ aod gurat Importance to. the two 
Counties, and to the Nstipn at hrge : alia on a Canal fnmt neur 
Gmvetend to i^troucL With toine Miscellaneous and Practical 
Observations. By R. Dodd, Engineer. Illustrated with Plates.. 
4to. pp. a8. 5i. ' J. Taylor. 1798. 

THft idea of formmg a subaqueous commiimcatioa bc^twem. 
distant s|i(Mref by a drv roadt we believe, is perfectly jnm^ 
aJQd inmany sitattions, where it is impracticable to erect si scK 
I)erstructuire in the form of a bridgCi or where the feny is both 
luicertain and dangerousi a successful work of that kind must- 
be of the greatest importance. Some of these impeidiments 
being found to exist on the Thames, about Gravesend, have 
given occasion to the present curious proposal | which has 
greatly excited the attention of the public^ and has met with' 
liberal en^Qumgemcot hoot the nctghbouring gentry. Mr. 
D944 i97s» in his first report, "^ 

• The measure now projected, xvill save the necessity of passing By * 
JLoodoa bridge, and thereby a circuit of near 50 niiles, kidependent 
of it3 giving ampleopportuDity for yarioas establishmenti, and agri*. 
OidturiU improvement ; and I think it would argue an apafhy not to 
be expected in tlie inh^bitanls of these two great counties, pot to 
pur#ue 1^ important benefits to be obtained firom this schemcy aorc* 
ciprocally advantageous to each county : certainly any neglect muat, 
call loudly for censure j for where two counties of such magnitude 
can b^ joined at so small an expence, it ought not to be omitted, as 
it will add to their commerce, population » and convenience.. 

* Probably the hand of Nature never formed a better situation for 
this purpose, than at or near Gravescnd; on the river Thames, from 
the ehgibility of the shores on both sides the river, and the apparent 
rock of chalk to pass through. I should recommend the form of dii» 
passage or tunnel to be cylindriqd, ^hoUy made with key^Hones ; 
therefore the greater the pressure the stronger will \^ the work 1 


kt«(ttg: i diatk&eier of 'i« ft«i m Uk ^tttf» iril&h lH& Vs a tsifa'cAi 
width for foot, hcMtf aod cttrkgc pAMiisfrt} to be fllaBiaKitid 
. witb kmp6> add a steam engine to draw {(s qralbagt iraur» 7 aeoe^ 
iarjr. Upon this scak» I shall give a geiiMl esdtttu fitmi ^oritr 

< I conceive that 9C0 yards of tunndlin^ ndl be tttflcfcst ^ 
'fMMsing Under the bed of the rivery and kcepftig eaeli of its ckOtMl 
at a proper distance fttim the bai&s t^ «t what d«pth h mm |^ 
under the bed of the river, can only bedetcrmiitiiKd by oiuf blinAga 
4iereaffcer» inSkde in-ato iU:tual survey, to Mermiiie it# strata, tec/ 

Subsequently to that .survey/ he coAtiBvida; 

* i shaU now proceed to give some general remarks respectlngM^M 
,pFacticability and execution of this novel and interesting scheme. jHiie 
length of the line is ^00 yards, which w31 pass firom aboat 20. to }p 
feet below the bed of the river ; the depth of water in the deepest 
parts above the tannel, is 1 1 fathom, or 66 feet, in the highest equi* 
nox spring tides ; therefore the crown of the arch may be cOpudcfod 
.as not exceeding 96 feet, from the aommit water-line» which w31 
prodnce an inclination from an horizontal li^e of nearly 4 inches in ft 
rard» The tunnel may be constructed either of stoi»e or bricfc ; th(C 
lower segment of which will of. course be the first executed, .and the 
upper one from centres of a proper figure ; the whole wrought in 
terrass, and sufficiently bedded in clay, to admit no watier \ and kx 
'greater security, we proceed with a snail part at a time, Jtbat we 
.may not too much disturb the strata in working. When the entite 
circle is completed by the workmen, it will be of a strength, superior 
to the original bed of chalk we pass through: from the actual 
-borings made to determine the strata, I find wrhave to pi^s<icaxj^ 
the vi^ole way through chalky but some small portion of the.way^ 
on the £ssex side, through an excellent day, mixed in some placea 
with a pottion of petrified vegetable substances, covered over| bcyoni 
high- water-mark, with a few feet of rich loamy mould ; but on - the 
Kentish shbre, a solid chalk rock presents itselt to the surface.* 

The following observations on tunnels also occur : 

* It is worth while here to remark the grand utility of this tunnel^ 
by openincr extensive roads in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, £S0ex» 
Kent, and Sussex ; and that its extremities are near to the poittts of 
the great leading north and south roads of Kent and Esse^. lliia 
communication, when once completed, will be superior to any brld?e» 
as from its strength and durability it would require little repair m 
ages. As to the ptactrcability of its execution, it cannot admil 
a doubt, if we adopt the old adage, that what has been done» Hiay 
be done again. I have already mentioned that excavations or paa^ 
sages are made under the sea at Whitehaven for upwards of one : " 
in length, and on a much larger scale than necessary for this prqg 
tunnel ; add to these, those passing under the rivers Wear and j 
|is adopted by the Coal-miners for the purpose of passing jcoal 
i)ne side of the river to the other. Necessity gave rise to these in* 
mentions, from the cause of working out the Coal on one s^e, and 
f h«a dririag a lauinel Of drift to the odter \ by whidk tfiiant, tibcy 

Y 3 obtained 

0\e .\J3tod4VtiR^ 

^PlittflwdK^O^ fymi^f^frntht M^\ wMi^t ixdig at the tK(^Q<e 

i^.iMki^ |hb&l fpr.mMprAif. The first cWcvktrt^sinQt that I recol- 
i£(9^(of :<1^ i>«tmy^: Cook plaice at Wylam colliery, on the river Tyoc, 
^•QlOO jieari tgoi^'Sinfie. which. period the v^hple pf the coal has been 
wrought on the south side, and passed through a tunnel under the 
7lit(rcr«liiWI'bfOiigh|.«^ lh< $haft»to thebaAk on the north side. Within 
lihrifi ffur nkmllisr. thfien^nfiive ooUfery ef Walkers, so well known 
Ai^tkfiifiPp^ri^r^^ty of <io^ it: eend^ to the London market, ha# 

\'* Theeftfliest.'tunn^tbll^'We have ajccount of . for the purt>ofie of 
"Inland navigation, vjr^s ex^putcd by that abl?,cngmecra'Mon8. Riquet^ 
' tp eonvcy the canil of Lanquedoc ' through 4 mountain near Beziers. 
'R i# cut into afcfty arcade j-* and the ^atcsf part of the way lined 
^ith' frtfc-stonc, except towards the ^nds, 'i^-icrc it is only hewn 
■rfifCJiigh the rock, which* is- 'of a soft sulphurous Substance. 
* *«'Thc first executed In 'fhis* country 'Was -by the ingenious Mn 
.BfffldfcY, on his Grace the Duke of Bridgewater''^ navigation near 
WaiiclSftter : the ncjtt' not?c*d is the justly celebrated tunnel of 
^Hartesi^tle Hill tfr -StaffonfeTfire, executed also, by Mr. Brindley ; 
'l^* length h 2,8So yards, atid passes more than 70 yards below 
\!/e,«timicc of thctarth; it is 'carried through a variety of strata, 
'fltiidk^nds, ftc* The ab6ve tunnel was executed to pass a canal 
%3^gh it, from the Trent to tlie Mersey, called the Grand Trunk 
XXftal; ^ * . 

''*''*^ The* tunnel of -Saperton was carried through two miles of solid 
T^ick; TO*«^trcme Ichgtli'^i^'two miles and three quarters; it was 
jcketSfted'Ibr the purpose of conveying an inlarid navigation through 
HV^'j^d'^feertby unite the river Thames and the Severn. Many other 
i\lnfifel^h*Ve since* been executed in this country ; and some arc now 
^dojog'with ^qual success for the pur]x>8e of inland navigation. The 
Vh!t .Htift or tunnel, abont four miles above Newcastle, from the 
€irt¥*bf the river Tyne to near Kentony which was finished last year. 
Is Ihfrce miles and a quarter in length, great part of which was, with 
very great labour, perforated through a hard rock of whin-fitonc, 
nearly equal in density to the hardest flint j it is made for the ex- 
B2;(^^ purpose of passing waggons laden with coal : notwithstanding 
l^t ^£ioat impenetrable strata, and the magnitude of the work, the 
-jvhqlp.was executed in about four years, and at less expence than 
l^^^ns unacquainted with such works can conceive.' 
, Soi^ie practical directions are also given respecting the me* 
ihod of obviating the baneful effects of fire damps and noxious 
inrS) during the execution of the Underground works. 
' Mr. Dodd professes to- have written these reports so as to 
be generally comprehended, and has for that purpose avoided 
i\\ technical terms and matheniatical demonstrations : but wc 
must suppose that he is prepared with such documents ; as 
likev^ise wi*h a mode of forming a previous duct for the clear- 
ance of any accidental water that may enter during the progress 
^f the work. We conclude chat such satisfactory testimonials 
Jbarc been preseoted;to those who. patronise the undertaking 1 
.. . '^ since 

I ilnce we hfiftvc been informed, by >pul>iiic advcwfscftierft, thaf 

alf the money required has been Ubctelly subscribe J andtliatf 
a bill is now pending in parliament to empower tTfem to catrjr 

f the proposal into^ execution.— 'A Rdpdrt respdctrng a eanal in fhe 

neighbourhood p£ Gravesend» and projects of sihiriar tunnels 
in other parti of England, are'added byway of elucidating the 
benefits wkich,' Mr. Dodd thinks, may be ^dned by such 
undertakings. ' 

As a preliminary report on the general outline; of the* in- 
tcn^ted work, we think that this publication furnisheis amjifef 
materials for cbnsideratioi), on a novel and very'" important ^ub;;^ . 
ject; . and we have no doubt that, being th^-pfojector, Mr^* 
Dodd will meet with all due cncouragenwihf,' knd thatpropit^ 
allowance will be made' for the correction of Sevetal fntptrfec-. 
tions which naturally attach to the first- design of ;'a ntw 

^ 8chem€.<- ' ' - ' * '*'' *^* 

\ J - ' : : '2 llL-iJ! ■ 

. . : . / ' . -- . '■ .:.)..» *.:> 

Aa T. X« Oiiervaliotts on the tntendtd Tunnel benecdh iht, fii^cr Thfun^ptf 

I J shewing the .many Defects in the present State, of tjliat ^rojcctic^a^. 

By Charles Clarke, F. S.A. 410. pp. 25. • 2 Plates. .4L 
• sewed. Robinsons, &c; 1799. * . ' " 

I 1V4^' Dodd has jhere met with a severe opponent, who atw , 

L -*-^* tacks him at all points. The novelty iof the scheme,. inv 

i deed^ prompt^ those who ar^ ingenious r in .that branch 1 of: 

f science. to the. exercise of their investigating taleutis:; which wc: 

' wish to see pursued in this case, as the most likely means: of: 

arriving at safe conclusions respecting works wnicK ha^e) 
I hitfaertp escaped attention. 

Mr.CJarke commences his remarks with giving-some simple' 
modes of considering the effects of ponderal powers, as they 
' are usually disposed about arches of the common application : 

leading to those solutions with which the public have long be'en 
satisfied frem several able hands. In subterraneous or sub- 
aqueous structures, however, it remains to be considered how- 
far these calculations apply; where the arch must be particu- 
larly influenced by the surrounding soils. Plard stone, and 
moderately firm clay, resist differently :— the fi^rst will support 
itself in a perpendicular direction ; whejreas the latter will spred 
or bulge in every way, in projjortion to the weight upoa- it. 
The several materials should therefore be considered accordlpgl 
to their respective degrees of solidity ; from such as cannot be 
compressed by any con:imon weight, to that of verging towards 
a fluid state : for it is evident that a solid body will not press 
' against an upright wall which may be built against it : but, in 
proportion as the soil to be passed through is soft, or approxi- 

- y 4. mates 

Vtttet to a fiiMdf k will nnd^ulMedlf Ttfqiiire ana^propmlii 
disposition ia die tttonel to resist it in evety dirtetsoi|* Thft 
lioe of the proposed tunnel, we are informed by Mr. Dodd'e 
Import, does pass through two very different materials: the 
eoe a chalk and die ether a clay. The proper procedure would 
therefore be, first to asoertaih the jfisi resistances which thft 
tespectife soils require^ and then'td consider what form would 
best apply to the place in question. 

. . Mr. Chrke has stated an oUerratiott whieh well merits the 
attendon of those who are in the pracdce of constractingi 
aiches. After having cited acknowleged authorities respecdng 
die strength of dmber in different po^tionS| he supposes (wita 
. iAr. Emerson) that the same mode ^ is equally applicable to any 
solid bodies acted on in like manner $'—»' and we may rest pretty 
well satisfied^ dllit mvf be thought worthy to make a course 
of experiments immediately to the purpose, that an arch, of two 
bricks thick, unbonded^ is but twice as strong as an arch of 
one i and of three, but possessed of three times that strength : 
whereas, If bonded, the degrees of strength would be as the 
squares of those numbers, and be represented by i , 4» 9.' It 
may likewise' be added that a fardier weakness results from 
the repetition of arches immediately over each other; that, 
if a defect should happen in the superior one, a partial 
weight is thrown on some particular part of die arch be- 
neath, and renders it even weaker than if no arch were 
above it ^ and such must generally be expected to be the case, 
as it is very difficult to construct two arches which shall setde 

Objections to most parts of Mr. Dodd's proposal are derailed 
by Mr. Cbrke, who seems throughout to be averse from the 
scheme. He has nevertheless presented, at the end of this 
work, one which he thinks superior for the intended purpose. 

We are not disposed, in this place, to enter much at length 
into an invesdgation of this novel subject : but we hope to see 
St discussed by those whose abilities and dme permit them to 
give it ample consideradon. Respecting the two schemes 
presented to the public, the question to be decided is whe- 
ther, in the rebdve situadon, a preference should be given to 
Mr. Dodd's proposal of a cylindrical tunnel, or to Mr. 
Clarke's perpendicular side- walls supporting an arch of equi- 



AiT. XX. ^ TXf Pfh^ki rfMatbemOiei and Nahati PMm^ 
In Four Volunies ^o. Prmtcd at Cambridge. 

Vov. rtL* Parti. 
The Pfinekhi rfMeciomcs : Designed for the Use of Students in the 

XJnivertity. By Jamei Wood, B. D. Fellow of St John's College^ 

Cambridge, ftvo. 4s. Boaids. Wmgravc, Elmslej, Wilkte, &c 

London. 1796. 

Vot. III. Fart II. 
Tbe Pfimtki if HyitoiMifi s Designed for the Use ef Stiideata ia 

the Um«efstty. By the Rev. 8. Voice, A* M. F. R. S. Plnmaui 
* Profesatir of Astmomy and ]^cperimetttal Philosophy. Stqu 4m 

Boards. Wmgrnve^ £knsley> W3kic» lia. Londoo. 1796. 

IN addttbntorthe great advaiiccmefitfr made diiirii^hrte years ia 
the pore adence of quantity, by isTetiting and perfcctit^g 
aereral branched of Analyris, that part of mathematics whick 
ia denominated the mhttd ia derived almost exclusive]? from the 
genius and hbonrs of the geometriciani who hare flourished 
anioe the aiiteendi ctotury; though Atcbimedes, it is tme^ 
has left two treatises, one De Pkmrum Equiiikriis, the other 
De tu quif^ in hrttiid$ vehuntur* 

The first great steps towards a [progress in the mixed mathe* . 
inatics were made by Stevin and Galileo ; the fbrmor disco* 
vered the important proposition of the composition of motion^ 
and the htter investigated the hws of acceleration of falling 
bodies: afterward, Huygens, Wren, and Wallis, invented the 
theory of percussion. It is needless here to particularize the 
labours of those great men who have adorned this and the pre* 
ceding age \ suffice it to say that, in the general progression 
of the sciences, that of mechanics advanced with great and rapid 
strides. Tet it has not been exempted from that fatality whidi 
appears to attjend on every science ; it has not received^ with , 
an augmemation of its mass, a proportional elucidation of its 
principles* Its cultivators have been ambitious rather of the 
admiration than of tbe gratitude of mankind ; have been emu« 
lotts of augmenting the superstructure, not of clearing the en** 
trance } and have added to the height, when they might hava 
been more nsefuUy employed in giving stability to the founds^ 

It is td be remarked, however, that, if the science of me. 

ehanics has not been free from that rll-fortune which haa 

been common to all others, it has from its nature derived a 

■ ■ — % * ■ ' ' 

^ Two preceding Tolumes of this work, on Algebra and Fluxions, 
were noticed in our 23d vol. p. x88. Wc have waited thus long 
for the remainmg volume, on Optics and A8t2X>nomy, but must not 
fiutber delay the present article. 


314 Wood OH Michanici^ ^i^i^y i%tt M Hydrostatic/,, jicxt jto gcpmf^y, ^tjs th^ 
mc^t certain scieiic^, hcczusc the qao^'t sim^c in its object ;-^ 
and to the simplicity ofits gbject, geometry is inclcbted for its 
f ertaiaty ; being a. ^cieiice which cpnteijiplatcs only one of the 
properties of matter, rianvely extensiopp By. restoring to mat- 
ter another of its propertfes, impenetfabilitjri (tliat property* of' 
a body which excludes every other from occupying its place,) 
motion is produced ; and> the investig^on of the laws of mo- 
tion, thus produced, is preperly thcobj^t of the science called 
MechanicSr By restating to mattor:otberi of its ptoperties, 
il^w circumstances atid new principles uie introduced; the ob- 
ject of the science- becoifies more complicated, the scieitce it- 
0ilf l«8s perspiottousiaad ceftaini and if, in ci^e hypothesis of 
^u physical problemj we were to estiin^te , all ^e circumstances 
wliicii actually preeent themselves, the solution would bid dcr 
fiance to the utmost labour and refinement of calculation *•, 
. V Gloriatur Geometria (says the imnjortal , author of the 
Frincipia) quod tarn poi/cis principii4 ^ aliunde^ pititis^ tarn abulia 
prdsiiti!' yet few author^ seem to have the cauieoi 
the excellence of geometry ; or, in other words^ they have not 
given fescundtty to the principles of a science, by reducing their 
j|ttmber.;-^tbat is, by shewing t^at spn;>e axe useless, as ope- 
jating end,*-* some obscure by the use of.words to.whidh 
lihere is .no precise me^^niog,-— some, naerejy deductions from 
|»rtviott9 and more simple principles. • 

The Three Law$ of Motion are said to contain the principles 
of mechanics ; and, as the application of Calculus, in an ele- 
mentary treatise like the present, is an object of inferior con*- 
tornrnfent, our attention will be principally directed to the 
i^tiivents by which these jaws are established. We wish» 
howKv/tr, previously to remark that in Sect, i, the definitions 
of'Siich words as extension, solidity, mobility, divisibility, &C. 
mlght'havc been omitted, because no us^ is aftervvard made of 
suobdefinition&; that in pa^e 8. Art. Inacimt^y the reasoning 
iavagCke and the conclusion is precipitate ; and that in page j6. 
Art. 25, the object of the proof is not attained, because it does 
Rfit. appear, from the experiment that such a power as Inertia 
exists at all, 

.—J — " . . . I ■ , < / ■ 1 ■ 

r * It Way not be improper, in this place, to^ remark that authors, 
in comparing tlic conclusion of a physical problem with the result 
from experiment, do not state with sufficient precision the principles 
on which the solution is founded, and the circumstances under which 
the experiment Is instituted. Were this done, it would appear whe- 
ther tne difference between the results from theory and experiment 
were adequate to the deviation of the hypothesis from the actual state 
of the circumstances which occur and operate in nature. 


'Wood in ]Mw^amtti anJL Vtnfic 'on Hfdrdstaikt^ ^i j^ 
.' Wc BOW proceed to Sect. 2.. On the Lenui of Motion. . 

The laws of motion art said to be propositions intermediate 
between geometry and philosophy, through which Mechanics' 
becomes a mathematical branch of physics ; and to be such io. 
their naturae, that, although not tfuths of .intuition, they arc 
iruchs suggested by the constant and uniform testimony of our 
5en8es. It may not be amiss to recall these laws to our read* 
«r's recollection. 

I St Law. Every body persevtres in its state of rest, or in an 
uniform motion in ^ right line> until a change i^ effected hjr 
" the agency of some external force. 

2d Law*. Any change effected in the quiescence or motioa 
of .a body is iuthe ctireetioRi of the force impressed, and is 
proportional to it ip quantity. 

3d Law. Action and re-action are. equalj and ip contrary 

The argumentation used by Mr. Wood to establish the truth 
of these laws is similar in kind to thjit iiyhich was ;»dopted by 
Sir Isaac Newton \ and therefore Mr. W. stands under tlm 
shelter of a mighty authority : yet, as in philosophical inquiry 
we claim the privilege of folio wing reason, and not authority^ we 
may examine whether the argumentation has that perspicuity^ 
that precision, and that force, which it ought to.h9ye.,in order lo 
satisfy the nlind on s6 important a point its :the truth, of the 
principles of a science.— The basis., on which the truth of the 
ist law is made to rest is observation or e>xperiment.* : yet, so 
fai i« common and daily observation from confirniif\g the truths 
that thence is rather to be ijiferred a tendency in motion to 
relax, and 4ecrease \ and if, ijt be allowed xh^t motion becomes 
more uruform and rectilinear^ in proportion as the qauses of 
retardation and deviation are diminished, still tbe-pfoof wantd 
that degt^e'of evidence which is necessary 'to convince the un* 
ders^anding* Hence Inertia (for by this property of body i« 
motion uniform ^nd rectilinear) has been proved by ^otxkc emi- 
nent mathematicians* in a method different from the on« 
above mentioned ; a method which, although i^. possesses not 
mathematical exactness^ is independent of experiment, and has 
some title to ;he mejrit of logical precision and connectipn. ' I( 
may be stated in the following manner:— « 

A body at rest cannot give motion to itself; and therefore, 
if drawn Into motion, it must be so by the action of some ex- 
traneous force ; whence, perhaps, it follows that a body put ia 

* •• PrtjeetiUa persevprant in matuhus suis, nisi qu/luntis ^ retiittniid 
mirii fietardaniurf et vi gravJt^fij impelluntur de9r4um» Trochut^ cujut 
partu perpeivQ r^trahunt sese a m^ttmts rcciiKiuiig fti^ ctsiat rotarif nisi 
quatcnm ab aere miardofUur*" .&c. • Frin^'a. 

6. motioft 

Jiff Wood m Midkmkr, kfiiVviitt'mRjirartaiici. 

motion by some canse cannot of itself cither accelerate <!(t re- 
tard that motion :«-— but more formally and fully thus — 

Suppose a body in motion, and that the instantaneous action 
of the moving force is adequate to make the body describe a 
certain space^ then, since after the first instant die moving 
force ceases, and the motion still continues, it must be uni- 
form, because the body cannot of itself either accelerate or re* 
tard It ; — the motion will moreover be rectilinear, for there 
is no reason why the body should' deviate to the right rather 
than to the left \ and hence, in this case, where ti^ body is 
capable of moving, during a certain tfane and independently of 
the moving cause, the motion will be uniform and rectilinear. 

A body, however, which can move itself uniformly and in a 
straight line during a certain time, will perpetually move itself 
tftet the Same manner :—»for, suppose a body capable' of de- 
scribing uniformly a straight line, of which the two extremities 
are A and B, between A and B take tw« points C and D, then 
the body at D is precisely in the same state as when at C, ex-* 
cepfing that it is in a different place. Therefore the same 
eught to happen to the body as when at C: but, by hypothesis, 
when at C it can move itself uniformly to B; therefore when at 
D it will be liable to move itself uniformly to a point 6, taking 
D Gzz.C B, and so on for ever, tec, * 

In a similar manner, may be proved the uniform and rec^ 
tiltnear motion, on the hypothesis that the body to be moved 
bas ntfed of the constant action of the moving force f • 

This proof is founded on a rule which is frequently ex- 
pressed by the words << ob defectum sufficientss rathnisJ* The 
sufficient reason is by no means ^ be considered as an unta* 
lelligible and mysterious principle, but rather as a concise 
Mode of reasoning. 

The Second Law of Motion, as stated, affords the mind 
no neat and precise idea. In its developement, it is said ^ chat 
when any alteration takes place in the cause, there will be a 
proportional and corresponding alteration in the effect pro* 
duced.' Now, although this reasoning aiq>ears plausible, and 
in the garb of a philosophical language $ yet, if we strictly 
examine what we understand by cause and ^ect^ it will appear 
that, instead of clear and precise notions, we obtain little 

* The point D is between C and B, and the point G by Conse* 
quence is beyond B» 

f As ^ fit9ef of a prinapU involves a contradiction, aU that can be 
expected to be done, in establishinff a principle, is to give sufficient 
developement to that reasoning which renders its tnith probaUef 
and, by the use of words with a definiu signification, to ofer it to 
the mind in a clear and precise manner. 

I fldore 

mort dun mere words in ciiunrent payment. For inftance, 
wlien motion is produced^ force it said to be the cause } now 
«f forces there are only two kinds* those which operate like 
gnmty and those which act by impuluon. In regard to fojcet 
of the first kind, they are only known to us by their effects* 
If the ^cta be unknown^ so are the causes : but, if the effects 
le known^ any question abput the causes is ttseless» since it is 
ibe effects which we are to compare together. In regard t» 
forces of the second kind, the cause can only be the bodj 
in motion which strikes another, and produces what is called 
die effect ) yet, if the product of the mass of the moving body 
by any function of its velocity be assumed as the cause, it may 
be proved that the ^ect im the body impelled is not propor-* 
donal thereto. It is matter of wonder that the plausible 
doctrine about cause and effect should have been adopted 
• by mathematicians ; whose concern is about effects which am 

' capaUe of being represented and treated as quantityy— i^and not 

about dietr causes, which are truly of a metaphysical natuiet 
and as such not objects of mathematical inquiry. 
k The principle contained in this Second Law, and which is oC^ 

f use to demonstrate the proposition of the composidon of mo- 

don is this ; that the action of a force on a moving body ia 
the same as on the body at rest, estimadng the acdon by die 
i effect produced in a given time. 

f Third Lawr— Acdon and Re-action, &c. By acdon is here 

' meant momentum generated in a given time ; and for the truth: 

of this law, says our author, recourse must be had to experi- 
ment. We by no means dispute the truth of this law, but ob« 
ject to the mode of establishing it. It is desirable to render ar 
science as latde a science of experiment as possible ; instead, 
therefore, of setting out from a principle of ei^periment, * th«fe» 
two bodies meeting each other in opposite directions, with, 
velocities inversely as their masses, wiU after impact remain at 
vest/ we should endeavour tp deduce this principle from m 
more simple one ; and a case which manifests itself in a clear 
and distinct manner to the mind is this :— that two bocBes 
of. equal masses, with equal and contrary velocities^ will 
after impact be at rest* From this simple and self-evidcnir 
I proposition, may be deduced the equilibria of unequal bo^ee 

meedng in opposite directions with velocities inversely propor- 
tional to their masses i and this deduction will be of no very 
great dif&culty, when the bodies are conmiensurable : but, when 
the bodies are incommensurable, the proof must be by a r^- 
Jucth ad absurdutni^^to effect which this must be admitted, that 
two bodies after impact will not remain at rest, if one moving 
fridi any velocity (41) strikes another equal to it and at rest* 


j|fS WtM Oft die^iimifii ^Hd<7kiotiH ByiroMaticlt: 

• Sect. 3d. (p. 33*) Ontbe'iCompifhtbini^^ResoluthnnfMoikn 
The demonstration adopted by Mr. Wood is similar to that: givdi^- 
hf Sir I. Newton, and depends on the prtnciple contained iix; 
th^ second law of motaon. The demonstration of this impoit- 
ant proposttibn is not \rithout its difficulties. The only clear 
ease of the composition; of'motion is when two uniform, forces 
eontinuaUy act on t&e body : bat| when two forces impress 
jiibtlons on a'bodyy^and abandon it entirely, the demoastratioa 
j|iemban^sSed. The object of the mathematician's endeavonr 
Aould 4ie to Jrcduce the latter case to the first. 

'^ ' Mr. W. afterward proceeds to demonstrate the composition 
rf forces. The thing required to be proved here b» in fact, 
that a body acted on bjr three forics, which are to another at' 
, fhesides. of a triaiigle, will be kept ar rest. We do not ob- 
^ct to the truth of the proposTtion, but to the mode of its. 
pn>of s which, according to Mr. W^ is from the composition' 
<l£ motion (—and we object for this plain and obvious reason, 
that wheret<ir. there is an equilibrium there is no motion, and 
by consequence the^piinciple of the demonstration is foreign to 
die nature of the thing to be demonstrated ♦. 
- Sect. 4. On the Mechanical Powers rand first on theLever.r^ 
Mr. Wood's demonstration of the properties of the lever is in 
the manner of Archimedes j and the demonstration of Archi- 
medes, as we stated in the review of a former workf, ia liable 
to objection : to obviate which, Mr. W. prefixes one proposi^ 
tion and three' axioms. ^ 

* Axiom I. If two weights balance each other on a straight 
kver, the pressure on the fulcrum is equal to the sum of the 
weights, whatfcver be the length of the lever. 

Axiom 2. If a weight be supported on a lever which rests 
#n two fuicrumsj the pressure on the fulcrums is equal to the 
whole weight* 

. Axiom 3. Equal forces acting perpendicularly, at the extre* 
mines of equal arms of a lev?r> exert the same efibrt to turn 
h roadd* 

; h is remaricible that no use is made by Mr. W^ {as far as 
we^an see) of the first axiom j whkh, although true as ap- 
pears by experiment, otherwise does not manifest itself to the 

r I - ' : — 77" ; 7" 

. • Our sentiinealtS'On this point are sanjctioncd by great, authority. 
^ Jffi^£ptu a nentine^ dmotutrata ftnt composhlo viri-am,^ quam ex com" 
gositiope nio/us quod dmonstrandi genus iamtsi rcceptum a viru jummUf 
velutt Nenvtono^ Vangmmot alllsqiu;^ minlme tamen rigore geomthlco 
muf^iium est, prop6sitionemq\te nori oTiter quam conttngenter veram rcddltJ' 
&c, i D. Bernouiili. 
•»f Dr. Huttoii's Mathcmatfcal Dictionary; see Rev. vol. xxv. 

HHnd in a clear and sftfls^actory maiifner ; if, however; it ht 
granted^ then can the ptoperties of the lever be deduced, aiWI 
Vith facility) if its arms be to one another as number to num- 
ber. It is on the second axiom that our author builds his de- 
Yiionstration ; which, however, we cartnot allow to be either 
-perspicuous or satisfactory. As a diagram is necessary, we 
are unable to state where the demonstration wantis perspicuity, 
. and ' in what it seems deficient from obtaining* its object. In 
the review of Dr. Hutton's Dictionary above mentioned, wc 
jgave the preference to Newton's demonstration of the Jever : 
but one great objection is that it fails in the most simple 
cd«e ; that is, when the lever is straight and the powers are 

Our observations are. already so much extended, that w6 
must refrain firom any farther investigation : but we will just 
advert to the mode in which Mr.W. demonstrates the two im- 

I portant propositions, that the spaces vary as the squares -of the 

times, and that the space described by a body falling from a 
state of rest, by the action of an uniform force, is half the space 
described by the body moving uniformly with the last ac^mred 

^( ireiocity in the same time. This mode is by introducing t case' at 

- one body ascending while the other descends, and is objection* 

able inasmuch as it is indirect. What is the object 6f proof ? 
The laws thzifalimg^ bodies observe. It is surely then depart* 

^ Ing very widely from the natural and obvious path of investiga* 

tibn, to introduce a case of ascending bodies. The demonstra* 
tion of Galileo is direct and perspicuous. It introduces into 
the science no new or foreign principle, but is built on those 
two fundamental truths, that a body by its vis inertia de- 
scribes a right line uniformly, and that, in the same time, the 
effect of gravity is the same on a body, with whatever velocity 
k moves. 

*• Nous nous sommes un pen etendus sur ce stijet^ as the 
French authors express themselves. Wc have indeed consulted 
not so much the size of the work before us, as the weight and 
worth of its subject. The great aim of our criticism has been 
to shew the necessity of first attending to the fundamental 
t)rinciples of a science ; of what nature they ought to be, and 
in what manner they ought to be developed or established : 
next, to the structure of the science ; how its several parts 
should have their gradation, dependence, and connexion, so, 
that the system, through all its varieties, may be always 
traced back to the simplicity of its first plan. In our partial 
observations, we have objected to the mode of demonstrating 
the laws of motion, because mechanics should be rendered as 
little as possible a science of experiment ; and we have objected 

jM Wood M Mmtmi^ft^ mul Viocc Mr HjdmMkt. 

to the mode of demoostrating the laws of falling bodiet» bo* 
caBse the connexion between the several parts of a science 
ahoold be natural and intimate. To what we hare alieady 
jaid» we may add that, in a systematic treatise, a demonstra* 
tion is not always to be admitted^ though recommended hf 
auperior perspicuity and conciseness s for we must examine wb»* 
ther it assimilates with the other parts of the system, or form^ 
a proper link in the chain of propositions^ — and that a dcr 
fuonstration is not necessarily concise because it employs kw 
words or signs ; it may be so to the eye, but not leally to the 
mind; which from the first truth proceeds step by step to4ht 
hst, and^ if any be deficient, must supply them bciF<Nre iu proi^ 
gress can be continued. The desire of conciseness opiates ott 
science with a baneful influence ^ to attain it, mudigood is 
sacrificed, and much error introduced ; and frequently it is 
not reallv attained, for it is only by an abuse and perversion of 
terms, that those demonstrations can be called concise which 
lake for granted what should be proved^ or omit what is ne* 
cessary to be inserted. True metaphysical conciseness is in« 
separable from perspicuity v its essence is to employ only the 
necessary number of ideas, and to dispose them in the moat 
natural order. 

After these particular observations, it appears unnecessary to 
give our formal judgment of the work. Yet, considered as a tre»* 
tise designed to exphun the principles of mechanics, we think thai 
it wants precision and copiousness *} and the author has not avails 
ed himself of all th^ improvements which time and genius 
have given to science : — ^but perhaps it may be said that it is 
unreasonable to expect what was never intended | that the 
work was designed for the use of young students, and as such 
leans purposely to the familiarity of illustration, rather than to 
the rigour of demonstration ; and that its object was to impress a 
^ certain mxmber of truths, without regarding whether they vrere 
derived from experiment or from logical or mathematiod de* 
duction, — whether they were truths of the same family and 
kindred, or independent of and alien to each other. What U 
first learnt, it is true, is learnt but imperfectly and vaguely i 
' yet surely it ought not so to be taught : on the contrary^ there 
should be an accurate standard, at which the student noight 
continually adjust his imperfect conceptions. 

<^ Op^rtit discentem credere^* in the study of mathematics espe* 
cially, enjoins implicit faith ^ the student suspects every thing 
rather than that his author is wrong, and will suffer the utmost 
.»...., I ^.1. .1. .,,..■., ,. „ ■ ., ■ , .11, .11 < ■ ^ 

* We need not Txpkin bow a work may want both tbeie scemiogly 
contradictory qualities. 


Wood m MeehamcSj and Vlnce on Hydrostatics* yzi 

torture of perversion, in order to fit bis own notions to the 
standard which he finds prepared. For this reason, we feel 
very sensibly the justness of that other maxim, ** Oportet edoc^ 
turn judicare** What right we have to assume it, and with 
i^hat success we have acted on it, the public must determine. 

We come now to Mr. Vince's Principles of Hydrostatics. ^^ 
In the course of our preceding remarks, we stated that the 
certainty of a science depended on the simplicity of its object ; 
and that, consequently, the sciences which treat of the several 
classes of Phenomena will have different degrees of evidence 
and exactness. In some, the principles may be obscure \ in 
others, so numerous that the application of calculus to them 
-becomes a matter of the utmost difficulty. We likewisei ob- 
served that our first and chief concern ought to be directed to 
the fundamental truths of a science ; and that these should be 
as sure and as simple as possible. Yet sinnplicity of principles 
IS in many instances unattainable : for what is a simple prin-^ 
ciple ? a truth suggested by the contemplation of the nature of 
an object of which we are to investigate the properties. Hence 
the nature of the object must be known ; for instance, in fluids, 
the form, arrangement, density, and mutual action of the particles, 
must be known, before we can presume to lay down any prin- 
ciples which the mind can receive as clear or satisfactory :— 
but our knowlege of the form, arrangement, &c. of the par- 
ticles is so imperfect, that we are unable to propose any prin- 
ciples of the above kind. Every science, however, must have 
its basis ; and the fundamental truth in the doctrine of fluids 
is, The Equality of the Pressure of Fluids in every Direction* 
This fundamental property of fluids rests entirely on experi- 
ment, and must necessarily do so; since, being ignorant of 
the nature of fluids, we are unable to obtain any prmciples on 
which we might otherwise establish its truth. 

From this property of fluids, may be rigorously deduced ali 
that concerns their equilibrium. In attempting, however, to 
obtain the laws according to which fluids resist, many and 
great difliiculties present themselves *,-^so great, that to sub- 
due them came not within the. compass even of the sagacity 
and invention of a Newton :— but the difficulties, which this 
philosopher could not overcome, others have found means to 
evade. Influenced by the spirit of calculation, they have en- 
deavoured to submit nature to the control of geometry. In 
the choice of an hypothesis, they have not been inquisitive 
about the true one, but have adopted that which was conve- 
nient for, the operation and methods of analysis; and, in the 

Ksv. March, 1799. Z last 

yzi Wood en Mechanics , and Vincc en Hydrostaius. ' 

last act of error and precipitation, they have raised algebraic* 
formulas to the dignity of physical truths* 

It may not here be unimportant to observe how necessary it 
is to keep <)istinct those two objects, the invention ef principles 
and the application of calculus^ if we wish truly to interpret na-^ 
ture. Principles-ought to be sought, as if they never were to 
become the data of a problem : but, if their certainty be sacrificed 
to the facility of calculation, it ought to be no cause of wender 
that the conclusions from theory cio not agree with the results 
from actual experiments. The research is of pure curiosity, but 
not applicable to nature. Hence it is that what has been written 
on the resistance of fluids tends very little to explain the phoeno- 
mena, since the hypothrsis generally used is not exact ; for it 
supposes that the particles of the fluid, after having stricken a 
body, are annihilated, or reflected in such a manner as not to 
impede the action of any other particles. Hence likewise it 
is that the investigation, in the 34th proposition of the 2d 
book of the Principia^ concerning the resistance of globe and 
cylinder, is merely speculative. What is determined in the 
remaining part of the section, concerning this resistance, is 
more conformable to experience ; yet many parts of the hypo- 
thesis arc liable to great objections. 

The distribution of Mr. Vince's treatise 1$ into the followir.ff 
heads : 

* On the Pressure of Non-elastic Fluids — On the Specific Gravities 
of Bodies — On the Resistance of Fluids — On the Times of emptying 
Vessels, and on Spouting Fluids — On the Attraction of Cohesion, 
and on Capillary Attraction — On Elastic Fluids— On the Barometer 
—On the Air- Pump and Condenser — On Pumps and Syphons — On 
the Thermometer, Hygrometer, and Pyrometer — On Winds, Sound, 
VapourSy and the Formation of Springs.' 

The demonstrations in the first section diflPcr but little from 
those generally found in books of this nature. A very excel- 
lent observation is, however, made in Prop. 12. on the coin- 
cidence of the centers of pressure and percussion. 

In Sect. 3. the author has very properly stated why the re- 
sults from theory do not agree with experiment 5 — and in Sec- 
tion 4th, On Emptying Vessels^ his observations are judicious, 
and worthy of notice. His explanations of the philosophical 
instruments are made with considerable perspicuity. 

The plan of the present work resembles that of Roger Cotes* 
on the same subject, in which mathematical demonstrations 
and experimental processes are mij^ed together ; and such a plan 

* Hydrostatical and Pncumatical Lectures : written on account of 
rxpcrlments midc by the author iii a professorial capacity. 

Wood 911 Michania^ and V tact on Hydrostatici, 323 

ve cannot much approve. We have before stated that a dis. 
tinction should be made between what is proved mathematically 
and what is shewn experimentallv. It ill accords with the 
proper arrangement of a scientific work^ to make the mathe- 
matical proof of the equilibrium of liquors in a syphon, the 
experiment by which it appears that the air has weight; and to 
make the mechanical construction of an hygrometer belong to 
the same class of propositions. The peculiar excellence of ma« 
thematical science consists in the connection between its se- 
veral truths. Hence every thing that stands single and insu- 
lated, and is foreign, should be excluded.— We by no means pre* 
tend to assert that it is always practicable for a scienti&c treatise 
to consist of an unbroken series of propositions dependent on 
each other, and having one simple truth as their common orir 
gin ; yet, as it is desirable to make a performance conform as 
^i nearly as possible to this ideal model of excellence, care should 

I be taken to exclude every thing which either depends from a 

new principle, or is established on a distinct basis, or leans on 
I a foreign support. : . 

\ We imagined that we should have been able to have found a 

I proper test to try the excellence of ihe present work, by inquiring 

f what was its specific design, or proposed usefulness :— but we 

, have not been able to satisfy ourselves. Was it intended for a 

b physical-mathematical treatise ; in which, by applying the me* 

I thods of analysis to principles clearly ascertained, conclusions 

I might be drawn, and their conformity to experiments shewn P 

Was it intended as a popular philosophical treatise ? or was its 
object to offer a certain number of truths without regard to 
their nature, the manner of establishing them, or to their order 
and connection ? We can be justified in answering in the affirm* 
ative only to the latter question \ yet here, if we do not deny 
the author's success in attaining his object, we cannot applaud 
the choice of that object. 

On the whole, we hope that the execution of the remaining 

volume will correspond more nearly to the high idea which 

we entertain, and have expressed, of this author's merit *, and 

will more fully justify the confidence reposed in his abilities 

' by an illustrious and learned University. 

* See our account of Mr. Vince's Astronomy (Rev. October last)^ 
I which, if the 2d volume equals the first> will be by far the most ex- 

cellent work of its kind in our language. 

Z z Art 

( 3»4 ) 

AnT* XII. Sermons on select Subjects. By Thomas Scott| Chaplain 
to the Lock Hospital. $vo. pp. 458. 6s. Boards. Jordan, 

Tyi some divines^ the joint reverence of rerelation and of 
^ reason is thought to be as completely incompatible as the 
love of God and the love of Mammon. In their zeal for the 
former, they often so undervalue and vilify the latter, that they 
would incline us to regard it as the giiit of some malignant 
demon, rather than as a benign ray darted into the human 
])rea8t from the bright source of Eternal Intelligence. This 
ardor for revelation may be well meant, but it is not welt 
csmsidered. The depreciation of the intellectual powers of 
man is not the mode by which revelation* proceeds to recom«- 
mend itself; and it is one which, w^are persuaded, its modern 
advocates and apologists would not employ, if they reflected 
more* on' the subject. The very wisdom of making a reveia«> 
don to 9 race or creatures must depend, in the first instance, 
on their having capacity sufficient to discern the fitness and 
reasonableness of it> and to improve by it. Hevelation itself, 
therefore, is the greatest possible compliment to Reason, in 
being a declaration,— a demonstration,—* of its capacity ; for no 
religious mind could tolerate such a reflection on the Deity, as 
fo suppose that he would cause a revelation of the most ipfi* 
portent Tcligious and moral truths, to creatures who were 
naturally incapable of religious and moral discernment. Re* 
velation is chargeable with no such absurdity. Christ Com* 
mands us to search 'Sin^ to see^ and Paul desires us to juJgt^ 
Besides, the instructions of revelation are not elementary : they 
imply previous instructions from an inferior source ; they carry 
us farther than reason goes, but do not render its preparatory 
lessons and assistance unnecessary. Its twilight is neither use* 
less nor unacceptable, before the sun of revelation arises. 

Had Mr. Scott duly considered the subject in this point of 
TittW, we apprehend that his good sense would have restrained 
him from those strong and unqualified attacks on natural religion^ 
which are exhibited in the beginning of this volume. In the 
first sermon, he tells us that it is a vain thing -, and that * reason 
untutored by revelation unifcrmly leads men into atheism, ido- 
latry, or enormQUS wickedness.' Is this correct ? Is not 
enormous wickedness in men imputable to their passions rather 
than to their reason ? If reason uniformly leads to atheism and 
idolatry, could idolatry be imputed to any nation as a crime, 
when not enjoying the advantages of a revelation ? Without 
employing any reasoning in defence of re^ison, we would farther 
ask, is Mr. Scott's representation of the natural tendency of 
reason towards atheism and idolatry, reconcileable with Paul's 

3 accountj 

ScottV Sermons^ 3 a; 

acciottnt^ (Rom* i, 20, 21.) that the eternal power and godKead 
of the Deity are dcducible by the faculties of men from the 
works, of the visible creation ?— or with his statement in chap. ii» 
14. that <« the Gentiles which have not the law are a law to them^ 
selves ?*' which Taylor thus paraphrases ; " though they have 
no written law, they arc, for all that, under a rule of ^fe, and 
that rule is their own understanding and reason :" (Paraphrase 
on the Romans, p« 160.) 

Under the present circumstances of humanity. Reason stands 
in need of being aided ; and hence the expediency and fitness 
of Revelation ; but the original faculty, or gift of God, to which 
it is addressed, ought not to be vilified. 

< The message of God (revelation of his will) is no vain thingm 

(says Mr. S.) because it is exactly adapted to the condition ot 

\ mankind.' True : but he should have considered that, in thi^ 

f conditioji, must be included their capacity to receive it^.as weU 

as its suitableness to supply their exigencies.*— We will not 

bnger dwell on this matter, because Mr. S. may not mean tq 

[ assert all that his words imply. 

I The sermons are twcnty,-one in number, on the following 

I texts— Deut. xxxii. 47.— Deut. vi. 6-^(^. — Is. vi. 5—8.— 

I John, iv. 8.««*Acts, xxvi. 19, 20. — 2 Cor. v. 1 7. — Ps. ii. 1 2.— 

i 1 Cor. iv. 5. — Rom. ii. 5 — 9. — 1 Tim. vi, 6.— Rev. iii. 15, 16* 

r —Matt. V. 16.— James, i. 22 — 25. — i Cor. xiii. 13. — Luke, ii. 

f 13, 14. — I Sam. vii. I2.— Is. ix. 13. — John, i. 29.— i Cor. xv, 

20. — Is. xxxii. 15.— Philipp. i. 27.— Mr. Scott shall speak for 

himself as to the object which he had in view in the com-^ 

position of them ;— an object, it must be confessed, highl]^ 

laudable : 

* To shew the absolute necessity of evangelical principles in order 
[ to holy practice ; and tlieir never-failing efficacy m sanctifying the 

.heart, when cordially received; and to exhibit, according to the 
best of the author's ability, the nature and effects of -^genuine 
Christianity, as distinguished from every species of false religion, 
without going far out of his way to combat any of them ; is the 
enpecial design of this publication.' 

Possessing much seriousness and piety, combined with abilitjr 
as a preacher, this author is entitled to commendation ; and 
yet, in several instances, we cannot but protest against his in* 
terpretations> .assertions, and expressions.. We cannot ap* 
prove of his telling his hearers that * we are put to death by a. 
lingering execution ;' that * there are fallen angels numerous 
and powerful, subtle, malicious, and indefatigable, who watch 
every opportunity^ of doing us mischief;* and that Jehovah 
qiean^ to say by the words in Ps. ii. 12. ^* Kiss the son^^^-^li^* 

Z 3 mand 

316 Scott*/ Sermons. 

frtand fot my beloved Son that tery adoration which I prolu- 
bited and abhorred when offered unto idols.' 
' In sermon iii, he erects a doctrine on a false and obviously 
erroneous rendering of the text ;' Isaiah, vi. 5 — 8. -—The 
origin and precise meaning of sacrifices it may be difficult to 
explain.. They were no doubt symbolical representations : but 
Mr. S., we think, has gone too far when he asserts that * the 
numberless innocent animals slain in the Jewish sacrifices, and 
their bodies consumed to ashes, were constant declarations that 
sinners deserved death, and the Jiery ivrath of God in another 
world.* It is strange, indeed, that the consuming an innocent 
animal, by fire, should be adopted to signify the nature of the 
punishment which a guilty one merits. 

Thinking it to be his duty to alarm sinners, Mr.^., in dis- 
coursing from I John, 4 — 8. God is Love^ seems to apprehend 
that this amiable representation of the Deity, standing by it- 
self, may creite comfortable hope and perhaps religious indo- 
lence ; and therefore he tells his hearers that God, in another 
place, is said to be a consuming fire ; and he adds, ' Now a 
man would not think of inferring from this last expression, 
that the Lord cannot exercise mercy, but must punish and de- 
stroy all sinners without exception 5 and this may shew us* 
that limitations are also implied, when it is said, that God is 

We are more pleased with a remark that immediately 
follows : * The attributes of the Deity doubtless exist and 
operate with a simplicity that we cannot explain, and probably 
there is not that entire distinction between the effects of mercy, 
justice, truth, and holiness, in the divine nature and conduct, 
which appears to our contracted minds.' Most probably this 
is the case : but is it not surprising that the preacher, who 
could thus speak of the Deity, should in the very same sermon 
talk of him as * glorifying himself in the destruction of our re- 
bellious race ?' and attempt to prove everlasting punishment 
lo be consistent with his infinite love ? 

Mr. Scott strongly reprobates, in another place, the intro- 
duction of language which is not scriptural. ' New terms,* 
says he, ^ will imperceptibly introduce new doctrines, nor has 
the subtilty of Satan or his servants better succeeded, in ** pri- 
vily bringing in damnable heresies," than modernizins; the 
language of divinity.* According to this, he has himself been 
Ijuilty of a '' damnable heresy," for the scriptures represent 
Jehovah as placing his Glory in the exercise of merpy towards 
sinners: but no where, that we recollect, as * glorifying him- 
self in their destruction/ 



'.' Scoii* s Sermons. 327 

Though a cast of sentiment and a turn of expression abdund 
In these sermons which are not conformable to our judgment 
and taste, a strong dt^sire of being useful is every where mani- 
festi and there are some passages which we much admire, espe- 
cially in the xth and xivth sermons. 

A digression is made in the xvth sermon, for Christmas 
day, text, *« Peace on Earth, &c." respecting the unavoidable- 
ncss of \yar, which we will transcribe : 

* 1 mean not, my brethren, to declaim against the profession oF 
arms, or to condemn all riders and nations that engage in war. 
Some soldiers have been, and some are Christiana : but their pro- 
fession is their cross, and its duties their self-denial ; they would not 
willingly engage in any war of ambition, rapacity, or- revenge ; 
but they readily face danger and endure hardship in defence of their 

I country. The more we hate war, and long for peace ; the greater 

r are our obligations to such men, as thus expose themselves to guard 

: us against injurious assailants ; and the more fervently we ought to 

! pray for their protection and success. In the present state of the 

world, war is a necessary evil, and often quite unavoidable : and that 
not merely when a nation is directly attacked ; for there are many 
other ways, by which the rapacious and ambitious may render a 
neighbouring country incapable of defending its liberties and posses- 
sions ; and these can only be counteracted by vigorous opposition. 
Noit- are private individuals generally competent to decide what wars 
are necessary and justifiable, or the contrary : in this respect, rulers 
inust give an account to God for their conduct. But wars proceed 
originally from the lusts of men's hearts *, and from the wicked one : 
God employs them as he does hurricanes, earthquakes, or.pestilences, 
as executioners of his vengeance on guilty nations : and ambitious 
conquerors, however accomplished or illustrious, are the most hateful 
and tremendous scourges of our apostate race. We may therefore 
deprecate and denounce war itself, as the most horrid and atrocious 
evil, consistently with the obedience and honour due to our rulers, 
and the most sincere prayers for the success of their measures, as 
far as they tend to the protection and welfare of our beloved country. 
But we must also maintain, that all the blood shed in war is murder, 
chargeable on them, whose criminal projects and politicks render such 
dreadful methods of resisting them necessary ; and that it will cer- 
tainly be required at thdr hands, on which side soever the victims 
were slaughtered.' 

As to the continuance of the miseries of war, he addsj in 
sermon xx« 

* Thus it will be in great measure, ** until the Spirit be poured 
upon us from on high." Ambition, resentment, rapacity, and in- 
terfering interests will continue to excite mankind to war : and both 
the mighty and the mean will, in general, deem this one of the most 
honourable and desirable of employments ; till those happy times 

_ ' ' n . , -- _~ ■ I ■ I « i " m 111 • 

•James, iv. i.* 

Z 4 auivc, 

3^8 Archer m the Effects of Ox^en^ 

arriTC, which are predicted in the scriptures, when ^'the oatioiiSfkA 
beat their swords into plow-shares and tbeir spears in^o pruning: 
hooks ; and they shall learn war no more." 

To the sermons, arc subjoined some forms of prayer for 
family worship. 

We must apologise to the author for having so long omitted 
to notice his work. 

Art. XIII. Miscellaneous Observations on the Effects of Oxygen on tie 
jinlmal and Vegetable Systems ; illustrated by isxperimentSy and in- 
terspersed with Chemicaly Physiological, Pathological, and Practi- 
cal Remarks ; and an Attempt to prove why some Plants are EwT' 

treeny and others Deciduous f in the Climate of Great Britain and Ire* 
md. Part I. By Clement Archer, Esq. M. R. I. A. of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, Surgeon to the Lord Lieutenant's 
Household, &c. 8vo. pp. 144. 33. sewed. Dilly. 1798. 

THE readers of this work must not look in it for any deep or 
intricate philosophical researches^ as the author professes 
that * his book is intended for the perusal of the unlearned 
among the fair sex, as well as for the enlightened man of sci- 
ence.' As a specimen of what they are to expect, we present 
them with the following observations on Plantations in great 
Domains, and on the choice of places for taking exercise at 
different times of the day j in which Mr. Archer at least dis- 
plays much ingenuity, and may aiFord some advice of practical 

* All plantations in great demesnes should be at such a distance 
from the dwelling house, as that the oxygen which the leaves arc 
pouring out during day-light, and the azote they are parting within 
the night-time, should be ver)r well mixed with the surrounding in- 
termediate air, before it finds its way into the apartments. Planta* 
tions very close to the windows of a house ?re exceedingly ill>judged» 
because, from sun-rise to sun. set, they are throwing a large quantity 
of oxygen^ undiluttd by any other kind of air, into the chambers, 
which may be highly injurious to several individuals in the family ; and 
aSf from sun- set to sun-rise they produce the most impure vapours 
only, they cannot fail, during that time, of being noxious to every 
person in the house. The custom, therefore, of making such plant- 
ations oiider the windows of almost ever}'' house in England and Ire- 
land should be discontinued. The practice of bringing a great number 
of pots of hot-house and green-house plants into drawinggrooms and 
pariours, should, for the same reasons, be laid aside also. 

^ Surrounding great demesnes with extensive plantations of all kinds 
of forest-trees and eve^een shrubs, is not onlv very ornamental, but 
at the same time excelmrely beneficial f for suca screening plantations 
afford shelter, and furnish a continual current of vital air, which must 
\tc wafted into the grounds, let the wind blow from what point of the 




Arclier M thi Bfects cf O^ygm. ^29^ 

eompatt it may. The great mass of planting in every extensive de- 
mesne should be to the west and south-west of the house ; because 
winds from those points are much the most prevalent in England and 
Ireland ; the vital air^ therefore^ from plantations in these oirections^ 
win, for the greater part of the year, be constantly flowing towards 
the house and offices, where there is the greatest consumption of iL 

^ It is now very generally admitted, that in a great multiplicity of 
peases, there is too small a proportion of oxygen in the system ; 
while, on the contrary, in some others, there is a superabundance o( 
that principle. The cases in which there is a defect of vital energy^ 
are much more numerous than those in which there is an excess of it* 
Among the former we may include all the orders, genera, and spcciei 
of Dr. CuUen's two classes. Neurosis and Cachexiae ; viz. palsy, dyf« 
pepsia, hy^chondriasis, melancholia, spasmodic afFections, palpita- 
tions, (not proceeding from organic affection of the heart,) asthma^ 
diabetes, hysteria, tabes, anasarca, ascites, hydrothorax, scorbutus, 
chlorosis; to which may be added, atonic gout, and chronic rheu- 
matism, (especially in old subjects,) schirrhus, lethargy, jaundice, ilt- 
oonditioncd ulcers, cases of great debility after every species of typhus* 
fever, leucoriiioca. Sec. The disorders in which further oxygenatioii 
is unnecessary, and in which it might be dangerous, are acute and in* 
fiammatpry ; but, as in aH complaints of this description, (except the 
earlier stages of florid consumption,) the patients are for the most part 
unable to use exercise in the open air, I shall confine my observa* 
tions, where hyper-oxygenatlon is present, entirely to this last conn* 

* In every disease in which there is too little oxygen in the system^ 
the sick should endeavour to acquire a sufficient quantity of that sa 
indispensably necessary principle to health, by every means that can 
be devised, consistent with safety. The lungs are the most natural 
route by which any substance in its aerial form can be conveyed into 
the system. The inspiration, therefore, of air of an higher standard 
than th^ atmosphere, is now recommended by several very able phy- 
sicians ; and there are a great number of well-authenticated cases of 
exceedingly obstinate nervous affections of various kind« ; even when 
they have verged towards melancholia, and of other very refractory 
complaints, in which the practice has been attended with the most 
perfect success *. Peraons afflicted with such maladies should not 
neglect even the small additional quantity of vital air, which the 
netghbottrhood of woods, groves, or hedge-rows, affords during the 
day-time ; they should, therefore, when they go out in a carriage, 
on horseback, or on f<y)t, make choice of the sheltered, and if po|» 
iible, the sunny side of extensive plantations, to take their exercise 
in about one o'clock ; for it has been proved by Doctor Ingenhousz, 
-that the leaves of trees pour forth the purest air after the sun hai 

TOssed the meridian. (See Exper. upon Vegetables, page ^4,) 
jEvergxeens, the lauro-cerasus in particular, do not begin to produce 
pure air till late in the day. (Exper. on Vegetables, p. ZZ$») 

* ♦ See Townshcnd's Guide to Health, and a Collection of Caws 
lately published by a Society of Physicians in London*' 

^3^ Archer on tie Effects of Oxygen, 

* It would also, I am satisfied from one or two cases that have 
, fallen under my observation, be attended with the most salutary con- 

Bequencesy if valetudinarians who are ill from a deficiency of oxygen, 
(in whose cases excessive debility does not prevail) were to spend the 
greater part of the middle of every day, in summer and autumn, in 
riding and walking about woods and groves ; or in reading, conver- 
sation, playing at shuttlecock, billiards, or in attending to music in 
temples, green- houses, moss houses, dry well-aired grottos, or such 
buildings as arc common in shrubberies and wooded scenes, where the 
trees produce much purer air than is to be met with in more open 

* Invalids of this description should avoid all great assemblies, such 
as balls, routs, &c. at which vital air is consumed by the respiration 
of the company and the combustion of the candles, a CTeaf deal faster 
than fresh can find its way into our present fashionable apartments, 
from which modem refinement in luxury has as studiously shut out 
the free access of air, as if it were noxious, instead of being necessary ' 
to animal life ; and they should spend their afternoons and sleep in 
spacious and well- ventilated chambers, the windows of which should 
not look into a shrubber)', from which azote instead of oxygen is ex- 
hjaHng during the whole course of the night. 

* As there is a scarcity of oxygen in many of the diseases to which 
children are incident, all such as are ricketty, badly nursed, pot- 
bellied, or disposed to hydrocephalus intcrnus, or water on the brain, 
should pass the greater part ofthe middle of the day in fine weather 
in the nurse's arms, or at play, (according to their age, and other 
circumstances,) in the neighbourhood of shrubberies or more exten- 
sive plantations ; but when children are hectic, let them avoid wooded 
(Bcenes, and take air and exercise in large open fields, or upon uncul- 
tivated commons ; for the 8mallebt additional oxygenation of their 
blood may be highly injurious to them.' 

We shall also lay before our medical readers the opinion of 
Mr. Archer respecting the use of nitric acid in syphilis. 

' Mr. Scott, a surgeon at Bombay, is so sanguine as to assert that 
nitric acid is equal if not superior to mercurj', as an antisyphxlitic 
remedy. That it is very efficacious in many stages of the complaint, 
has been most incontestibly proved in the communications of Dr« 
Beddoes and Mr. Ciuikshank, and under my own observation at the 
Lock Hospital in Dublin. I confess, however, that I am one among 
•a number of practitioners who think it a very fortunate circumstance 
for mankind, that we have still the old specific to resort to. The 
acid is indisputably a most powerful auxiliary medicine, and as it is 
not injurious to the constitution, it may be right to let it precede 
mercury in delicate habits ; but in my opinion it will never supersede 
that metal in the cure of any disease for which it has for ages beea 
esteemed a sovereign remedy.* 

For a farther testimony on the above subject, we refer to 
our account of Mr. Blair's Ebsays on the Yen. JPx$. vol. xxvii. 
P- 455- 


C 33» > 

For MARCH, 1799. 


*Art. 14. The History of the incorporated^ To^fu and Parithei wf 
Gravesend and Mlltotiy in ike County of Kent ; selected with Ac- 
curacy from Topographical Writers, and cnriche4 from MSSL 
hitherto unnoticed, &c. 4to. pp. 248. 10 s. 6d. Boards. 
Gravesend, printed by R. Pocock ; London, sold by Robinsons* 

' 1797- 

rPHE county of Kent, as it produced Lambarde the father of pro- 
vincial historians, has been subsequently examined by more in- 
Ycrtigators than any other part of England. From Mr. Hasted, the 
last of them, Mr. Pocock has principally compiled this local account; 
of the MSS. which he has consulted we know nothing : but many of 
his additions are not moFi important than collections from the churA- 
yard, — not so uninterestfng, perhaps, to the inhabitants of Gravesend 
as to most other readers. 

We are, however, unwilling to withhold due praise from swch local 
inquiries, when they are pursued with judgment and detailed with 
cw:iseness, Mr. Pocock has at least tlic merit of industry, and of a 
commendable wish to augment the information of his neighboiirs 3 
by whom chiefly his work will be valued. 


-Art. 15. 7he Lath Primmery &c. By the Rev. Richard Lyne, 
late Master of the Grammar School at Liskeard, now prirate 
Tutor there to six Pupils. Second Edition. i2mo. 38. bound. 
Law, &c. I7973» 

As this valuable * introductory book for Latin schools* was duly 
noticed in our Review vol. xix. N. S. p. 88. it only remains for us 
to announce this new edition, * revised and enlarged by the author ;' 
referring our readers, for a more particular account of the work, tm 
•ur former oottce. 

Art. 1 6. ji Mirror for the Female- Sex. Htstorical Beauties for Tomg 
Ladies*; intended to lead the Female Mind to the Lo^ve and Prac- 
tice of Moral Goodness. Designed principally for the Use of 
Ladies' Schools. By Mrs. Pilkiiigton. i2mo. 3s, Boards. 
Ncwbcr)-. 1798. 

In this publication, the writer's attention is more immediately di- 
rected to the youth of her own sex.. She regrets ' that the exterior 
of female education is cultivated but too frequently at the expencc 
of qualities more valuable j that a sliowy outside leaves hardly any 
tajtc for mental excellence ; and that reality is every where sacrificed 
tP appearance. The requisites, for Indulging this fashionable pro- 
pensity, give young Ladies, especially while at school, no time for 
aicquiring the least idea of general history, as they enjpy no leisure 
for T$aiiitigf or digesting what little they may read.' Such consider* 
'' *' 7 ationt 

352 Monthly Cat^LOOue, SJucatton^ tsfci 

ationa have given rise to xht selections which this volame HWitaSxtU 
Namerous virtues, or qualittesy with their pppoeitcs, arc presented » 
vicwy each illustrated and impressed by short narratives, in general 
▼cry pertinent and likely to promote tnc end desired : one or two, 
pernaps, are of a kind rather too horrid^ as particularly that of the 
* Spanish nobleman. The good lady discourses well on poltteness^ aa 
amiable quality, vvben properly understood and employed : but we 
are inclined to wish that she had added some farther reflections ta' 
guard the young mind against that artifice, or dissimulation, which 
^hat are called* polished ii^anners have too often concealed. 

The intention and the tendency of the work are so valuable, and 
the remarks are in general so just and useful, that we are rather re- 
luctant in pointing out a few deficiencies. In page 3* 1* 7* hcu should 
no doubt be haw. — In one or two passages, as p. 6 and 9, the reader 
might be led to. suppose that Protestants alone are Christians : now 
though we could agree with this writer that Popery is not Christi- 
anity, we must yet allow its professors the name of Christians, since 
they believe in jesus Christ, although they have miserably corrupted k\ 

and deformed his doctrine. — In page 38. 1. i. the sixth king of 
Rome, Serv'ws Tullius, is mentioned by the name of 5«»fr«f.— Wc 
may also ask whether the word ^liaj, in the Portuguese atory, 
p. 53, should not have h^^n fraternal ? 

Art. 17. Henry ^ or the FouncU'wg : to which are added, the Preju- 
. diced Parent, or the Virtuous Daughter. By Mrs. Pilkington* 
i2mo. pp.173. 15. 6d. Boards. Vemor and Hood. 1799- 
This lady has frequently received from us (as in the preceding article) 
that favourable notice to which her publications appeared to be entitled* 
The present little volume seems, as she says, * calculated to improve the 
minds and morals of youth.* If readers, whether in more early or ad- 
vanced life, will permit themselves, at the same time that they arc amus- 
ed or interested, to mark with care the lessons of virtue and truth which 
rising circumstances present, or the cautions and warnings which they 
suggest, there is little doubt of their receiving at least a present, 
and perhaps a labting, benefit. It may be thought by some that 
IJenr)', who talks against revenge, in one instance too readily yields 
to its dominion : it may also be said that the language is, is 
•ome places, raised above what is suited to the time of life, — an error 
too common in books intended for children and youth . — but some ob- 
jection will attach to every performance. There is a strange inad- 
vertence in the title-page, where the word * are^ is used instead of w. 
In page 93. 1. 15. we observe, «remarka^Zp good,' instead of remark- 
My good. When Henry is discovered to be the eldest son of an 
Earl, he is improperly styled Lord Henry Lister : the sons of do 
other noblemen than Marquises and Dukes have by courtesy the title 
of Lord before their Christian name : an Earl's eldest son takes by 
courtesy the second title of his father, which is cither a Viscounty or 
a Barony. 

Art. 18. Moral Philosophy^ or Logic : adapted to the Capacities of 
Youth. By the late R. Gillet, F. R. S. Lecturer in Phibsophy* 
iJmo. 18. 6d. SaeU 1798. 1 

A fbrata 

MOMtHLt CATAtOGUfe, EjutOthfl^ Wp. JJ^ 

A fetmcr smalt publication by this writer received a fiivourable 
tiotice in our Review *. We often find it difficult to ^ve a ju«t ac- 
count of such works as this now before us ; which consist of selection 
and compilation from former and larger performances. For the pre- 
sent inquiry, Locke and Watts have provided materials, which nary 
be wrought into some different forms without producing any thiog 
new» except in manner. The volume consists of hints and obserra- 
tionsy which (we apprehend) Mr. Gillet employed and on which h^ 
enlarged in the.dehvery of. lectures. It may be penised with ad van* 
tage by those who wish to obtain an acquaintance with the subject 
proposed, sirfce it contains several useful remarks and instructions f 
which, no dbubt, received improvement when fhey were offered 
viva vocf. 

Art' 19- The Force of Example ; or the History of Henry and Ca- 
roline ; written for the Instruction and Amusement of Young 
Persons. Small 8vo. pp. 159. 2s. bound. Newbery. 
Some imperfections might be pointed out in this little volunM, but 
Its general character is that of important instruction and utility. How 
much has been pronounced by mankind to be original depravity, 
which has been solely or chiefly occasioned by the neglect of early 
restraint and cultivation I This book may entertain and improve the 
young, as well as those who are not generally included in this descrip- 
tion i and it merits their attention. 

Art. 20. The Scholar's Spelling Assistant : wherein tl^ Words are 
arranged on an improved Plan ; calculated to familiarise the Art 
of Spelling and Pronunciation, remove Difficulties, and facilitate 
Improvement. For the Use of Schools and private Tuition. By 
Thomas Carpenter, Master of the Academy, Barking, £ssex« 
8vo. IS. and Hurst. 

As it is in other instances, so also in books for spelling, the worst 
may prove of some use, and the best are still defective. Respectiqflr 
this before us, wc conclude it has found acceptance, as it has arrived 
at a second edition. The writer pleads for the old method of divide 
ing syllables, a point on which we will not determine :— but wc 
rather incline to separate des-pot^ic than des-po-tic ; which keeps the 
radical word distinct. . We art pleased with the selection of * words 
of similar sound, but differing in spelling and sense,' as we are also in 
" other respects. At the same time, we can perceive that the book will 
yet admit of improvement ; and such improvement it will no doubt re- 
ceive, as it passes to a farther edition. 

We are somewhat surprised to find, in a proper list of abbreviation^ 
and contractions, — * D. D. doctor divinitati^, Doctor of divinity ;'— r 
The Latin signature for this title, no doubt the author knows, is 
S.T. P. — ^The D. D. rather belongs to the English.— J9iwm/fl/i>, we 
conclude. Is an error of the press. 

Art. 21. Reflections on the present Condition of the Female Sex ; with 
Suggestions for its Improvement. By Priscilla Wakefield. 8vo. 
as. 6d. sewed. Johnson. J 798. 

* October, 1796. N. S. vol. j^xi. p. 2^0. 



33f4 MONTRlT ClTALOGUEi Educatioth feV. 

Mnch good sense and useful instruction are contained in this little 
¥)oliiine. It 18 divided into eight chapters ; of which the first tlirep 
are more general than the others, and relate to the managemeot and 
cdocation of young females. Among other things, Mifis Wakefield 
fccommeiids more active divcroions than are commonly allowed, such 
asnmnine racts> trundling a hoop, jumping with a rope, ^c ; she 
ako pleads for maternal and domestic instruction ; or, \vherc thfs 
CanuMt be readily attained, for select day-schools. 

The five concluding chapters are dcvctjd to the four classes into 
wliicli females are here divided. After having pointed out the ap- 
pnjpriatc duties and purr.iiirs of tRe firat aud second or liigher ordcrc, 
tins mtelHgcnt \^rittr attends to the transitii>n from a/Buencc to 
poverty, which is not uncommon in the fluctuation of human affairs; 
and she therefore judiciotisly proposes some employracnLs of a lucrative 
Iciodt which in such an event might be the means of procuring a re>- 
potable support. The next clasr- includes * several gi-adations, in- 
volving the daughters of every species of tradesmen below the merchant* 
and above the meaner mechanic :' from these arc entirely excluded 
• plays and novels, with every work tending to inflame the passions, 
aod implant sentiments of the omnipotence of love and beauty, as 
containing a baneful poison,' — * for (it is added) nothing can be more 
dulant from the plain, sober, useful qualit.its of a housewife, than the 
excellencies of the heroine of a [common] novel.' A variety of em- 

ejymcnts are suggested for women, and it is lamented that the men 
ve in so ^ny instances incroachcd on what is properly the female 
pxjvincc. — The observations offered respecting the fourth class arc noX 
JCB» pertinent and instructive than those which relate to the others* 

Art. 22. Paniu^ Let som for Tour g Children: resolved into t^ieir 

Elements, for tne Assistance of Parents and Teachers. By Mrs, 

Lovcchild. 1 2 mo. pd. Newber}-. 
P^rnng Lessons for Elder Pupils y resolved into their Elements, for 

the Assistance of Parents and Teachers. By Mrs. Lovechil<l» 

i2mo. IS. Newbery. I798* 

In former years, not very distant, our youth knew little or nothing 
gnunmatically of their own bnguage, unkss thty were taught the 
Latm or the French, and even then they too often became very im- 
perfectly acquainted with grammar. Considerable care has been ma- 
nifested of late (judging at least by the productions of the press )► 
to correct this error. The little tracts before us are parts of a serie» 
<if books for this purpose. In the preface to the first, Mrs. Love- 
dttld observes that the office which she assumes is humble, * that of 
Dsme behind the curtain to prompt such mothers who are diffident 
of themselves. — I am the old woman who offer my service, and flatter 
myself with the hope of leading the dear little people with ease and 
satisfaction.' This is intended for younger children, but is in much the 
same form with that which follows, and which is contrived to perfect 
what has been before attempted. The four sets of lessons in each appear 
to be suitably directed, both to engage the attention and to employ 
ibe capacity of the young scholar. — The good old Dame designs well; 
her method is amusing ; and she has already, we are told, had the sa'- 
tk^tion of finding that her labours have been acceptable. 


MoKTHLT CATAtoGUC) Bdtanj^ and MiRtarj. 335: 

Art. 23. The Little Teacher^ for Reading and Spelling well. By a 
Parent. i2mo. pd. Darton and Harvey* 1798. 
More pretty methods of learning A, B, C> and more pretty pic* 
tures from Nature^ to excite the infant pupil's attention.— Messrs. D. 
andH. seem to be in a fair way» by their alluring cuts, to cta-ovt alt 
their rivals in the Lilliputian elementary branch^ of literature* 


Art. 24. Nereis Britannica^ &c. &c. i, e. Nereis Brifanmca ; or a 
Botanical Description of the British Marine Plant s, in Latin and 
English : accompanied with Drawings from Nature. By John 
Stackhouse, Esq. F. L. S. Number I. and IL FoL i28t 6d. 
White. 17Q5> 1797- 

The class ot plants* which the publication before us is intended tQ 
elucidate, has longer perplexed the inquiries of botanists than any other. 
This circumstance is not surprisinff, as their place of growth, general 
form, particular structure, and mode of propagation, are all so different 
from those of the vegetable inhabitants of the land, that analogies 
derived from the latter are a very obscure and dubious guide. So 
minute, indeed, is the system of fructification of the marine plants, 
that it was hot till after several accurate observations made with mag- 
lifying glasses of high powers, that the ingenious author of this 
work was enabled to discover the curious particulars described in the 
preface to the second fasciculuq. These arc incapable of abridgment : 
but it is enough for us to say that the experiments ended in the de- 
tection of real seeds, proved to be such by procuring their actual ve- 
getation. • 

The genus ^2/rtf/ is arranged in six divisions, thus characterized by 
Mr. Stackhouse : 

Fucus. Fructif. a jelly like mass, with imbedded seed-bearing gra- 
nules, and external conical papillae — terminating. 
CEaAMiuM. Fruct. a jelly-like mass, without the seed-bearing gra- 
nules ; internal, universal, papillse invisible. 
Chondrus. Fnicl. an ovate, rigid, imbedded pericarp, containing 

seeds in a clear mucus, and prominent in either surface. 
SpH«aococcus. Fntct, external globular pericarps, adnate or im* 

mersed ; sessile or pedunculate ; containing seeds as above. 
Chohda. Fruct. a mucous fluid in the hollow patt of a cylindrical 

frond, with nslked seeds affixed inwardly. 
CoDiuM. Fruct. invisible; frond roundi&h : soft and spungy when 
wet ; velvety wlien dry. 

The two fasciculi contain the descriptions and figures of 39 species 
and varieties of Fucus. They appear to unite accuracy with elegance 
in a very meritorious degree. 


Art. 25. A Treatise on the Duty of Infantry Officers^ and the present 
System of British MiVuary Discipline. With an Appendix. By 
Thomas Reide, Esq* Captain in the Loyal Essex Regiment of 
Fencible Infantr}\ i2mo. pp. 258. 38. 6d. Wwtcr, and 
Egerton. 1798. 


J j6 MoiitRLT CataloCUB, Military Jfairs. 

^ The first impmsioi] of this very cdmprdiedsive treatise was ptfb* 
lished in ijgs* ^^ ^^ ^i^^ that it has hitherto escaped our notice, 
betause we do not recollect ever to have met ttrith so much useful in- 
formation» for an officer» in so small a compass. The work is now in 
general circulation, aifd has in a manner become a book of authority • 
and several military authors have not pnly freely borrowed^ Sut 
have literally copied from it. 

We if mark by the printer's date, as will as by a judidous altera- 
tion in the instructions for forming a * dose column on a central 
company facing to the rear/ (p. 162,) that the author has had the 
•ati^action of seeing a second impression required, although no 
notice is taken, in the title-page of the copy before us, of its being 
8 second edition. 

Art. 26. Instructions for Hussars ^ And Light Cavalry acting as such, 

h Time of War. A Translation. 8vo. pp. 147. 2s. 6d. tger- 

ton. 179S. 

AlthoUjjh no name is prefixed, to this translation, we understand 
that it is the production of a young British Senator, (Mr. Ro^, jun.) 
who commands a corps of yeomanry cavalry ; and who, besides 
•everal intelligent notes, has added a sensible and modest preface : 
from which we take the following extract. 

• He has reason to think that these instructions (which came into 
lits hands in manuscript) were in use in a body of troops, highly dis- 
txnpuished fer its good conduct in one of the confcdci-ate armies, 
and that the prindples inculcated in them are those, to which the best 
Hussars now known conform. The reader will immediately per- 
ceive that many ideas, and, in some p^ccs, nearly whole paragraphs 
occur in them, which are to be found in those given by the King of 
Prussia to his light cavalry : but this, as the tranRlator is much more 
anxious for the utility of this work, than that it should wear an ap* 
pearance of originality, he must consider as an advantage which it 
jioeiesses. A treatise of this sort should be a compilation of such 
ideas alone, as experience has either suggested, or approved. In 
reneral, these instructions are more detailed than the King of 
trossia's : but wherever they appear to have omitted any thing essen- 
tial contained in his, it is added in a note. Use has likewise beeq 
occasionally made in them of Count Turpin's Essai sur I'Art de la 
JGuerre. A few notes have been subjoined from such parts of Lin* 
denau's Treatise upon Winter Posts, as were applicable.' Prcf. p. 8. 

A work of this kind cannot fail of being highly serviceable, particu- 
larly to the yeomanry and volunteer corps ; and we arc happy in having 
an opportunity of again expressing the sincere satisfaction, which we 
lilways feel when we see young men of fashion and fortune devoting^ 
thdr time to the service of their country. 

Art. 27. The Officer* s Manudlin the Field ; or a Series of Military 

Plansi representing the Principal Operations of a Campaign. 

Translated from the German. . i2mo. pp- 70. ijs. Egcrton, 


The two preceding articles instruct an officer how to fortn and 
move a battah'on^ and to conduct a smsiU body of troopj. After he 

• has 

MoNTfiLY CatALOCUE, Ireland.' 337 

}id9 obtained this information, lie will be qualified to enter on the^ 
present work with pleasure and advantage. It qgn tains * a ,^ene% 
of examples of the principal pperations which occur ii\ the course of, 
a campaign/ and is designed * to elucidate ^ud render familiar , tho 
tarious objects, of the military profcsbion, by CKhibi^ing ,detache4. 
plans, which cpmprehend both the position of an army with respect^ 
to its enemy-^the nature of the ground upon which .it is to act — the 
methods in which manoeuvres, marched, and attacks are ^pr^er: 
pared and executed, and to give certain precepts of ^his difficult^ 
science, the rules of which, as well as their applications, are almost 
innnracrablc.* The plates also exhibit every operation of a siege> 
from. the first investment of a fortress to the Hnal assault. .. 

The text is little more than an explanation of the plates, whicli. 
arc sixty in number, very neatly executed, and admirably correct, 
except in a few instances. 

The letter E quoted in the references to Plate 36 is not given in 
the plate itself, but we have no diiliculty in finding the point which< 
it was intended to mark<' Neither are we at a loss to perceive tli^t 
the iiunlerical figures in N^ 3, Plate 43, arc intended to express th^. 
dimensions in feet> although no notice is taken of them in tlie ex* 
planation. .1 

* The profiles N°" 2 and 3, Plate 42, are* in the contraiy direct iDa 
to N^ I, in the same plate ; which might lead a novice in fortificatiaa 
to mistake the rear for the front. The banquettes in N° 3, however,, 
would probably shew him the error. In page 5a, plate 48 is mis- 
quoted for plate 47- 

We have been able to find only one point on which we can attack, 
the author's Generalship ; and that is at the pat5sage of the ti\'er 
plate 15, where, though on the side from which the army crosses he 
lias very properly placed platoons of infantry which have advancc<l 
to occupy the bridge and to support by their fire the dragoons, (who 
have already taken post on the. other side of the river,} in case the 
latter should be repulsed by the enemy, yet no notice is taken of the - 
island which divides the stream and unites the bridge^;, and which 
ought certainly to be lined both by infantr)',aud cannohj if any" at- 
tack is apprchi;nded before the whole army has crossed. 


Art. 28. The Case of Ireland rcconsuhred. In Answer to a Pamphlet 

intilied, ** Arguments for and against an Union considered.*' 8»vo« 

2S. Dcbrett. 

The intention of this important pamphlet is to explain the hard- 
ships to which the Roman Latliolics of